IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS)

Volume 7 - Issue 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Information Needs and Seeking Behaviour of Senior Non- Academic Staff In Nigerian Universities
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Madukoma, Ezinwanyi PhD, Prof. Opeke, Roseline O.
: 10.9790/0837-0760108      logo

Abstract: This study investigated the information needs and seeking behaviour of senior non-academic staff in selected universities in Nigeria. Whereas a lot has been written about teaching staff in universities, little is known through literature about the information needs and seeking behaviour of senior non-academic of Nigerian universities. The study adopted the survey research design. The population was made up of 1,804 senior non-academic staff from 27 universities in Nigeria. 1,270 senior non-academic staff was selected for the sample. Descriptive statistics was use to analyze the data collected. The study established among others, that senior non-academic staff had varied information needs based on their work roles; they sought information mainly for decision making; and availability of information source largely influenced their information source selection. The study also found that senior non-academic staff in Nigerian universities contacted first subordinates in the office when seeking information on a crucial issue, while task complexity motivated them to seek information. Hence inadequate information retrieval techniques/skills, inadequate time to seek information and lack of awareness about where to obtain information were the major challenges senior non-academic faced in the course of seeking information to perform their works. The study therefore recommends that librarians/information managers should ensure that regular information literacy program, current awareness servicesand selective dissemination of information are provided to senior non-academic staff to enable them have easy and regular access to timely information for more productivity output.

Keywords: Information needs, seeking behaviour, senior non-academic staff, Nigerian Universities.

[1] Agarwal, N.K., Xu, Y.C. and Poo, D.C.C. (2011). ―A Context-Based Investigation into Source Use by Information Seekers‖.
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(6): 1087 – 1104.
[2] Almutairi, H. (2011). ―Factors Affecting the Information Behaviours in the Kuwaiti Civil Services: A Relational Model‖.
Information Research.http://informationr.net/ir/16-2/paper477.html Retrieved September 15th, 2011.
[3] Alwis, G.de., Majid, S. and Chaudhry, A.S. (2006). ―Transformation in Managers' Information Seeking Behaviour: A Review of
the Literature‖. Journal of Information Science, 32(4): 362 – 377.
[4] Bassey, S.U. and Akpan, J. (2010). ―Achievement Motivation Among University Managers and Institutional E ffectiveness in
Selected Nigerian Universities‖. Review of Higher Education in Africa, 2(1).
[5] Belkin, N.J., Brooks, H.M. & Oddy, R.N. (1982). ―ASK for Information Retrieval‖. Journal of Documentation, 38(2): 61-71.
[6] Bhatti, R. (2009). ―Information Needs and Information-Seeking Behavior of Faculty Members at the Islamia University of
Bahawalpur‖. Library Philosophy and Practice. Available at http://www.unlib.unl.edu. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
[7] Barford, J.A. (1997). Balance or Bias? Information /selection for the Researcher. Internet Research, 7(1): 53 – 58.
[8] Bradley, C. (2009). ―Campus Disconnect: Academic Libraries and the Information Needs, Skills, and Behaviours of Non -Teaching
University Staff‖. Available at www.ala.or/acrl/sites. Retrieved January 4th, 2012.
[9] Bystrom, K. (2006). ―Information Activities in Work Tasks‖. In K.E. Fisher, S. Erdelez, & L. McKechnie (Eds.), Theories of
Information Behaviour. Pp174 – 178.
[10] Dervin, B. and Nilan, M. (1986). ―Information Needs and Uses‖. Annual Review of Science and Technology, 21: 3-32.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Justiciability of the Non-Justiciable Constitutional Policy of Governance in Nigeria*
Country : Nigeria
Authors : G.N. Okeke and C. Okeke
: 10.9790/0837-0760914      logo
Abstract: Using legislation to make justiciable the non-justiciable policy of governance as contained in the Chapter Two of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria ( CFRN), 1999, as amended is a material contradiction. This, it is submitted, is akin to making an act of the National Assembly of Nigeria to prevail over the letters of the Constitution as enunciated in Section 6(6)(c) of the CFRN, 1999. In fact the argument that it is the Constitution itself that gives the leeway for the Nigerian National Assembly to, if they so decide, lay off the non-justiciable clause and throw it into the trash can holds no water because by legislating on all the provisions of Chapter Two using the force of law making would impoverish the non-justiciable clause. Therefore, the above clause exists at the mercy of the National Assembly. The finding of this article is that the clause exists as a legal mirage that can vanish on the approach of the National Assembly to the scene where the clause once held sway. This scenario paints a visible picture of the need to directly make the non-justiciable Chapter of the CFRN, 1999, as amended, justiciable through an amendment of the Constitution.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Monetary Economy in Buddha Period (Based On the Comparative Analysis of Literary and Archaeological Sources)
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Anuradha Singh, Dr. Abhay Kumar
: 10.9790/0837-0761518      logo
Abstract:Archaeology reveals that the sixth BC era was the time of secondary civilization. Many cities as Shravasti, Saket, Ayodhya, Champa, Rajgriha, Kosambi and Varanasi described in Pali literature is indicative of materialistic prosperity and rich town culture. These northeastern towns of India are connected by highways to Takkasila in north, Pratishtha in south, Mrigukachha in west, Tamralipti in east and of central Kanyakubza, Ujjayini, Mathura, Sankashya and many others places. These cities were inhabited by northern black glittering earthen-pot culture. Peoples of this culture widely use iron make weapons and stricken coins. These materialistic and archaeological relics exhibit their economic strength. Artisans and businessmen were doing trading by forming union in cities. We came to know the eighteen categories of artisans. Contribution of stricken coins was very important in trading and buying-selling by these categories. By the circulation of stricken coins, trading was promoted significantly and trading becomes simplified. Various proofs of currency circulation is found in Pali scriptures and it also came to knowledge that the payments of salaries and buying was made by coins. The Buddha monks and nuns do not accept donation in form of currency. In this way it is clear from the above descriptions that the circulation of currency undoubtedly present in the time of Buddha, which is also described in Buddha literature and also confirmed with archaeological proofs in this Reseach Paper.
[1] Sushil Kumar Shukla, Prachin Bharat mein daan ki sankalpana aur vyaohar, Banaras Hindu University, Unpublished research
dissertation, Chapter-5, pp. 98-162.
[2] D.R. Bhandarkar, Lectures on Ancient India numismatics, 1921, p. 109.
[3] C.A.F. Cambridge History India, Volume-1, Cambridge, 1922, p. 217.
[4] Yatindranath Bose, Social and Rural Economy of Northern India, Volume-1, Second edition, Kolkata, 1957, pp. 15 and forth.
[5] Hindi translation of Jataka, Bhadant Anand Kauslyayan, in six volumes, Hindi Sahitya Sammelan Prayag, vikrami Samvat 2013,
No. 540.
[6] Ibid, No. 288.
[7] Ibid, No. 4.
[8] "Na hi Tatth Kasi Atthigorakh Ettan Na Vijjati, Vanijja Tadisi Natthi Hiryannen Kay Nishkayam". Petavatthu, p. 3, Edited in Hindi
by Rahul Sanskrityayan, Anand Kauslyayan and Jagadish Kashyap, Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath, 1937.
[9] "Samantpasadika‟ Second Edition, p. 207, Reference of Vinaypitak, Edited by Buddhaghosh, J. Takakusu and S. Nagi, Palitechts
Society London, 1924-37.
[10] Panini "Ashtadhyayi‟ Sutra Panapaadmkhshtadyanta 4/1/34.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Religious Conflict Resolution In Nigeria (Matthew 18:15-22): A Hermeneutico - Inculturation Approach
Country : Nigeria
Authors : John A. Ottuh, Ph.D
: 10.9790/0837-0761926      logo
Abstract: Conflict resolution was an important aspect of the Early Church community. Conflict situation is inevitable in every society. Nigeria was faced with lingering religious conflicts especially between the Christians and the Muslims which has led to severed relationships, destruction of lives and properties worth millions of Naira. The aim of this study therefore, is to examine the cause of religious conflicts in Nigeria and call on Christians and Muslims to play a peaceful role in the community; to use the principle of conflict resolution in Matthew 18:15-22 to drive home the African spirit of brotherhood and call for a peaceful coexistence between Christians and Muslims in Nigeria. In order to do this the Inculturation Hermeneutics model was explored as a methodology. It could be seen that the cause of conflicts between Muslims and Christians is lack of the consciousness of the concept of African brotherhood and love which has showcased itself in fanaticism, intolerance and derogatory statements, political dissatisfaction and superiority complex. Though Matthew 18:15-22 is more applicable to the Christian folks in Nigeria, the lessons therein portrayed the concept of love, forgiveness, dialogue, brotherhood, and justice as instruments of conflict resolution; and could be applicable to all Nigerians. It could be assumed that peaceful coexistence between all religious adherents in Nigeria is not far fetched if the principle of brotherhood, forgiveness, dialogue, love and justice are upheld.
[1] J.E.C. Obioma, "Religion and Conflict Resolution", M.T. Yahya, et al, (eds), Issues in the Practice of Religion in Nigeria (Jos:
Nigerian Association for the Study of Religions, 2006), 255.
[2] AIT News,27-06-2011-8pm and NewsAdmin,26, June,2011
[3] P.O.O. Ottuh, "Human Rights Abuses and Violations: The Nigerian Experience (1999-2005)", Iroro: Faculty Journal of Arts, 3,
Nos. 1&2, (2008):56
[4] H.D. Thomso, World Religion in War and Peace (Jefferson: Mifar Land, 1988), 195.
[5] J. S. Ukpong, African Biblical Interpretation: A Reader (Uyo: University of Uyo, 2006), 102
[6] H.C. Smith, "Religion", The World Book Encyclopedia Vol. 16 (Chicago: Field Enterprises Educational Corporation, 1970),
207.
[7] J. Hick, Philosophy of Religion (New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Ltd., 1994), 2
[8] A.C. Bouquet, Comparative Religion (Middlesex: Pengium Book, 1941), 16.
[9] O.A. Adewale quoting Adventures in Literatures (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich Publishers, 1995), 2.
[10] W.E. Vine, Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Inc., 1999),
66.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Problem of Universals: A Re-examination
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Chhanda Chatterjee, Dr. Amiya Chatterjee
: 10.9790/0837-0763541      logo

Abstract: The controversy between realism and anti realism regarding the objective existence universals takes the different shapes in different times. In contemporary western philosophy the problem of universals is formulated as the problem of the application of general words. Wittgenstein introduces the concept of family resemblance as an alternative explanation and claims that without postulating the objective universals the problem of the application of general words can easily be solved. We have tried to show in this paper whether Wittgenstein's theory of family resemblance have solved the problem of universals.

Keywords : Family Resemblance, General term, Realism, Universals, Wittgenstein

1] ―…nearly all words to be found in the dictionary stand for universals‖-B.Russell, The problem of Philosophy (Oxford University
Press, Chennai, 1997) 53
[2] H. H. Price, Thinking and Experience ( Hutchinson's University Library, London, 1953) 20.
[3] L. Wittgenstein, The Blue and Brown Books( Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1958) pp-17-20.
[4] L. Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, Trans. G.E.M.Anscombe (Basil Black well, Oxford, 1972) Sects. 65-71.
[5] Ibid, Sect. 67.
[6] L. Wittgenstein, The Blue and Brown Books (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1958) 17
[7] L. Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, Trans. G.E.M.Anscombe( Basil Black well, Oxford, 1972) Sect. 66
[8] Ibid., Sect.66
[9] Ibid., Sect.
[10] S. Bhattacharya, ―Universals and Family Resemblances‖ as incorporated in the Doubt Belief and Knowledge ( Indian Council of
Philosophical Research, New Delhi, 1987) 153


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : 'Use of PowerPoint Presentation in Teaching Prepositions in the Non-native Scenario'
Country : India
Authors : Sandip P. Gawate
: 10.9790/0837-0764247      logo

Abstract: The present research paper is an attempt to exhibit how multimedia instrument PowerPoint presentation can be used in teaching tricky area like prepositions. The main aim of the present research paper is to demonstrate the significance of technology in the teaching of English as a second language. One aspect of technology, i.e., the PowerPoint has been selected. Similarly, only 'prepositions' have been selected for demonstrating the immense utility of the PowerPoint Presentations. The actual PPTs have been generated by the researcher. The underlying assumption is that the use of PowerPoint reduces the element of rigidity and boredom and increases the interest and participation of the learners in teaching-learning process of English in the non-native scenario. The PowerPoint Presentation can be used as an audio-visual aid in non-native classrooms to have more effective teaching-learning activities. It is an application of multimedia in teaching prepositions. The idea of using multimedia arises due to the lacunas found in the traditional methods and techniques of the teaching-learning processes of English language.

Keywords: multimedia, technology, PowerPoint presentation, second language.

[1] Aggarwala, N.K., A Senior English Grammar And Composition, Goyal Brothers Prakashan, New Delhi, 2006.
[2] Allen, W. S., Living English Structure, Orient Longman Limited, 1962
[3] Augustine, A. E. And Joseph, K. V., Macmillan Gramar: A Handbook, Macmillan India Limited, 1987.
[4] Bakshi, R. N., English Grammar Practice, Elt, Orient Longman, 2005.
[5] Bhatia, H.S., Comprehensive High School Grammar And Composition, Book Palace, Delhi, India. 1995.
[6] Bisht, A.R., Teaching English In India, (6th Ed.) Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra. 1985.
[7] Bose, K., (1999 4th Revised Ed.), "Teaching Of English‟, A Modern Approach‟, Doaba House, Radha Press, Delhi.
[8] Chamuah, M., PowerPoint Presentation In Language Teaching, A Dissertation For The Degree Of MPhil, Under The Guidance Of
Dr. P. F. Patil. Aug. 2006.
[9] Chapman, L.R.H., English Grammar And Exercises, Book Four, Longman. 1967.
[10] Copestake, S., PowerPoint 2003 In Easy Step, Dreamtech Press, New Delhi. 2004.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Lexical Representation as Innovations in Nigerian English Usage.
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Dr. Maurice Udom
: 10.9790/0837-0764856      logo

Abstract:Over the decades, linguists have conducted scholarly researches in various areas to favour a variety of English used in the Nigerian situation, but they have scarcely attempted on innovation. These research gaps have raised questions on the validity of these lexically innovated words which this paper seeks to examine with the aim of identifying the pragmatic nature of words which reflect the Nigerian people and culture. Data which were obtained via questionnaires from 100 respondents; the internet, books and journals were discussed through denominalization, argument/qualia structures and polysemy based on the rule-governed/rule-bending principles which are the foundations for creativity. The finding indicates that the generated words are intelligible and acceptable Nigerian English usage. The paper concludes that the validity of these innovations in the Nigerian English consortium is standard for educated speakers of Nigerian English. It recommends that English language planners in Nigeria should codify these new words to serve as a practical guide for gaining and building a viable educational language system.

Key Words : acceptability, deviant, innovation, intelligibility, variant

[1] Bamgbose, A. (1995) Comment by Ayo Bamgbose In E.A Afeniras el on new/ non- native Englishes: A gamelan: Journal of
Pragmatics 24: 294- 321.
[2] Jowitt, (1991) Nigerian English Usage: An Introduction Nigeria: Longmann Nigeria Plc.
[3] Igboanusi, H. (2002) The Dictionary of Nigerian English Usage Ibadan: Enicrownfit Publisher.
[4] Udom, M. (2007) Lexical Innovations in Nigerian English Usage Ph. D Dissertation, University of Uyo, Uyo
[5] Thomas, G. (1991) Linguistic Purism.(Studies in Language and Linguistics) London, Longman.
[6] Banjo, A (1971) Towards a Definition of Standard Nigerian English Spoken English. Abijan
[7] Pustejovsky J. (1995) The Generative Lexicon Cambridge:The MIT Press.
[8] Aronoff, M. (1976) Word Formation in Generative Grammar, Linguistic Inquiry Monograph I. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass
[9] Levi, N. (1978) The Syntax and Semantics of Complex Nominals New York.Academic Press
[10] Clark, V and Herbert H. Clark (1979) When Nouns Surface as Verbs Language, 55,478-526


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Contrastive Analysis of Bangla and English Monophthongs
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Eshita Awal
: 10.9790/0837-0765767      logo

Abstract: Linguistics is the scientific study of a language, more precisely human language because it is the mankind who only uses language meaningfully. Linguistics has different fields. Phonetics is one of the fields where speech sound is analysed generally along with the sound production, transmission and reception. Again, phonology is the field where different sound systems of a language are analysed through scientific method. This paper deals with the phonology field where two languages, English and Bangla, are discussed. Every language has its own phonemes where each of them carries unique characteristics and these make them different from one another. Contrastive phonology is the field where different phonemes of a language are put side by side and studies different features of each phoneme. These are again analysed with phonemes of other language. Moreover, this is done to compare and contrast the sound systems, especially the pure vowels of two or more languages. Also, it has detailed scientific explanations of the reasons that people find it easier to learn Bangla Pure Vowel than that of English Pure Vowel. Finally, this paper is written to explore the fact that English phonemics is easier than Bangla phonemics (concerned with pure vowels).

Keywords- Articulators, Bangla Pure Vowel, Cranial Nerves, English Pure Vowel, Speech Sound

[1] Datta,A.(2000). Essentials of Human Anatomy-Neuro Anatomy (Part-4). Kolkata: Current Books International.
[2] Datta, A. (2006).Essentials of Human Anatomy [Head and Neck] Part II. Kolkata: Current Books International.
[3] Kondrak, G.(2009). Identification of Cognates and Recurrent Sound Correspondences in Word Lists. Retrieved November 29, 2011,
from http://www.atala.org/IMG/pdf/TAL-2009-50-2-08-Kondrak.pdf.
[4] A simple yet creative approach to personal growth and leadership development. (February 29, 2008). Retrieved November 29, 2011,
from http://thoughtsonquotes.blogspot.com/2008/02/learning-is-easy- unlearning-is-hard.html.
[5] Roach, P. (2000).English Phonetics and Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge Universi Press.
[6] Varshney, L.R. (1985). An Introductory Text Book of Linguistics and Phonetics (Dr.S.N.Arora, Ed.). Dhaka: BOC Ltd.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Creating a tripled-assessment model of academic programs
Country : Egypt
Authors : Nadia Ahmed Mohammed
: 10.9790/0837-0766883      logo

Abstract: The assessment of academic programs considered the backbone of any internal quality system as it is crucial for determining how, and to what extent, quality improvement systems are effective in educational practices and outcomes. Therefore this paper aims to creating a tripled- assessment model of academic program as it depends on three pillars; credibility, accountability and improvement. The tripled-assessment model will provide the departments, especially at Egyptian Universities which undergo a transformation period towards implementing its internal quality assurance systems, with a road map for the assessment of its different academic programs, furthermore help policy makers and program developers in taking proper improvement decisions as well.

Keywords: self assessment, program assessment, accountability, program accreditation, assessment criteria

[1] M. Michaela, S. Antony, External quality assurance: options for higher education managers, (Paris: IIEP-UNESCO, 2011).
[2] S.I., Abdul Raouf, self assessment manual (Lahore: Higher Education Commission, 2006).
[3] R. Basma, P.A. Julia., A. Angela, and S. K. Paula, Program Assessment Handbook (Florida: University of Central Florida, 2008).
[4] Stufflebeam, D.L., Foundational Models for 21st Century Program Evaluation (Michigan: the Evaluation Center-Western Michigan
University, 1999).
[5] W. Edwards, D., Out of the Crisis (London, MIT Press, 1989).
[6] A road map to quality, Hand book for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, Volume 1, Guidelines for Self Assessment at Program
Level (The Inter-University Council for East Africa/DAAD, 2010).
[7] F. Richard, R.M. Gary, E.T. Joseph, Tools& techniques for Program Improvement, Handbook for Program Review and Assessment
of Student Learning (Bellingham: Western Washington University, 2006).
[8] L. A. Martha, D. Kathryn, P. Mya, Program-Based Review and Assessment, Tools and Techniques for Program Improvement
(Amherst: Office of Academic Planning and Assessment (OAPA), University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2009).
[9] S., Sue, Program based assessment Handbook Notes (Wayne: Office of Assessment Wayne State College, 2007).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Cognitive, Affective and Behaviors' Attitudes towards Learning Arabic as a Second Language: A Case Study at SMKA Maahad Hamidiah Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Dr Arifin Mamat, Ahmad Sabri Noh, Wan Hamiah Wan Mahmud
: 10.9790/0837-0768492      logo

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the attitude of students studying Arabic language as a second language and their achievement in the Lower Secondary Examination (PMR). The research also investigated which component of attitude; cognitive, affective and behaviour, gives most impact on achievement in PMR examination. The study was conducted in SMKA Maahad Hamidiah Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. The instrument used was a questionnaire with 34 items. It was distributed to 132 Form Four students. The study employed descriptive and inferential statistics in the data analysis. The study revealed that the cognitive and affective components of attitude were found to be significantly correlated with achievement. However, the result also showed that there was no relation between the behaviour component and achievement. In addition, the cognitive component of attitude was found to contribute significantly to achievement in Arabic. Thus, the finding of this study suggests that attitude is crucial in determining achievement in Arabic language. Therefore, teachers should encourage positive attitude towards learning Arabic among students in order to improve their achievement in the subject.

Keywords: attitudes and achievements, attitudes towards language, education in Malaysia, relationship between attitudes and achievement, teaching and learning Arabic

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New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
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