Volume-6 ~ Issue-4
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Natural Gas Compressibility Factor Correlation Evaluation for Niger Delta Gas Fields|
|Authors||:||Obuba, J., Ikiesnkimama, S. S., Ubani, C. E., Ekeke, I. C.|
|Downloads : Times|
Abstract: Natural gas compressibility factor (Z) is key factor in gas industry for natural gas production and transportation. This research presents a new natural gas compressibility factor correlation for Niger Delta gas fields. First, gas properties databank was developed from twenty-two (22) laboratory Gas PVT Reports from Niger Delta gas fields. Secondly, the existing natural gas compressibility factor correlations were evaluated against the developed database (comprising 22 gas reservoirs and 223 data sets). The developed new correlation was used to compute the z-factors for the four natural gas reservoir system of dry gas, solution gas, rich CO2 gas and rich condensate gas reservoirs, and the results were compared with some exiting correlations. The performances of the developed correction indicated better statistical ranking, good graph trends and best crossplots parity line when compared with correlations evaluated. From the results the new developed correlation has the least standard error and absolute error of (stdEr) of 1.461% and 1.669% for dry gas; 6.661% and 1.674% for solution; 7.758% and 6.660% for rich CO2 and 7.668% and 6.661 % for rich condensate gas reservoirs. The new correlation also show high correlation coefficient of: 93.39%, for dry gas; 89.24% for solution gas; 83.56% for rich CO2 and 83.34% for rich Condensate gas reservoirs. Also the proposed new model maintained good graphical trends for four z-factors matched it: experimental, estimated (Standing – Katz) and the best evaluated correlation when matched. Very good crossplots parity line performance when compared with the evaluated correlations. It could then be concluded that the new developed correlation and that of Papay correlation are most appropriate correlations for calculating natural compressibility for Niger Delta gas fields. Carr, Kobayashi, and Burrows (1954) and Wichert–Aziz (1972), correction factor methods; were applied to correct the presence of non-hydrocarbons. But the major setbacks on laboratory analyses for PVT behavior are sometimes expensive and time consuming. Correlations, which are used to predict gas compressibility factor, are much easier and faster than equations of state, invariably save cost.
Key words: Niger Delta Gas, developing Compressibility factor, Evaluation, Correlations.
 MBend Statistics & Energy Survey, Nigeria oil and gas production , 2012. Extract from Internet. 2012.
 World Energy, Nigeria Position in World Oil and Gas reserve as 2011.
 T. Ahmed, Reservoir engineering Handbook. (Butterworth –Heinemann. US. , 2001, 2nd Edition. Pp. 29-66.)
 O. Redlich, and J. Kwong, "On Thermodynamics of Solutions. An Equation of State. Fugacities of Gaseous Solutions." Chemical Reviews. 44, (233), 1949  J. P. Brill. and H. D. Beggs, "Two-Phase flow in pipes". (Intercomp Course, The Huge, 1974)
 M. Benedict, G. B. Webb, and L. C. Rubin, "An Empirical Equations for Thermodynamics Properties of Light Hydrocarbons and their Mixtures: Methane, Ethane, Propane and n-Butane." Journal of Chemistry and Physics. (8), 334, 1940.
 P. M. Dranchuk, and J. H Abou-Kassem, Calculation of Z Factors For Natural Gases Using Equations of State. Society of Petroleum Engineers [successor to Petroleum Society of Canada. 14( 3), 1975.
 P. M. Dranchuk,.; R. A Purvis,.; and D. B. Robison, "Natural Gas Compressibility Factors Using the Stranding and Katz Correlations." Inst. Of petroleum Technicals Institute Series No. IP 74-008. 1974
 Gas Compressibility Factor With Hall-Yarborough Method. Petroleum Support. 2011.
 Hong Wei Xiang, The Corresponding States Principle and Its Practice: Thermodynamic, Transport and Surface Properties of Fluids. Elsevier. 2005, ISBN 0-444-52062-7.
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Abstract: In present world usage of fossil fuels are increasing, in order to decreasethem the alternate option isRenewable-energy-basedmicrogrids, they are a better wayof utilizing renewable power and reduce the usage of fossil fuels.Usage of energy storage becomesmandatory when such microgridsare used to supply quality power to the loads. Microgrids have twomodes of operation, namely, grid-connected and islanding modes.During islanding mode, the main responsibility of the storage isto perform energy balance. During gridconnected mode, the goalis to prevent transmission of the renewable source intermittency and load fluctuations to the grid. Energy storage of a single typecannot perform all these jobs efficiently in a renewable poweredmicrogrid. The alternating nature of renewable energy sourceslike photovoltaic (PV) demands usage of storage with high energydensity. At the same time, quick fluctuation of load demandsstorage with high power density. This paper shows a compositeenergy storage system (CESS) that contains both high energy densitystorage battery and high power density storage ultracapacitorto meet the aforesaid requirements. By using DAB powerconverter configuration and the energy management scheme canactively distribute the power demand among the different energystorages.Using fuzzy logic controller
Keywords: Bidirectional converter, energy management,energy storage, interleaved modulation, modular design andmicro grid
 A. E. Curtright and J. Apt, "The character of power output from utilityscalephotovoltaic systems," IProg. Photovolt: Res. Appl., vol. 16, pp. 241–247, 2008.
 T. Christen and M. Carlen, "Theory of ragone plots," J. Power Sources,vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 210–16, 2000.
 M. Glavin, P. Chan, S. Armstrong, and W. Hurley, "A stand-alone photovoltaicsupercapacitor battery hybrid energy storage system," in Proc.13th Power Electron. Motion Control Conf., 2008 (EPE-PEMC 2008),pp. 1688–1695.
 Z.Guoju, T. Xisheng, andQ. Zhiping, "Research on battery supercapacitorhybrid storage and its application inmicrogrid," in Proc. 2010 Asia-PacificPower Energy Eng. Conf. (APPEEC), pp. 1–4.
 R. Dougal, S. Liu, and R. White, "Power and life extension of batteryultracapacitorhybrids," IEEE Trans. Compon.Packag. Technol., vol. 25,no. 1, pp. 120–131, Mar. 2002.
 B. and P. , "Battery-ultracapacitor active parallel interfacewith indirect control of battery current," in Proc. Power Energy Conf.Illinois (PECI), 2010, pp. 12–19.  G. Guidi, T. Undeland, and Y. Hori, "An optimized converter for batterysupercapacitorinterface," in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf.(PESC 2007), pp. 2976–2981.
 W. Li and G. Joos, "A power electronic interface for a battery supercapacitorhybrid energy storage system for wind applications," in Proc. IEEEPower Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC 2008), pp. 1762–1768.
 F. Garcia, A. Ferreira, and J. Pomilio, "Control strategy for batteryultracapacitorhybrid energy storage system," in Proc. 24th Annu.IEEEAppl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo. (APEC 2009), pp. 826–832
 F. H. Khan and L. M. Tolbert, "Bi-directional power management andfault tolerant feature in a 5-kw multilevel dc-dc converter with modulararchitecture," IET Trans. Power Electron., vol. 2, pp. 595–604, 2009.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Matlab Based Analysis of 3-Ø Self-Excited Induction Generator with Nonlinear Load|
|Authors||:||Shani Khandelwa, Alka Agarwal, Vinesh Agarwal|
|Downloads : Times|
Abstract: In this paper MATLAB based steady-state analysis of self excited induction generator is presented and different test models are given to calculate the all parameters which are required in 3-ɸ cage induction motor working as a generator in the self-excited mode of operation. It is well known that, harmonics are generated at the input side of the induction generator due to the presence of nonlinear circuits (rectifier circuit). In this paper, the various nonlinear loads (rectifier loads) connected with the SEIG are simulated and evaluated. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm is used to analyze the harmonic voltages and currents under steady-state conditions. Simulation is carried out for the proposed system using MATLAB/Simulink software power system tools.
Index Terms- SEIG, Total harmonics distortion, Harmonics Factor, FFT.
1]. Basset E. D and Potter F. M., "Capacitive Excitation For Induction Generators," AIEEE committee of Electrical Engineering, pp 535 – 545,1935.
. E. Barkle and R.W. Ferguson, "Induction Generator Theory and Application," AIEE Trans., pt. III A, Vol.73, pp. 12–19, 1945.
. R.C.Bansal,"Three-Phase Self-Excited Inducytion Generators: Over View," IEEE Transaction On Enrgy Conversion, vol. 20, No.2, pp. 292 – 299,2005.
. Saffet Ayasun and Chika O. Nwankpa, "Induction Motor Tests Using MATLAB/Simulink and Their Integration into Undergraduate Electric Machinery Courses" IEEE Transactions on Education, Vol. 48, No.1 Feb. 2005
. Elder J. M., Boys J. T and Woodward J. L., "The Process Of Self Excitation In Induction Generators," IEE Proc. Vol. 130, Pt. B. No. 2, pp 103 – 108,1983.
. Murthy, S.S., Singh B.P. et. al., "Studies Of The Conventional Induction Motor As Self-Excited Induction Generators," IEEE Transaction on energy conversion, Vol.3, No.4, pp 842 – 848,1988.
. S. Kulandhaivelu, K.K Ray, "Load control of a 3-ø self excited asynchronous generator," IJEST, Vol.3, pp.1103-1112 No.7, Feb. 2011.
. S. Sharma, K.S . Sandhu, "Role of Reactive Power source on power quality of three phase self excited induction generator," WSEAS Trans on power system, Issue 4, Vol.3, Apr. 2008.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Low Power Energy Harvesting & Supercapacitor Storage|
|Authors||:||Manish Anand, A. M. Nagaraj|
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Abstract: This paper presents a hand cranked generator or an exercise bicycle to generate small amount of energy which is effectively stored in a supercapacitor Bank. Supercapacitors can absorb and deliver huge bursts of power in a short span of time owing to its low ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance).If more charging current is given to the battery it may lead to excessive heating and decreases the life of the battery but the charging current limit of supercapacitors is very high. Thus it can be charged rapidly which is a very useful feature for energy harvesting applications. The energy generated by hand cranking or coupling the generator with an exercise bicycle rapidly charges the supercapacitor bank via a current limiter. The supercapacitor Bank can then be effectively discharged using a low voltage boost converter to store the energy in a battery or to power small devices. This way the energy generated by the exercise bicycle which is an ambient source of energy can be effectively utilized which would have otherwise gone wasted.
Keywords - Energy Harvesting; energy storage, charge balancing, supercapacitors, DC-DC converters.
 Yildiz, F. Low Power Ambient Energy Harvesting, Conversion, and Storage Circuits, Information Technology: New Generations, 2009. ITNG '09. Sixth International Conference on 27-29 April 2009.
 Dirk Linzen, Stephan Buller, Eckhard Karden and Rik W. De Doncker, Analysis and Evaluation of Charge-Balancing Circuits on Performance, Reliability, and Lifetime of Supercapacitor Systems: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 41, September/October, NO. 5, 2005.
 Joseph A. Paradiso, Thad Starner, Energy Scavenging for Mobile and Wireless, IEEE Pervasive Computing archive, Volume 4 Issue 1, January 2005.
 Yildiz, F., Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques, The Journal of Technology Studies.
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Abstract: The paper presents the development of a PQ theory based on control system for the Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC). In distribution networks for active filter control instantaneous PQ theory has been successfully used. In this scheme, system response is very fast to reduce the response time, which allows instantaneous control in the line power flow. Using ATP-EMTP simulated results were obtained for different operating conditions.
Key words: - FACTS, EPS, Instantaneous Power, PQ Theory, TCSC, TCR, ATP-EMTP.
 N. Noroozian, M. Ghandari, "Improving Power System Dynamics By Series Connected FACTS Devices", IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol.12, N' 4, pp. 1635-1641, Oct. 1997.
 Narain G. Hingorani, Laszlo Gyugyi, "Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems", IEEE Press,2000.
 Mohan Ned, "Power Electronics: applications and desing", Wiley, 1995.  Cardenas V, Moran L, Bahamondes A, Dixon J, " Comparative analysis of real time reference generation techniques for four-wire shunt active power filters", presented at the 34th annual Power Electronics Specialist Conference (PESC), pp. 791-796, June 2003.
 H. Akagi, A. Nabae, "The pq Theory in three phase systems under nonlinear conditions ", ETEP, vol. 3, N° 1, pp. 27-31, Jan/Feb. 1993.
 K. Masoud, M. Reza, "A Non-linear Adaptative Filter for Online Signal Analysis in Power Systems: Aplications ", IEEE Trans. Power Delivery,vol. 17, N° 2, pp. 617-622, April 2002.
 Jose H. Vivas, Member,IEEE, and Julie D. Zambrano, Student Member, IEEE Control of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor Based on Instantaneous Power Theory.
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Abstract: An optimization algorithm based on the echolocation behavior of bats is proposed for improving the load–frequency control (LFC) of interconnected power systems. A maiden attempt is made to highlight the effectiveness of Bat Algorithm in optimizing the controller parameters in load frequency control. The proposed algorithm is applied to a two area interconnected power system with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit. The Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage unit improves the transients of frequency and tie-line power deviations against small load changes by favorable damping effect. The performance of the Bat algorithm is analyzed and simulation study is presented. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through fast damping steady state deviations in power and frequency in the presence of step load disturbance.
Keywords: Bat algorithm, Interconnected power system, Load Frequency Control, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
 Naimul Hasan, An overview of AGC strategies in power system, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 2(8), 2012,56-64.
 H.Shayeghi, H.A. Shayanfar, and A.Jalili, Load frequency control strategies: A state-of-the art survey for the researcher, Energy Conversion and Management, 50(2), 2009, 344-353.
 S. Banerjee., J. K. Chatterjee., and S. C. Tripathy, Application of magnetic energy storage unit as Load-frequency stabilizer, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 5(1),1990,46-51.  X. S. Yang, A New Metaheuristic Bat-Inspired Algorithm, in J. R. Gonzalez et al (Ed.), Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization, (NISCO 2010)), Studies in Computational Intelligence, 284(Berlin: Springer, 2010),65-74.
 P. W. Tsai, Bat Algorithm Inspired Algorithm for Solving Numerical Optimization Problems, Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2011, 148-149: 134-137.
 T.C. Bora, L.S. Coelho, L. Lebensztajn, Bat-Inspired Optimization Approach for the Brushless DC Wheel Motor Problem, IEEE Trans. Magnetics., 48(2), 2012, 947-950.
 P. Musikapun and P. Pongcharoen1, Solving Multi-Stage Multi-Machine Multi-Product Scheduling Problem Using Bat Algorithm, Proc. 2nd International Conf. on Management and Artificial Intelligence (IPEDR), Bangkok, Thailand, 2012,98-102
 X. S. Yang, M. Karamanoglu, S. Fong, Bat Algorithm for Topology Optimization in Microelectronic Applications, Proc. International Conf. on Future Generation Communication Technology , London, 2012 ,150-155
 J.Nanda and B. L. Kaul, Automatic generation control of an interconnected power system, IEE Proc., 125(5), 1978, 385-390.
 O.L.Elgerd and C.E.Fosha, Optimal megawatt frequency control of multi-area electrical energy systems, IEEE Trans. On PAS, 89(4), 1970, 556-563.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Modified three phase Unified Power Quality Conditioner with capacitor midpoint topology|
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Abstract: Two different topologies of three phase Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) namely 3P3W/ 3P4W UPQC are analyzed. For better performance of UPQC, DC link voltage have to be maintained. If it is energized through solar photovoltaics, a modified UPQC structure employing capacitor midpoint (dual capacitor) is employed to accommodate its dc voltage variation. Simulations are carried out for the above topologies with single and dual capacitor (dc sources) and 3P4W UPQC with dual capacitor at its mid point is found to produce better results.
Index Terms—Active Power Filter (APF), four-leg voltage-source inverter (VSI) , three-phase four-wire system, unified power quality conditioner, Capacitor Mid point (CMP) .
 Iurie Axente et.al, " A 12kVA DSP Controlled Laboratory Prototype UPQC Capable of Mitigating Unbalance in Source Voltage and Load Current" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 25, No. 6, June 2010.
 Vinod Khadkikar et.al,"Novel Structure for Three-Phase Four-Wire Distribution System Utilizing Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC)' IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.45,No. 5, September/October 2009.
 N.G.Jayanti et.al, "Sequence analysis based DSP controller for Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)," in Proc. 39th IEEE Power Electronics. Spec. Conf. (PESC), Rhodes, Greece,pp. 3986–3991, June. 15th–19th, 2008
 N.G. Jayanti et.al "Development of laboratory prototype of a 12 kVA digital shunt active filter," in Proc. 34th IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Conference (IECON), 2010, Florida, USA, , pp. 3129–3134, Nov. 10th–13th, 2008.
 S. George and V. Agarwal, "A DSP based optimal algorithm for shunt active filter under non-sinusoidal supply and unbalance load condition, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics., vol. 22, pp. 593–601, March. 2007.
 B.Singh, K. Al-Haddad, and A. Chandra, "A review of active power filters for power quality improvement," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 960–971, "Conceptual analysis of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC)," in Proc. IEEE ISIE, pp. 1088–1093., Oct. 1999.
 M.J.Newman, D. G. Holmes, J. G. Nielsen, and F. Blaabjerg, "A dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) with selective harmonic compensation at medium voltage level",IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications,Vol.41,no.6,pp.1744–1753, Nov./Dec. 2005.
 J.G. Nielsen and F. Blaabjerg, "A detailed comparison of system topologies for dynamic voltage restorers," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1272–1280, Sep./Oct. 2005.
 G. Chen, Y. Chen, and K.M. Smedley, "Three-phase four-leg active power quality conditioner without references calculation," in Proc. 19th IEEE APEC, , Vol. 1, pp. 829–836. 2004.
 Active Filtering of Harmonic Currents in Three-phase, Four-Wire Systems with Three-phase and Single-phase Non-Linear Loads Conor A. Quinn, Ned Mohan IEEE 0-7803-0485-3/92 $3.00, 1992 .
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Abstract: Voltage sag is one of major power quality problem and it became severe to industrial customers. Voltage sag can cause miss-operation to several sensitive electronic equipments. This problem can be mitigated with pre-sag voltage injection method using custom power device, Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). In this paper, emergency control in distribution systems is discussed by a flux-charge-model feedback algorithm using Fuzzy Logic Controller in order to improve the transient response and eliminate the steady-state error in DVR response, respectively. A flux-charge-model feedback algorithm is implemented so that the DVR would act as a large virtual inductance in series with the distribution feeder in fault situations. Controlling the DVR as a virtual inductor would also ensure zero real power absorption during the DVR compensation and thus minimize the stress in the DC link. The proposed system is applied to some disturbances in load voltage caused by induction motors starting, and a three-phase short circuit fault. Simulation results show the capability of the DVR to control the emergency conditions of the distribution systems.
Keywords - Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), voltage sag, voltage swell and Fuzzy logic controller.
 J. A. Martinez and J. Martin-Arnedo, "Voltage sag studies in distribution networks- part II: Voltage sag assessment," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1679–1688, Jul. 2006.
 J. A. Martinez and J. M. Arnedo, "Voltage sag studies in distribution networks- part I: System modeling," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 338–345, Jul. 2006.
 P. Hcine and M. Khronen, "Voltage sag distribution caused by power system faults," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1367–1373, Nov. 2003.
 S. S. Choi, B. H. Li, and D. M. Vilathgamuwa, "Dynamic voltage restoration with minimum energy injection," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 51–57, Feb. 2000..
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Abstract: Distribution system reconfiguration and optimal capacitor placement are the two techniques adapted for the control of power loss. These techniques not only control the power loss but also control volt/var of the distribution system, and improve the system reliability and security. This paper proposes a method to handle reconfiguration and capacitor placement simultaneously for the effective optimization. In order to consider the constraints along with the objective, heuristic fuzzy has been integrated with ODE. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by employing the feeder switching operation scheme to IEEE-33 bus Power Distribution systems. The proposed algorithm reduces the transmission loss and controls volt/var while satisfying power flow constraints.
Keywords -Capacitor placement, Differential evolution, Distribution network reconfiguration, Loss reduction, Switching operation
 S. Civanlar, J. J. Grainger, H. Yin, and S. S. H. Lee, "Distribution feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1217–1223, Jul. 1988.
 Baran ME and Wu FF, "Network reconfiguration in distribution systems for loss reduction and load balancing," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 401-1407, Jan. 1989.
 Aoki K, Kawabara H, and Satoh. M, "An efficient algorithm for load balancing of transformers and feeders," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1865-1872, Jul. 1988.
 D. Shirmohammadi and H.W. Hong, "Reconfiguration of electric distribution networks for resistive line losses reduction," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1492–1498, Apr. 1989.
 H. C. Cheng and C. C. Ko, "Network reconfiguration in distribution systems using simulated anealing", Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 29, pp. 227-238, May 1994.
 K. Huang and H. Chin, "Distribution feeder energy conservation by using heuristics fuzzy approach," Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 24,pp. 439-445, 2002.
 H. Salazar, R. Gallego, and R. Romero, "Artificial neural networks and clustering techniques applied in the reconfiguration of distribution sys- tems," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1735–1742, 2006.
 Ying-Yi .H and Saw-Yu .H, "Determination of network configuration considering multiobjective in distribution systems using genetic algorithms", IEEE Trans. on Power Sys., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 1062-1069, 2006.
 K. Qin and P. N. Suganthan, "Self-adaptive differential evolution algorithm for numerical optimization," in Proc. IEEE Congr. Evolut. Comput., Edinburgh, Scotland, , pp. 1785–1791, 2005
 Wang and H.Z. Cheng, "Optimization of Network configuration in Large distribution systems using plant growth simulation algorithm," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol.23, No. 1, pp. 119-126, 2008.
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Abstract: In this work an adaptive control along with robust control have been developed to address the problem of system performance in the face of system uncertainty in control-system design without excessive reliance on system models. The direct MRAC control scheme with unknowns is designed with control law that is to be combined with an adaptive law. The adaptive laws are developed using the SPR-Lyapunov design approach and are driven by the estimation error for continuous-time systems guaranteeing asymptotic stability of the system states. CDM is a polynomial approach which was developed and introduced for a good transient response of the control systems. An MRAC is constructed in two-degree of- freedom (2DOF) control structure and the adaptation gains of controller parameters are found through CDM. Spherical tank level process is used for validating the design procedure of CDM-MRAC in real time and the performance of controller is compared with linear PI controller. Simulation is carried out using Mat Lab Simulink software.
Keywords - Adaptive control, SPR-Lyapunov DMRAC, CDM-MRAC.
 S. Manabe. Coefficient Diagram Method. Automatic Control in Aerospace, Seoul, Korea. 211-222, 1998.
 S. Manabe. A simple proof and the physical interpretation of Routh stability criterion. J. IEEE Japan, 117, (12), 851-854, 1997c.
 Petros A. Ioannou and Jing Sun. Robust Adaptive control, 8-12, 105-132, 330-363.
 Karl Johan Astrom and Bjorn Wittenmark. Adaptive control, second edition. 210-15.
 Pavan K. Vempaty, Ka C. Cheok, and Robert N. K. Loh. Experimental Implementation of Lyapunov based MRAC for Small Biped Robot Mimicking Human Gait. ISA Transactions- 21(3), 2007.
 Muhammad Nasiruddin Mahyuddin and Mohd Rizal Arshad. Performance Evaluation of Direct Model Reference Adaptive Control on a Coupled-tank Liquid Level System. Elektrika-10(2), 2008.
 Serdar Ethem Hamamci Nusret Tan. Design of PI controllers for achieving time and frequency domain specifications simultaneously. ISA Transactions- 45(4), 2006.