IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE)

2nd National Conference on "Recent Developments in Mechanical Engineering" [RDME-2013]

Voulme 1

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Case Study on Sandwich steel Application in Automotive BIW for NVH Improvements
Country : India
Authors : A. B. Deshmukh, S.V.Chaitanya, Sachin Wagh

Abstract: In Worldwide Automotive market the migration of customers towards cars having fuel efficient ,compact designs is well established & accepted as an engineering challenge by global automotive OEM.OEMs globally continuously trying to meet customer expectations in vehicle performance criterion. Despite moving towards compact, fuel efficient designs, customers are unwilling to lose many of the vehicle attributes. In which NVH performance is major contributing factor which decides the vehicle performance from customer point of view. Hence, the designer has to ensure that the advantages of a significant weight saving is achieved with proper vibro-acoustics performance. This Paper considers some of the research part of using multilayer damping material in automotive BIW for controlling structure born noise. The study deals with the design, design considerations for sandwich Panels. Design CAE validation, and physical testing along with design optimization of a composite sandwich panel. NVH performance is evaluated using a dedicated experimental setup for the vibro-acoustic characterization of sandwich panels. The predicted improvements in NVH behavior of vehicle are considered for further implementation in BIW design.

Keywords –NVH-Noise vibration Harshness,CAE-Computer Aided Engineering, BIW-Body in White

[1] S.Marburg&H.J.Hardtke,Invistigation&Optimization of a spare wheel well to reduce vehicle interior noise", Journal of
computational acoustics; 2(3), 2003, 425-449.
[2] C.J.Cameron,Design of multifunctional Body Panels in Automotive Applications, Licentiate M.S.Thesis, Stockholm, Sweden
[3] An assessment of mass reduction opportunities for a 2017-2020 model year veh program, Lotus Engg Inc.
[4] Source Identification using Acoustic array Techniques, Susan Dumbacher& Jason Blough University of Cincinnati. Darren
Hallman & Percy Wang-Purude University.
[5] A. Duncan,S. Gogate, Greg Goethics,G.Hopton,Work shop on Structure born NVH SAE 2005.
[6]; Ford Motor company:Steel Application in 2004 F-150 Body in White by:PaulElia& Dave
Brzenchek;Supervisors 2004 F150 Body structures.
[7] Antiphon AB SE-670, 40Amotofors, Sweden." for silent steel applications and material properties.
[8] S Gade -Sound intensity (part1 theory) "Bruel&Kjaer Tech review3,3-39(1982).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Failure Analysis of Blister Packaging Machine Cam Shaft
Country : India
Authors : J. D. Chougule, R. G. Todkar

Abstract: This paper presents a failure analysis of a cam shaft in the transmission system of a blister packaging machine used for packaging of tablets. It is observed that the cam shaft fails due fatigue loading into two pieces during operation. Visual examination of the fractured surface clearly shows cracks initiated from the roots of shaft step and the number of cycles till failure is shown on the machine PLC screen. To find out the cause of failure, a finite element analysis is carried out. Results of stress analysis reveal that the highest stressed area coincides with the fractured regions of the failure of the shaft. The theoretical stress fairly matches with the sub-model stress values. The failure analysis shows that the fatigue failure of the shaft is due to weak section at the step provided for cam shaft mount. To enhance service durability of the transmission system of Blister Packing Machine few suggestions are presented. Keywords – Blister Packaging Machine, Cam shaft, Failure Analysis, shaft failure.

[1] F. S. Silva, An investigation in to mechanism of a crank shaft failure, Key Engineering Materials, Vol 245-246, 2003.
[2] Stuart H. Loewenthal, Factors That Affect the Fatigue Strength of Power Transmission Shafting and Their Impact on Design, International power transmission and gearing conference by ASME 8-12 October 1984
[3] S.Abdullah, S.M. Beden, A.K. Ariffin and M.M. Rahaman, Fatigue Life Assessment for metallic structure: A case study of shell structure under Variable Amplitude Loading, Journal of Applied Sciences 2008.
[4] Norman E. Dowling, Mean Stress Effects in Stress-Life and Strain-Life Fatigue, Society of Automotive Engineers, F 2004/51.
[5] M. Omid, S.S. Mohtasebi, S.A. Mireei and E Mahmoodi, Fatigue Analysis Of connecting Rod of U950 Tractor in the Finite Element code Ansys, Journal of Applied Sciences 2008.
[6] G. Wang, D. Taylor, B. Bouquin, J. Devlukia, A. Ciepalowicz, Prediction of fatigue failure in a camshaft using the crack modelling method, Engineering Failure Analysis, Volume 7, Issue 3, 1, Pages 189-197, June 2000.
[7] H. Bayrakceken,I Ucun, S Tasgetiren, Fracture analysis of a camshaft made from nodular cast iron, Engineering Failure Analysis Volume 13, Issue 8, Pages 1240–1245, December 2006.
[8] S.K. Bhaumik, R. Rangaraju, M.A. Parameswara, M.A. Venkataswamy,T.A. Bhaskaran, R.V. Krishnan, Fatigue failure of a hollow power transmission shaft, Engineering Failure Analysis, Volume 9, Pages 457-467, 2002.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design, Development & Validation of Sand Washing Machine
Country : India
Authors : S. H. Gawande, L. G. Navale, A. A. Keste

Abstract: The Sand Washer machine is used to wash off impurities like clay, silt, and other unwanted particles from sand to make it fit for use. This sand washer is specially designed to wash sand used in construction and make it comply with Indian Standard. The USP of this machine is that it combines all three steps; screening, conveying, and washing, into one robust, compact machine. The screening is done with the help of a wire mesh. Sand is conveyed and washed simultaneously by a paddle screw conveyor. The rotary bucket elevator scoops up the sand from the tub and on its way to delivery, drains water from sand. In this context, the objective of this work was to design the transmission system to drive the machine to maintain the output of washed sand at 6m3/hr by A particular design was subsequently narrowed down with reference to certain criteria viz. Relative ease of use, ruggedness, space constraints and availability. While doing so, we explored manual as well as computer assisted design. A comprehensive account of such design-centric efforts and finite element analysis is furnished in the present work. The design, analysis, manufacturing and testing work is carried at Deccan Construction Equipment and Machinery, Pune.

Keywords -Sand Washing Machine, USP, FEA

1. Design Data,Faculty of Mechanical Enginnering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore,(1978).
2. R. S. Khurmi , Machine Design, S.Chand and Company Ltd., New Delhi, (2012).
3. J. E.Shigley, Mechanical Engineering Design, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi(2001).
4. V.B.Bhandari, Introduction to Machine Design, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi. (2001).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Simulation and Analysis of Full Car Model for various Road profile on a analytically validated MATLAB/SIMULINK model
Country : India
Authors : A. Mitra, N. Benerjee, H. A. Khalane, M. A. Sonawane, D. R. Joshi, G.R. Bagul

Abstract: Suspension system design is a challenging task for the automobile designers in view of multiple control parameters, complex objectives and stochastic disturbances. For vehicle, it is always challenging to maintain simultaneously a high standard of ride comfort, vehicle handling under all driving conditions. The objective of this paper is to develop a MATLAB/SIMULINK model of full car to analyze the ride comfort and vehicle handling. As well as the detail study of mathematical modeling with step by step formation of state space matrix are to be developed and validation of simulink model with analytical solution of state space matrix is to be done elaborately on this paper.

Keywords – Vehicle dynamics, Full car model, State space equation, Ride comfort, Matlab/Simulink

[1] M J Griffin, Handbook of Human Vibration. (1996), Academic press, London Publication, ISBN-10: 0123030412.

[2] O. Gundogdu, "Optimal seat and suspension design for a quarter car with driver model using genetic algorithms, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 37(4), (2007), 327-332.

[3] J. Y. Wong, Theory of Ground Vehicles, John Wiley & Sons, New York, (2008). ISBN-10: 0470170387.

[4] A. N. Thite, Development of a Refined Quarter Car Model for the Analysis of Discomfort due to Vibration, Advances in Acoustics and Vibration, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Article ID 863061,(2012) doi:10.1155/2012/863061

. [5] A. Agharkakli, G. S. Sabet, A. Barouz, Simulation and Analysis of Passive and Active Suspension System Using Quarter Car Model for Different Road Profile, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 3(5), (2012), 636-644.

[6] IRC-99-1988: "Tentative guidelines on the provision of speed breakers for control of vehicular speeds on minor roads" published by The Indian Road Congress.

[7] Traffic advisory Leaflet 10/00, Road humps: discomfort, noise, and ground-borne vibration (2000), TM Division, Department of Transport, 2/06 Great Minster House, 76 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DR.

[8] ISO: 2631-1, 1997, "Mechanical vibration and shock - Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration"

[9] P.Y. Zhu, J.P. Hessling, D.S. Liu, Optimal road hump for comfortable speed reduction, Fourth International Symposium on Precision Mechanical Measurements, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7130, 71304L, (2008).

[10] A. Shirahatt , P.S.S. Prasad , P. Panzade, M.M. Kulkarni, Optimal design of passenger car suspension for ride and road holding, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Science & Engineering. 30(1), (2008), 66-76.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Characterization and Analysis: An Innovative Technique for Nanotechnology
Country : India
Authors : K.G. Joshi, S. B. Bajaj, S.S. Ingle

Abstract: Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary area of applied science and Engineering that deals with design and manufacture of extremely small components of the system. The mankind has seen several technology revolutions in the past: industrial, agricultural, medical, and InfoTech in a course of two centuries. But through each of these, we have been able to exploit only a small fraction of the total possibilities. We have been still dealing with the matter at a bigger scale. The building blocks, our engineering skills & products were bigger than the nano size and hence had limitations in manipulation. With its capacity to manipulate the smallest possible component of the matter, the Nanotechnology has the potential to bring that cycle of technological revolution to completion. As the nanomaterials are not new as for centuries, we are preparing & using nanoparticles but during that period we were lacking of the powerful instrument which measure size of particles & correlation of properties. Recently new techniques are evolved for characterization and analysis of nanomaterials which gives a revolution to development of Nanotechnology. This paper highlights some of the techniques used for analysis & characterization of nanomaterials.

Keywords - Nanomaterial, nanoscale, characterization, synthesis, diffraction etc

[1] Zai-Xing Yang, Wei Zhong, Peng Zhang, Mei-HuaXu, Yu Deng, Chak-Tong Au, You-Wei Du, Controllable synthesis, Characterization and photoluminescence properties of morphology-tunable CdSnanomaterials generated in thermal evaporation processes Applied Surface Science, 258(19), 2012, 7343-7347.
[2] Vicki Stone, Bernd Nowack, Anders Baun, Nico van den Brink, Frank von der Kammer, Maria Dusinska, Richard Handy, Steven Hankin, Martin Hassellöv, Erik Joner, Teresa F. Fernandes, Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterization", NanomaterialsScience of The Total Environment , 408(7), 2010, 1745-1754.
[3] G Binnig, C F Quate, C Gerber,Atomic force microscope, Phys. Rev. Lett., 56(.9),1986., 930–933.

[4] TakaomiMatsutani, TsuchikaYasumoto, Takeo Tanaka, Tadahiro Kawasaki, MikioIchihashi, Takashi Ikuta, Development of electron optical system using annular pupils for scanning transmission electron microscope by focused ion beam Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 272, 2012, 145-148.

[5] Iliana Medina-Ramirez, Sajid Bashir, ZhipingLuo, Jingbo Louise Liu, Green synthesis and characterization of polymer-stabilized silver nanoparticles, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 73(2), 2009, 185-191

[6] Martin Hassellöv, James W. Readman,James F. Ranville, Karen Tiede, Nanoparticle analysis and characterization methodologies in environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles , Ecotoxicology , , 17( 5), 2008, 344-361.

[7] Yongjun Chen, Suzanne K. Lunsford, Yongcheng Song, HuangxianJu, PolycarposFalaras, Vlassislikodimos, Athanassios G. Kontos, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Synthesis,characterization and electrochemical properties of mesoporous zirconiaNanomaterials prepared by self-assembling sol–gel method with Tween 20 as a template, Chemical Engineering Journal, 170( 2–3), 2011, 518-524.

[8] AgnieszkaDudkiewicz, Karen Tiede, KatrinLoeschner, Louise Helene Soegaard Jensen, Eric Jensen, RafalWierzbicki, Alistair B.A. Boxall, KristianMolhave, characterizationofNanomaterials in food by electron microscopy, TrAC,Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 30, ( 1), 2011, 28-43

[9] GwénaëlGouadec, Philippe ColombanRaman, Spectroscopy ofNanomaterials: How spectra relate to disorder, particle size and mechanical properties ,Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, 53(1), 2007, 1-56

[10] B.N. Akhgar, M. Pazouki, M. Ranjbar, A. Hosseinnia, R. Salarian, Application of Taguchi method for optimization of synthetic rutile nano powder preparation from ilmenite concentrate ,Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 90( 2), 2012, 220-228.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Correlation between BMD and Radio intensity of Human Bones for Strength Evaluation
Country : India
Authors : S. N. Khan, R. M. Warkhedkar, A. Shyam, B. R. Patil

Abstract: Bone mineral density [BMD] generally correlates with bone strength. BMD testing is used to assess bone density and diagnose osteoporosis. The HU scale is a linear transformation of the original linear attenuation coefficient measurement in to one in which the radio-density of distilled water at standard pressure and temperature is defined as Zero Hounsfield Unit while the radio-density of air at STP is defined -1000HU. The correlation between CT numbers and mechanical property estimated from cortical bone were found to be low (r2<0.2) and cancellous bone were found to be higher (r2>0.6). The specific relationship depending on the types of bone, that predict elastic module from density and CT numbers were suggested for human cortical and cancellous bone. CT numbers of HU measures X-ray linear attenuation of tissue inside the voxel.

Keywords - BMD, Radio-density, Osteotheropy, Strength evaluation

1. M. A. Perez, P. Fornells, J. M. Garc´ıa-Aznar, M. Doblar´e, validation of bone remodelling models applied to different bone types using mimics, Group of Structural Mechanics and Materials Modelling Arag´on Institute of Engineering Research (I3A) - University of Zaragoza CIBER-BBN Networking Centre on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine - IACS - Arag´on Institute of Health Sciences.
2. C. Libanati, K. Engelke, H. Wang, Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the forearm using general purpose spiral whole-body CT scanners: Accuracy, precision and comparison with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), Bone, 45(1) ( 2009), 110-8, doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2009.03.669.
3. Synarc Inc., San Francisco, USA , and Hamburg, Germany,Institute of Medical Physics, Univ. of Erlangen, Germany,Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA , USA, University of California, San Francisco, USA.
4. J. Joseph, Schreiber, P. A. Anderson, H. G. Rosas, A. L. Buchholz, and A. G. Au, Hounsfield Units for Assessing Bone Mineral Density and Strength: A Tool for Osteoporosis Management, Journal of Bone Joint Surgury Am.,9311) (2011,1057-63, doi: 10.2106/JBJS.J.00160.
5. P. A. Anderson, J. Schreiber, CT Hounsfield Units for Assessing Bone Mineral Density – A Tool For Osteoporosis Management, 27th Annual meeting of AANS/CNS Section, Arizona, 2011.
6. Cesar Libanati, Klaus Engelke, Huei Wang, Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the forearm using general purpose spiral whole-body CT scanners: Accuracy, precision and comparison with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), Synarc Inc., San Francisco, USA , and Hamburg, Germany,Institute of Medical Physics,
7. M. B. Huber, J. Carballido-Gamio, J. S. Bauer, T.B. Felix Eckstein, E. M. Lochmuller, S. Majumdar, T. M. Link, Proximal Femur Specimens: Automated 3D Trabecular Bone Mineral Density Analysis at Multidetector CT—Correlation with Biomechanical Strength Measurement, The Journal Radiology: 247, (2008), 472-481.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Modeling, Optimization & Manufacturing of Vortex Tube and Application
Country : India
Authors : A. M. Dalavi, Mahesh Jadhav, Yasin Shaikh, Avinash Patil

Abstract: The vortex tube is a simple device, having no moving parts, which produces hot and cold air streams simultaneously at its two ends from a source of compressed air. Literature review reveals investigations to understand the heat transfer characteristics in a vortex tube with respect to various parameters like cross section area of cold and hot end, nozzle area of inlet compressed air, cold orifice area, hot end area of the tube, and L/D ratio. As such there is no theory so perfect, which gives the satisfactory explanation of the vortex tube phenomenon as explained by various researchers. Therefore, it was thought to perform experimentation.

Keywords - – Heat transfer rate, VT Nozzle area, VT L/D ratio, C/S area of hot end, Orifice area of VT

[1] J. Prabakaran., S. Vaidyanatha., Effect Of Orifice And Pressure of Counter Flow Vortex Tube, IJST, 3(4), (2010), 374-376. [

2] Q. Chang, Q. Li, G. Zhou, Q. Li, Experimental Investigation of Vortex Tube Refrigerator with a Divergent Hot Tube, International Journal of refrigeration, 34 (1), (2011), 322-327.

[3] R. Shamsoddini, A. H. Nezhad, Numerical analysis of the effects of nozzles number on the flow and power of cooling of a vortex tube, International Journal of Refrigeration, 33 (4), ( 2010), 774–782.

[4 ] S. Nimbalkar and M. R Muller., An experimental investigation of the optimum geometry for the cold end orifice of a vortex tube, Applied Thermal Engineering, 29(2-3), (2009), 509–514.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Vehicle Operating on Compressed Air by Inversion of Slider Crank Mechanism
Country : India
Authors : A.A.Keste, S. B. Vise,A. N. Adik, P. R. Borase

Abstract: This paper describes the working of a vehicle which works on pneumatic power. A pneumatic vehicle uses compressed air as a source of energy for locomotion. In this system a double acting pneumatic cylinder is operated as a slider crank mechanism which converts the linear reciprocation of the cylinder piston rod into oscillatory motion of the driver crank about the pinion shaft. The battery operated vehicles used in all manufacturing industries has disadvantages like high weight, takes more time to charge the battery, critical connection of switches and relays and more maintenance. These stated problems in this paper are overcome by a pneumatically operated vehicle which has low weight, easy circuits, takes less time for refueling and requires less maintenance.

Keywords -Compressed Air Energy, Directional Control Valve, Pneumatic Power, Inversion of Slider Crank Mechanism, Eco-friendly.

1. B.R.Singh, O. Singh,Study of Compressed Air Storage System as Clean Potential Energy for 21st Century, Global Journal of researches in engineering Mechanical and mechanics engineering,12(1), 2012
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3. C.Y. Yuan. T. Zhang, A. Rangarajan, D.Dornfeld, B. Ziemba, R. Whitbeck, A decision-based analysis of compressed air usage patterns in automotive manufacturing, Journal of Manufacturing System, 25 (4) (2006), 293-300.
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6. E.C. Fitch, Fluid power and control system ,McGraw- Hill Book company, New York, USA, 1966
7. S R Majumdar, Pneumatic system (principles and maintenance, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, (1996), Technology & Engineering – 282.
8. A.Addala& S.Gangada, Fabrication and Testing of Compressed Air Car, Global Journal of Researches in Engineering Mechanical and Mechanics Engineering, 13(1), ( 2013), 1-9.
9. A. Papson, F. Creutzig, L. Schipper, Compressed air vehicles: a drive cycle analysis of vehicle performance, environmental impacts, and economic costs, 2010 Annual meeting of the transportation research board and publication in the transportation research record.
10. S.S. Verma, Air Powered Vehicles, The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal, (2008)1, 54-56.
11. J.P.Yadav,B. R. Singh, Study and Fabrication of Compressed Air Engine, Samriddhi, 2(1), (2011), 1-8.
Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Die Casting Defect Analysis & Experimental Validation for Compressor Housing
Country : India
Authors : A. P.Wadekar, B.A.Ahire, L.G.Navale, S.H.Gawande, R. Mathai, R.Mishra

Abstract: Gravity die casting is used to manufacture the complex metal components where there is a need for high structural integrity. The casting defects that are caused by molten metal include air entrapment, porosity, and shrinkage. But the control of casting defects has been based on the experience of the foundry engineers. This paper describes these defects in casting with the help of computer aided simulation. These are demonstrated using a simple two dimensional example which contains the essential features of compressor housing. The computer simulations have been carried out to analyse the flow of molten metal .The, flow ranging in 0.7 to 1 kgs/s in 5mm thin wall casting was examined to find the optimal parameters for the die-casting process. The results for compressor housing body are obtained by simulation and required corrective measures are implemented in actual component. It is seen that the most important physical situation during a casting process is solidification by cooling its surroundings where numerous defects can generate through changes during the heat transfer process from liquid form to a solid form. The design, simulation, analysis and testing work is carried at Spark Minda Co. Ltd, Chakan, Pune.

Keywords -Gravity die casting ,Simulation, Compressor housing, Casting defect

1. M.R. Barone, D.A. Caulk, Analysis of liquid metal flow in die casting, International Journal of Engineering Science 38 (24), (2000), pp. 1279-1302
2. RyosukeKimuraa, Haruaki Hatayamaa, Kenji Shinozakia, Izumi Murashimab, Jo Asadab, Makoto Yoshidac, Effect of grain refiner and grain size on the susceptibility of Al–Mg die casting alloy to cracking during solidification,journal of materials processing technology 209 (1) (2009 ) pp.210–219.
3. PenghuaiFua, Alan A. Luob, HaiyanJianga, Liming Penga,YandongYua, ChunquanZhaia, Anil K. Sachdev, Low-pressure die casting of magnesium alloy AM50: Response to process parameters, journal of materials processing technology 205 (2008 ) pp.224–234.
4. B.S. Sunga, I.S. Kimb, The molding analysis of automobile parts using the die-casting system, journal of materials processing technology 201 (2009) pp. 635–639.
5. H.D. Zhao, F. Wang, Modeling of mold filling of Al gravity casting and validation with X-ray in-situ observation Journal of Materials Processing Technology 209 (2009) pp. 4537–4542.
6. Paul Cleary, Joseph Ha , Vladimir Alguine , Thang Nguyen Flow modelling in casting processes, Applied Mathematical Modelling 26 (2002), pp.171–190.
Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : PLM Implementation with Creation of Multiple Item using SOA Technology in Team center
Country : India
Authors : S. K. Tekale, V. M. Nandedkar

Abstract: PLM is gaining high importance in all types of industries like automobile, pharmaceutical, defense, fashion and electronic industries. Though definitions of PLM as defined by many PLM industries vary the final goal to streamline all business processes, retain the knowledgebase and manage the entire product data is achieved by PLM suits. The following paper describes PLM in brief and describes its various elements through software perspective. The paper also gives a brief introduction to how SOA technology helps to achieve remote access to the business databases over http and IIOP protocols and carry out repetitive tasks efficiently.

Keywords - HTTP, IIOP, PLM, SOA

[1] CIMdata, Product Lifecycle Management, Empowering the Future of Business, 2002.
[2] B. Ravi, Product Lifecycle Engineering and Management: Towards Design for Excellence.
[3] CIMdata, Teamcenter, unified- Siemens PLM Software's Next Generation PLM Platform, June 2010.
[4] Siemens, Teamcenter's Service Oriented Architecture, White Paper, Integrating Teamcenter-managed product design and development with your mainstream business processes.
[5] LakshmiNadh Javvadi, Delivery Manager, MphasiS PLM Practice, ―Services Oriented Architecture in PLM‖, (MphasiS White Paper),January, 2011.
[6] CIMdata, Service-Oriented Architecture for PLM: An Overview of UGS' SOA Approach, September 2006.
[7] D. Bergsjö, A. Catic and J. Malmqvist, Implementing a Service Oriented PLM Architecture Using PLM Services 2.0, International Design Conference - Design 2008. Dubrovnik - Croatia, May 19 - 22, 2008.

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