IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE)

2nd National Conference on "Recent Developments in Mechanical Engineering" [RDME-2013]

Voulme 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Line Follower Robot using Radio Frequency (RF) Technology
Country : India
Authors : A. K.Dubey, N.K.Khemka

Abstract: This work demonstrates prototype development of a Line Follower Robot (LFR) using Radio Frequency (RF) Technology. The main objective of this Robot is to follow a path provided by the user through a PC. The robot traces the path with the use of a Radio Frequency transmitter and receiver.

Keywords -Line following robot,Encoder&decoder IC,Radio frequency, RF transmitters, RF Receivers.

[1] A. K. Bhatti, M. I. Bhatti, K.Khowaja and A. Shah,Command Based Line Following Robot Using RF Technology, Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Technology Research 1, 201, 25-35.
[2] R.K.Piyare and R. Singh,"Wireless Control OF Automated guided Vehicle",Proceedings of the International Multiconference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2011 VOL II,IMECs 2011,2011,978-988.
[3] R.Kousalya, P.Musthafa, G.Murugesan, An Intelligent Mobile Robot Navigation Technique Using RFID Technology, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Sciences And Technologies, 8,(1), 065 -074.
[4] B.Hamed, Design and Implementation of Stair-Climbing Robot for Rescue Applications, International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, 3(3),2011, 1-8.
[5] K Krishna Kishore,SSriDurgaKameshwari and G ManmaghaRao,Multipurpose surveillance robot ith two way communication using ZIGBEE and GSM, ,International Transactions on Electrical,Electronics and Communication Engineering,2(3),2012.
[6] T. Ersson and X. Hu, Path Planning and Navigation of Mobile Robots in Unknown Environments, Optimization and Systems Theory / Centre for Autonomous Systems, Royal Institute of Technology, SE 100 44 Stockholm Sweden.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis of Valve Mechanism – A Review
Country : India
Authors : A. S. More, S P. Deshmukh

Abstract: The main role of the valve train is to ensure the gases exchange process for all the engine speeds. The valve gear mechanism of an I.C. engine consists of those parts which actuate the inlet and exhaust valves at the required time with respect to the position of piston and crankshaft. The gases exchange process influences the engine good functioning, a kinematic and a dynamic analysis are required for the engine valve train. The vibratory and acoustic behavior of the internal combustion engine is a highly complex one. The engine speed is the most important parameter in valve train dynamics. A flexible multi-body model can be used investigate the dynamic behavior of a valve train by considering the interactions between valve train components i. e. the model includes a flexible camshaft, spring and rocker arm.

Keywords – Valve train, Internal combustion engine, Simulation, Kinematic analysis, Dynamic analysis

[1] D. Moreno, E. Mucchi, G. Dalpiaz, A. Rivola, Multibody analysis of the desmodromic valve train of the ducati motogp engine,
Proceedings of the Multibody dynamics - ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, Milano, Italy, 2007.
[2] Radek Tichanek, David Fremut, Robert Cihak, The Over-Head Cam (OHC) Valve Train Computer Model, 2005.
[3] JunWook Jeong, MunSung Kim Development of Automated Valve train Analysis and Optimization Process 2011 SIMULIA
Customer Conference.
[4] Ashwinkumar S. Dhoble and R. P. Sharma, "Single Valve Train Analysis of IC Engine Using Ricardo's VALDYN Software",
R&D Centre, Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., Nashik, India.
[5] Corneliu Cofaru, Gabriel Sandu, Liviu Jelenschi, Serban MULTIBODY ANALYSIS OF THE FINGER FOLLOWER
VALVETRAIN SYSTEM Radu Transilvania University of Brasov, CONAT20101011.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Castor oil Biodiesel an alternative fuel for Diesel in Compression Ignition Engine
Country : India
Authors : S. S. Ingle , V. M. Nandedkar

Abstract: World's petroleum supply are getting constrained, attention has been directed to find out alternative sources of fuels for engines Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because fuel properties and compatibility with petroleum- based diesel fuel. Therefore, in this research work, the prospects and opportunities of methyl esters of castor oil as fuel in an automobile is studied. Tests were conducted on a four stroke, single cylinder, D.I. diesel engine with Diesel and various blends of Biodiesel. The results of performance tests are compared with various blends of castor oil biodiesel with that of neat diesel. The result indicates that at blend B80, highest Brake thermal efficiency and lowest BSFC (Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) ,while for blend B 60, the Lowest fuel consumption is obtained.

Keywords - Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, eddy current dynamometer, Brake thermal efficiency etc.

[1] N.L. Panwar, H. Y. Shrirame, N. S. Rathore, Sudhakar Jindal, A. K. Kurchania, Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of castor seed oil, Applied Thermal Engineering, 30, 2010, 245-249.
[2] S. S. Ingle, V. M. Nandedkar, M. V. Nagarhalli , Performance Characteristics of Diesel Engine operating with preheated Palm Biodiesel, Emerging Trends in Science, Engineering and Technology, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, © Springer India, 2012, 123-129, ISSN no. 978-81-322-1007-8.
[3] M. H. Chakrabarti, Mehmood Ali, Performance of Compression ignition engine with indigenous castor oil Biodiesel in Pakistan, NED university Journal of research, VI(1), 2009,10-19.
[4] A.K.Babu, G. Devarao, Vegetable Oils and Their Derivatives as Fuels for CI Engine: An Overview, SAE 2003-01-0767.
[5] D. Vashist, M. Ahmad, A Comparative study of castor and Jatropha oil source and its Methyl ester test on the Diesel engine, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3(6), June 2011,4765-4773.
[6] D.P. Deshpande, Y.D. Urambkar and P.B. Thakare, Production of Biodiesel from castor oil using acid and base catalyst, Research Journal of chemical science, 2(8), August 2012, 51-56.
[7] S. Puhan, N. Verdaraman, G. Sankaranarayanan, B. V. Bharat Ram, Performance and emission study of Mahua Oil( Madhuca Indica oil) Ethyl Ester in 4 stroke natural aspirated direct injection diesel engine, Renewable Energy 30 (2005) 1269-1278.
[8] D. Agrawal, L. Kumar, A. Kumar Agrawal, Performance evaluation of a vegetable oil fuelled compression emission engine, Renewable Energy 30 (2007).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer from Inverted Notch Fin Arrays (INFA) Under Natural and Forced Convections
Country : India
Authors : S. D. Wankhede, S. G. Taji, V. M. Suryawanshi

Abstract: Experimental setup is developed to carry out the investigation on horizontal rectangular fin array with and without inverted notch under natural and force convections. The objective of the work is to determine the heat transfer characteristics experimentally, and further to find out the enhancement in heat transfer in the case of notched fin arrays over normal fin arrays, and analyzed the effect of different parameters like length, height, spacing of fins on heat transfer coefficient (h). Hereafter the inverted notched fin arrays are termed as INFAs and without inverted notched fin arrays are termed as normal arrays.

Keywords: Fin Array, Heater, Heat transfer, Inverted Notch, INFAs, Thermocouple

[1] K. E. Starner and H. N. McManus, An Experimental Investigation of Free Convection Heat Transfer From Rectangular Fin Arrays, Tranfer ASME, Serial C: Journal of Heat Transfer, 85 (3), 1963, 273–278.

[2] F. Harahap, and H. N. McManus, 1967, Natural Convection Heat Transfer From Horizontal Rectangular Fin Arrays, Transfer ASME, Serial C: Journal of Heat Transfer, 89 (3), 32–38.

[3] C. D. Jones, and L. F. Smith, 1970, Optimum Arrangement of Rectangular Fins on Horizontal Surface for Free Convection Heat Transfer, ASME Paper No. 69-HT-44.

[4] K. D. Mannan, 1970, An Experimental Investigation of Rectangular Fins on Horizontal Surface, Ph.D. thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

[5] N. K. Sane, and S. P. Sukhatme, 1974, Natural Convection Heat Transfer From Short Horizontal Rectangular Fin Arrays, Fifth International Heat Transfer Conference, Tokyo.

[6] N. K. Sane, M. B. Kittur, and J. D. Magdum, 1995, Natural Convection Heat Transfer From Horizontal Rectangular Fin Arrays With a Rectangular Notch at the Center, Seventh ISHMT Conference, Suratkal.

[7] N. K. Sane, A. N. Tikekar, and K. P. Morankar, 2000, Natural Convection Heat Transfer From Vertical Arrays With Rectangular Notched Fins, ME thesis, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, India.

[8] S. Baskaya, M. Sivrioglu, and M. Ozek, 2000, Parametric Study of Natural Convection Heat Transfer From Horizontal Rectangular Fin Arrays, International Journal of Thermal & Science, 39, 797–805.

[9] S. S. Sane, N. K. Sane, and G. V. Parishwad, July 2005, Natural Convention Heat Transfer Enhancement in Horizontal Rectangular Fin Array, 5th International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy conversion (ISMF'05), Xi'an, China, [10] N. K. Sane, S. S. Sane, and G. V. Parishwad, January 2006, Natural Convention Heat Transfer Enhancement in Horizontal Rectangular Fin Array with Inverted Notch, 18th National & 7th ISHMT-ASME Heat and mass Transfer Conference IIT, Guwahati, 312- 317.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Thermal Energy Assessment of Indian Cement Plant Specially Related to Rotary Kiln
Country : India
Authors : R. K. Patil, M. P.Khond, L. G. Navale

Abstract: This work is basically, a modeling of rotary cement kiln where objective is to optimize fuel and air consumption. The study aims to optimize on air and fuel quantities at kiln considering design parameters of the cement plant by keeping adequate safety factors at each level of calculations to assure that neither production rate nor quality of clinker vary. The data obtained from industry show that the first law efficiency and the second law efficiency of the kiln system are 50.41% and 61.39% respectively. Irreversibility of the system was found to be about 20%, which is due to the conversion from chemical to thermal energy. Theoretical energy requirement of this plant is 1720 kJ/kg of clinker whereas actual energy supplied is 2286 kJ/kg of clinker .The energy difference is 566 kJ/kg of clinker. Keeping allowance for losses and unaccounted figure still we can reduce actual supply energy up to 2000 kJ/kg of clinker. The study suggests that there is still scope of energy saving up to 12%. This can be achieved by direct and indirect methods i.e. through air optimization, fuel optimization and reduction of losses through kiln wall. Thermal energy consumption reduces from 3.2 GJ/ton of clinker to 3.0 GJ/ton clinker at J. K. Laxmi. Air consumption reduces from 98 TPH to 88 TPH. It saves electrical consumption upto 17% Thus total thermal and electrical energy saving is quantified in terms of rupees that is coming in the range of rupees 18 to 27 million.

Keywords - Cement Industry, Thermal Energy, Rotary Kiln, Heat transfer modeling; Energy conservation

[1] Banerjee, R., Khurana, S., "Energy Balance and Cogeneration for a Cement Plant", Applied Thermal Engineering, 22, pp. 485-494, 2002.
[2] Mujumdar, K.S., Arora, A., and Ranade, V.,V., "Modeling of Rotary Cement Kilns: Applications to Reduction in Energy Consumption", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res,, 45, pp.2315-2330,2006.
[3] Engin, T., Ari, V., "Energy Auditing and Recovery for Dry Type Cement Rotary Kiln Systems-A Case Study", Energy Conservation and Management, 46, pp.551-562, 2004.

[4] Rasul, M., G., "Assessment of the thermal performance and energy conservation opportunities of a cement industry in Indonesia", Applied Thermal Engineering, 25, pp. 2950-2965, 2005.

[5] Log sheet of J.K. Laxmi plant, Sirohi, Rajasthan, India.

[6] K.E.Peray, Cement Manufacturers Handbook, Chemical Publishing Company, New York, 1979.

[7] Holman J.P., Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1989.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Review on Development of Hydrogen CNG Blender Mechanism for Existing Gasoline Engine Vehicles
Country : India
Authors : K. R. Kapadani, Kavita R. Kapadni

Abstract: With increasing concern about energy shortage and environmental protection, research on reducing exhaust emissions, reducing fuel consumption, reducing engine noise and increasing specific outputs has become the major researching aspect in combustion and engine development. Alternative fuels such as CNG, HCNG, LPG, LNG, bio-diesel, biogas, hydrogen, ethanol, methanol, di-methyl ether, producer gas, p-series have been tried worldwide. Hydrogen and CNG blends (HCNG) may be considered as an automotive fuel without any major modification in the existing gasoline engine and infrastructure. It is observed in the experimental work that the HCNG blends are more superior to gasoline carburetted engines from fuel economy, power output and emission compliance point of view.There is a need to develop and install Hydrogen - CNG blenders in existing gasoline engines for improvement in efficiencies, for reduced fuel costs and for better reliability & operating flexibility of automobile.

Keywords –Electrolyses, Exhaust emissions, HCNG, Hydrogen Dispense, NOx reduction

[1] Strategy For The Integration Of Nrel/Sr-540-38720, Hydrogen As A Vehicle Fuel September 2005,
[2] The Existing Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure of the Interstate Clean Transportation, Corridor Project, April 22, 2004-August 31, 2005.
[3] F. C. Jensen and F. H. Schubert, Technology Advancement Of The Static Feed Water Electrolysis Process, Annual Report By (Nasa-Cr-151934) January, 1977
[4] Hydrogen Production Andstorage, Iea Publications January 2006.
[5] An Overview of Hydrogen Production and Storage Systems With Renewable Hydrogen Case Studies, May 2011, Clean Energy States Alliance.
[6] Variable Composition Hydrogen/Natural Gas Mixtures For Increased Engine Efficiency And Decreased Emmissions R. Sierens University Of Gent Laboratory Of Transporttechnology.Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat B-9000 Gent, Belgium.
[7] Preparing For The Hydrogen Economy By Using The Natural Gas System As A Catalyst (Naturalhy), Iphe Version: April 2009.
[8] Successful Adoption Of CNG and Emerging Cng-H2program In India, Narendra Kumar Pal Research Scholar, University Of Nevada, Reno.
[9] Hydrogen/Cng Blended Fuels Performance Testing In A Ford F-150, November 2003 Idaho National Engineering And Environmental Laboratory Transportation Technology And Infrastructure Department Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415
[10] Development Of Hcng Blended Fuel Engine With Control Of Nox Emissions, International Journal Of Computer Information Systems And Industrial Management Applications (Ijcisim),2, 2010,087-095.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Role of Fatigue Life in industrial Designs
Country : India
Authors : D. R. Marigoudar, S.R.Patil

Abstract: Vehicle Life time is highly determined by the fatigue life of its components. Variability in the material parameters may have a strong effect on the fatigue life. In order to achieve better performances together with improved safety, a new design process is needed to build automotive components, This new process requires shift from traditional design approach to a new approach that incorporates all the variability's and uncertainties in the analysis phase and in the design flow and to use computer simulation methods to guarantee design reliability. This paper gives an overview of the role of fatigue life in design of mechanical components, and the methods to calculate the fatigue life of the different components and its role in on new designs in optimizing the design based on the life of the components[2][3][4][5].

Keywords – Fatigue, Design, FEA load cycle, stress life, strain life.

[1] Lecturer: G. Glinka, Ph.D., D.Sc.Stress and Fatigue-Fracture Design, SaFFD, Inc.1485 Mannheim Rd., Petersburg, Ontario Canada N0B 2H0 FATIGUE and FRACTURE of MATERIALS and STRUCTURES (A practical approach)
[2] M.M. Topaç a,*, H. Günal b, N.S. Kura lay a Fatigue failure prediction of a rear axle housing prototype by using finite element analysis
[3] Prediction of fatigue life using modal analysis for grey and ductile cast iron A.N. Damira,*, A. Elkhatibb, G. Nassefc
[4] Fatigue life estimation of an engine rubber mount W.D. Kima, H.J. Leea, J.Y. Kima, S.-K. Koh b,
[5] Weighted error criterion to evaluate strain–fatigue life prediction methods K. Hariharan a,b,⇑, Raghu V Prakash b,1, M. Sathya Prasad a,2ı
[6] Application of a fatigue equivalent static load methodology for the numerical durability assessment of heavy vehicle structures Johann Wannenburg a,*, P. Stephan Heyns a, Anton D. Raath b
[7] Nitin S. Gokhale, Sanjay S. Despande, Dr. Anand N. Thite Practical finite element analysis,
[8] Finite element analysis for design engineers, Kurowski, Paul M.
[9] ANSYS Theory Reference. ANSYS Release 10.0. ANSYS, Inc.; 2005.
[10] Gordon KW. Design, evaluation and selection of heavy-duty rear axles. SAE Trans 1955;63:5–34.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Eclipse Drive Train for Windmill
Country : India
Authors : A. A. Keste, A. A. Tolani, V. A. Handre, N. R. Sharma, M. A. Gavhane

Abstract: The failure of conventional gearbox (constant mesh) is mainly due to shearing of gear teeth in contact, which is eliminated by using kinematic linkages in eclipse gear box. The force which is transmitted from the input shaft to the output shaft, which is mechanically coupled to rotor of the generator, is uniformly and equally distributed by the number of links present in eclipse gear box. The requirement of only one stage instead of multiple stages in conventional gearbox for complete transmission of power improves the reliability of the gearbox. For useful electricity generation constant output shaft speed is required which is achieved by eclipse drive train.

Keywords – Kinematic linkages, Single stage, reliability, Constant output shaft speed.

[1] Renewable Energy World: http//www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news.
[2] M. J. Verdonschot Modeling and Control of wind turbines using a Continuously Variable Transmission, DCT 2009.028.
[3] J. K. Gupta and R.S. Khurmi , Machine Design , S. CHAND Publcation, 2011.
[4] P. S. G. Design Data , P. S. G. College Of Technology, Kalaikathir Achchagam, 2005.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Development of Slip line model For MicroTurning Process
Country : India
Authors : S. B. Bawaskar , L.G. Navale

Abstract: Micro-turning, the inevitable micro-machining technique is a tool based micro machining process. The applications include use of micro shafts for micro pins, micro motors in the area of robotics, MEMS, biomedical, aerospace etc. The micro- turning process, as it is influenced by the edge radius, both ploughing and shearing occurs while removing the excess material depending up on the feed rate used. The objective of this research is to model the forces involved in the micro-turning process using slip-line field theory by considering the effects of edge radius, ploughing, and the built-up edge (BUE) to account for both ploughing and shearing. Unlike previous models the proposed model describes both the shearing and ploughing process as plastic deformation processes and will includes the effect of the minimum chip thickness and BUE. The ploughing force, the built-up edge and the minimum chip thickness effect which lead to the nonlinearity of the process are described in this model.

Keywords - Micro-turning, Slip-line, Built-up edge, Cutting forces, Thrust forces, Ploughing

[1] K. N. Chee, N .M. Shreyes, M. Rahman, A. Senthil Kumar, Experimental study of micro- and nano-scale cutting of aluminum 7075-T6, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, 46, 2006, 929–936.

[2] Y. Karpat, Investigation of the effect of cutting tool edge radius on material separation due to ductile fracture in machining, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 51, 2009, 541-546.

[3] X. Liu, R. E. DeVor, S. G. Kapoor, An Analytical Model for the Prediction of Minimum Chip Thickness in Micromachining, ASME journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 128, 2006, 474-481.

[4] B. G. Jun, X. Liu, R.E. DeVor, Shiv GK, Investigation of the Dynamics of Microend Milling—Part I: Model Development, ASME journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 26, 2006, 893-900.

[5] D. J. Waldorf, A Simplified Model for Ploughing Forces in Turning, International Journal of Manufacturing Process, 8, 2006, 76-82.



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