IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE)

2nd National Conference on "Recent Developments in Mechanical Engineering" [RDME-2013]

Voulme 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Future Technology of Automobile Engine That Runs on Compressed Air as a Fuel
Country : India
Authors : B. R. Singh, O. Singh

Abstract: Heavily release of tail pipe emissions is the biggest challenge to 21st Century developments, causing serious threat to Global Warming. Worldwide fast utilizations of transport sector alone releases billion tones of excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through tail pipe emissions. It is also leading to fast depletion of hydrocarbon fuel. On account of such challenges, continued researches are being carried out to supplement the energy by renewable resources and alternate energy to sustain hydrocarbon fuel. Now a days the major thrusts are being opted for utilization of wind energy, hydro-power, tidal and nuclear power generation. Simultaneously efforts are also made towards storage of the energy and appropriate conversion system and its better utilization. This paper focuses on study of energy storage and its re-utilization systems. at appropriate period of time. In this, a special focus is laid upon use of compressed atmospheric air as a viable alternative energy source. Such energy sources are preferred to be used as clean and zero pollution energy source that can help in mitigating the global warming.

Keywords - zero pollution, compressed air, air turbine, energy conversion, energy storage, injection angle

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[2] Aleklett K. and Campbell C.J., 2003, The Peak and Decline of World Oil and Gas Production- Minerals and Energy, Raw Materials Report, Volume 18, Number 1, 2003, pp. 5-20.
[3] Guy and Negre Cyril, 2004, Compressed Air - The Most Sustainable Energy Carrier for Community Vehicles– Speech in front of assembly at Kultur gathered for "Fuel Cells World" Tuesday 29th June '2004.
[4] Saint Hilaire, G., Saint Hilaire, R., and Saint Hilaire, Y., 2005, Quasiturbine zero pollution car using gasoline-. Festival at Le Lundi, Montreal Gazette, 26 September 2005.
[5] Singh B.R. and Singh Onkar, 2006, Study of Compressed Air as an alternative to fossil fuel for Automobile Engines, International Conference on Challenges and Strategies for Sustainable Energy and Environment- held on 10-11th June'2006 at UPTU, Lucknow, UP-Proceedings pp 179-191.
[6] Honton E. J., 2004, Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car, presented at 15th Annual US Conference and Hydrogen Expo, April'2004, USA.
[7] Rose Robert, William J. Vincent, 2004, Fuel Cell Vehicle World Survey 2003-Break through Technologies Institute, February' 2004, Washington, D.C.
[8] Singh B.R. and Singh Onkar, 2006, Study of Compressed Air as an alternative to fossile fuel for Automobile Engines, - International Conference on Challenges and Strategies for Sustainable Energy and Environment- held on 10-11th June'2006 at UPTU, Lucknow, UP-Proceedings pp 179-191.
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[10] Fuglsang P., Bak C., Gunna M., 2004, Design and verification of the Ris0-B1 Airfoil-family for Wind Turbines, ASME- Nov'2004, Vol.126 pp 1002-1008


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Optimization of Cutting Parameters in Boring Operation
Country : India
Authors : A.M.Badadhe, S. Y. Bhave, L. G. Navale

Abstract: In the present work an attempt is made to select the combination of optimum cutting parameters which will result in better surface finish. Machining with optimum cutting parameters will result in minimum machining time and hence increasing the productivity. Four parameters viz. spindle speed, feed, depth of cut and length to diameter (L/D) ratio of boring bar has been taken as control factors. The cutting trials were performed as per Taguchi 34 (L9 ) orthogonal array method to deal with the response from multi-variables. AISI 1041 (EN9) carbon steel was used as a job material which was cut by using standard boring bars of various sizes each having a tungsten carbide inserts of same insert radius. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was carried out to find the significant factors and their individual contribution in the response function i.e. surface roughness.

Keywords - Taguchi parameter design, Boring process, Surface roughness, Analysis of variance.

[1] L. Andren, L. Hakansson, A. Brandt, I. Claesson, Identification of dynamic properties of boring bar vibrations in a continuous boring operation, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 18, 2004, 869–901.
[2] A. B. Albrecht, How to secure desired surface finish in turning operations, Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Tech. , 1956 , 133–136.
[3] C.T. Ansell, J. Taylor, The surface finishing properties of a carbide and ceramic cutting tool , Proceedings of the Third International MTDR Conference, 1962, 25-29.
[4] K.L. Chandiramani, N.H. Cook, Investigations into the nature of surface finish and its variation with cutting speed, J. Eng. Ind., Ser. B 86–87 , 1964, 134–140.
[5] R.M. Sundaram, B.K. Lambert, Mathematical models to predict surface finish in fine turning of steel, Int. J. Prod. Res. (Parts 1 and 2) 19, 1981, 547–564.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Bending Stress on Steel Alloy Of Helical Gear For High Speed Applications
Country : India
Authors : B. Venkatesh, S.V.Prabhakar Vattikuti, D.V. Ramanareddy, S. Naresh Kunar, V.Kamala, AMK Prasad

Abstract: Gears are one of the most critical components in mechanical power transmission system and they are advantage over belt, wire, rope and chain drives. Gears are most commonly used for power transmission in all the modern devices. They have been used extensively in the high-speed marine engines. Gear design has evolved to a high degree of perfection; the constant pressure to build less expensive, quieter running, lighter weight, reliable, less cost and more powerful machinery has lead to steady change in gear design. Today, the most significant new gear developments are in the area of materials. The objective of the present work is to focus on investigating the effects of face width, gear ratio, normal module, speed and helix angle on bending stress of steel alloy (40 Ni2 Cr1 Mo28) helical gear for marine applications.

Keywords - Buckingham equation, Bending stress, Helical gear design, Lewis equation, Optimization

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[5] Chien-Fa Chen, Chung-Biau Tsay, Tooth profile design for the manufacture of helical gears sets with small numbers of teeth, International Journal of Machine tools & Manufacture, 45, 2005, 1531-1541.
[6] Lazar Chalik, Preloaded Gearing for high speed application, ASME Power transmission & Gearing conference, DE-Vol.88, 1996,765 – 768.
[7] R.L.Norton, Machine Design: an Integrated Approach, (New Jersey: prentice- Hall Inc, 1996).
[8] X.Li, G.R.Symmons, Cockerham, Optimal design of involute Profile Helical Gears, Journal of Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 31 No 6, 1996, 717-728.
[9] E.A.Avallone, T.Baumeister, Marks, Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers (11th ed McGraw -Hill, Inc. New York, 1996).
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Investigation of Concrete Solar Collector: A Review
Country : India
Authors : A. A. Keste, S. R. Patil

Abstract: Concrete collectors offer a promising and viable solution over the conventional collectors used today. Concrete has the dual advantage of having high storage capacitance as well as its freedom from corrosion due to alkaline nature of cement. Concrete is the most promising material among low cost energy materials as it is a very common building material and its technology is well established. The present work reviews the literature produced so far on concrete collectors with the aim of sharing the information here gathered for future developments. Therefore it is planned to use metal fiber reinforced concrete for storage cum insulator base of solar collector. Metal fibre reinforced concrete have the advantage of increased thermal conductivity due to inclusion of metal fibres. The proposed work is concerned with the experimental setup of a cheaper and economical 2m X 1m solar concrete collector and analysis of its performance. The objective of present work is to find out daily efficiency and average temperature of the output hot water.

Keywords: Metal fibre reinforced concrete, Storage capacitance, Thermal conductivity

[1] R.H. Turner, Concrete Slabs as winter solar collectors, ASME solar energy conference, page no. 9-13.
[2] S. V. Bopshetty, J. K. Nayak, S. P. Sukatme, Performance Analysis of Solar Concrete Collector, Energy Converse. Manage,
33(11), 1007-1016.
[3] P. B. Chaurasia, Solar water heaters based on concrete collectors, Energy, 33(11),1007-1016.
[4] M. Sokholof and M. Reshef, Performance Simulation of Solar Collectors made of concrete with embedded Conduit Lattice, Solar
Energy,48(6),403-417.
[5] M. Hazami, Performance of Solar storage Collector, Desalination, 183,167-172.
[6] Kore S.S & Sane N.K,Experimental Investigations Of Heat Transfer Enhancement From Dimpled Surface In A Channel,
International Journal Of Engineering Science & Technology, 6227-6334.
[7] D. Antoni M, Saro O Massive solar-Thermal collectors-A critical literature review Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
16, 2012.
[8] R. Sarachitti Thermal performance analysis and economic evaluation of roof integrated solar concrete collector Energy and
buildings, 43 (2011).
[9] B.A.Jubran, M.A.Al-saad, N.A.AbuFaris Computational evaluation of solar heating systems using concrete collectors Energy
conversion and management. 35, (12), 1994.
[10] A. B. Abbott , Analysis of thermal energy collection from Precast Concrete Roof Assemblies, (2011).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Oxygenated Fuel Additive on Diesel Engine Performance and Emission: A Review
Country : India
Authors : A. R. Patil, S. G. Taji

Abstract: This Improvement of fuel properties essential for suppression of pollutant and optimization of engine performance. One way is use of additives. Oxygenated additives were conventionally recommended for gasoline. But now day's oxygenated additives are widely considered for diesel fuel also. This paper reviews the available oxygenated additives and compares their effect on exhaust gas emission with help of conference papers and journals. During study of available material It is found that , oxygenated are effective method for reducing PM, CO and HC without significant increase in the NOx emission.

Keywords - Diesel, emission, Oxygenated additive, NOx , performance

[1] T. Nibin, A. P. Sathiyagnanam, S. Sivaprakasam and C. G. Saravanan, Investigation on Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygenated Fuel Additive, Journal of Institution of Engineers (India), Vol. 86, 2005, 51-54.
[2] J. Wang, F. Wu, J. Xiao, Oxygenated blend design and its effects on reducing diesel particulate emissions, Fuel , 88 (10), 2009, 2037–2045.

[3] H. Hess, J. szybist, J. Perez, Impact of oxygenated fuel on diesel engine performance and emissions,6th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop 2000, San Diego, CA (US), 2000.

[4] K. I. Burshaid A, M.A. Hamdan, The Reduction of Soot Formation from Fuels Using Oxygenates Additives, Fuel, 88 (10), 2009, 2037-2045.

[5] B. H. Mehta, H.V. Mandalia, A Review On Effect Of Oxygenated Fuel Additive On The Performance And Emission Characteristics Of Diesel Engine", National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology, 13- 14 May 2011.

[6] P. Baskar, K. Nanthagopal and T. Elango, "The effect of two oxygenates on diesel engine emissions", ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6 (3) , 2011, 55-60.

[7] T. Li , M. Suzuki, Effects of Ethyl tert-butyl ether addition to diesel fuel on characteristics of combustion and exhaust emissions of diesel engines", Fuel, 88(10), 2009-10, 2017-2024,

[8] C.Y. Lin and J.C. Huagg, An oxygenating additive for improving the performance and emission characteristics of marine diesel engines, Ocean Engineering, 30, 2003, 1699–171.5

[9] W. Yanxia and L. Yongqi, Diesel engine emission improvements by the use of EGM-DMC-Diesel blends fuel, 5th WSEAS Int. conf. on environment, Ecosystems And Development, Tenerife, Spain, 14-16 December, 2007.

[10] G. Yanfeng, L. Shenghua, G. Hejun, H. Tiegang, Z. Longbao, A new diesel oxygenate additive and its effects on engine combustion and emissions, Applied Thermal Engineering, 27 (1), 2007, 202-207.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Descriptive Study of the Constructional Features of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heating System
Country : India
Authors : A. A. Satam

Abstract: Renewable sources of energy are anticipated to play a significant role in energy generation in India in the future. The word itself ―Solar, describes that we are dealing with some renewable energy source for a hot water system. The solar hot water system has been a popular throughout the world as it is cost effective and easy to maintain. The system is always successful when its efficiency level increases. Solar water heating (SWH) systems are gaining popularity in India with increasing number of affluent population in society and environmental concerns from seemingly unchanged reliance on fossil-based fuels. The penetration of these systems and technologies into Indian markets is a welcome development; however there is a need for the method of assessment of their thermal performances. Evacuated tube collector system is one of the effective methods of solar water heating systems. The usage of evacuated tube collectors is increasing day by day. This paper describes the evacuated tube solar water heating system with respect to its constructional features.

Keywords – Evacuated glass tubes, Solar collectors, Solar Irradiance, Storage tank, Thermal performance

[1] P.Selvakumar, Dr.P.Somasundaram, Effect of Inclination Angle on Temperature Characteristics of Water in-Glass Evacuated Tubes of Domestic Solar Water Heater, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT,) 1(4), April 2012,78-81.
[2] D. Mangal, D. Kumar Lamba, T.Gupta, K. Jhamb, Acknowledgement of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater over Flat Plate Solar Water Heater, International Journal of Engineering (IJE), 4 (4), 2011, 279-284.
[3] G.L. Morrison, I.Budihardjo and M.Behnia, Water-In-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, ISES 2001 Solar World Congress.
[4] B. A. Khan, Md. Sanzidul Islam, Jannatul Ferdous, Nabil Shaker Rahi, Performance improvement of solar hot water system by reducing solar irradiation from solar, collector and solar tank, doctoral diss., BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, April 2011.
[5] G. D. Rai, Non-Conventional Energy Sources (Khanna Publishers, Delhi, 5th Edition, 2011).
[6] S. P. Sukhatme, J. K. Nayak, Solar Energy (The Tata MC Graw Hill Publication, Delhi, 3rd Edition, 2010).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Kane's Method for Robotic Arm Dynamics: A Novel Approach
Country : India
Authors : A. Purushotham, J. Anjeneyulu

Abstract: This paper is the result of Analytical Research work in multi-body dynamics and desire to apply Kanes Method on the Robotic Dynamics. The Paper applies Kane's method (originally called Lagrange form of d'Alembert's principle) for developing dynamical equations of motion and then prepare a solution scheme for space Robotics arms. The implementation of this method on 2R Space Robotic Arm with Mat Lab Code is presented in this research paper. It is realized that the limitations and difficulties that are aroused in arm dynamics are eliminated with this novel Approach.

Key Words: Dynamics, Equation of Motion, Lagrangian, Robotic arm, Space Robot

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and computer Graphics 2005
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Conference on Computational Methods in Mechanical Engineering Sept 16-17, 2005 O.U.C.O.E:Hyderabad
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Huston, Ronald L. Multibody Dynamics. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1990.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Potentials of Micro-EDM
Country : India
Authors : N. B. Gurule, S. A. Pansare

Abstract: Presently manufacturing industries are facing challenges from difficult-to-machine materials viz. Super alloys, ceramics and composites which require high precision and surface quality thereby increase machining cost. In addition to this rapidly developing technology aims to develop products in miniaturized compact volumes with more functions are embedded in the products. This requires advancement of micro manufacturing; hence industrial research on micro-machining has become considerably important and widespread. To meet these challenges, non-conventional machining processes are being employed to achieve higher metal removal rate, better surface finish and greater dimensional accuracy, with less tool wear. In this context, micro-EDM is one of the topics towards developing micro manufacturing. Micro-EDM is a newly developed method to produce micro-parts in the range of 50 -100 μm. It is an efficient machining process for the fabrication of a micro-hole. Micro-EDM process is based on the thermoelectric energy between the workpiece and electrode. There are many electrical and technological parameters of micro-EDM process which are decisive in the machining characteristics and affect geometrical shape and surface quality of the machined parts. This paper describes the potentials of micro-EDM process, the micro-machining principles, characteristics, process parameters and recent developments.

Keywords: Micro-machining, EDM, Micro-EDM, Material Removal Rate, Tool Wear

[1] Wong, Y.S., Rahman, M., Lim, H.S., Han, H., Ravi, N., Investigation of micro-EDM material removal characteristics using single RC-pulse discharges,, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 140, 2003, 303-307.
[2] Klocke, F., Lung, D., Antonoglou, G., Thomaidis, D., The effects of powder suspended dielectrics on the thermal influenced zone by electrodischarge machining with small discharge energies, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 149, 2004, 191-197.
[3] Liu, H.S., Yan, B.H., Huang, F.Y., Qiu, K.H., A study on the characterization of high nickel alloy micro-holes using micro-EDM and their applications, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 169, 2005, 418-426.
[4] Han, F., Yamada, Y., Kawakami, T., Kunieda, M., Experimental attempts of sub-micrometer order size machining using micro-EDM, Precis. Eng. 30, 2006, 123-131.
[5] Kim, Y.T., Park, S.J., Lee, S.J., Micro/Meso-scale Shapes Machining by Micro EDM Process, Int. Journal of Precision Eng. And Manufacturing, 6, 2005, 5-11.
[6] Son, S., Lim, H., Kumar, A.S., Rahman, M., Influences of pulsed power condition on the machining properties in micro-EDM, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 190, 2007, 73-76.
[7] Takahata, K., Shibaike, N., Guckel, H., A Novel Micro Electro-Discharge Machining Method Using Electrodes Fabricated by The LIGA Process, Twelfth IEEE Int. Conference on MEMS, 1999, 238-243.
[8] Fleischer, J., Masuzawa, T., Schmidt, J., Knoll, M., New applications for micro-EDM, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 149, 2004, 246-249.
[9] Tsai, Y.Y., Masuzawa, T., An index to evaluate the wear resistance of the electrode in micro-EDM, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 149, 2004, 304-309.
[10] Zhao, W., Yang, Y., Wang, Z., Zhang, Y., A CAD/CAM system for micro-ED-milling of small 3D freeform cavity, J. Mater. Process. Technol, 149, 2004,573-578.



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