Other Useful Journals
- IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS)
- IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)
- IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE)
- IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE)
- IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering (IOSR-JECE)
- IOSR Journal of VLSI and Signal Processing (IOSR-JVSP)
- IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (JESTFT)
- IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS)
- IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC)
- IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)
- IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM)
- IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)
- IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS)
- IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS)
- IOSR Journal of Agriculture and veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS)
- IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME)
IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS)
Volume 1- Issue 2
- Full PDF
Abstract: Hospitals and public health care center are fraught with hazards, which may threaten patient safety. Thus, patient safety movement in the hospital and public health center are critical to be performed as a promotion to enhance the awareness of patient safety as well as a prevention of the incident of patient safety. The program which was conducted in 2012 aimed to improve visitors' behavior in safety in the Fatmawati General Hospital and Beji Primary Health Center that eventually may increase the degree of community health quality. This program consisted of reassessment (Focus Group Discussion), observation, giving questionnaire to workers and visitors in the hospital and public health care), planning, implementation (providing education and warning media, books titled "Safe in Hospital and Public Health Center", physical facilities, and socializing patient safety movement in the hospital and public health center), and evaluation. This activity reached an agreement on the action plan to continue the patient safety movement in their institutions. This activity could be a model for other hospitals and public health care centers, which have not yet implemented patient safety program.
Keywords: hazard, hospital, nurses, patient safety, public health center.
 Craven & Hirnle, Fundamentals of Nursing: Human health and function. Fourth edition. (Philadelphia:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003).
 Notoatmodjo, S., Promosi kesehatan: Teori dan aplikasi (Jakarta: Penerbit Rineka Cipta, 2010).
 Smeltzer.Sc. & Bare B.G., Brunner & Suddarth's textbook of medical surgical nursing. (8th ed).
(Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven Publishers, 1996).
 Kemenkes RI, Pedoman pencegahan dan pengendalian infeksi di rumah sakit dan fasilitas pelayanan
kesehatan lainnya (Jakarta: Kemenkes, 2011).
- Full PDF
Abstract: Dementia is a progressive illness and it imposed a great challenge for the caregivers. The daunting tasks have an impact to the quality of life of these caregivers. Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted in five major hospitals in Sarawak, Malaysia,from June until December 2011. The objectives were to determine the quality of life among informal primary caregiversof elderly diagnosed with dementia and its associated factors.The respondents were informal primary caregivers of dementia patients who were on follow-up at the psychiatric clinic in five selected hospitals. They were recruited purposively from a list of elderly dementia cases. Guided interview was carried out either during clinic appointment or home visit for those who were not present during clinic follow-up. A set of questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, caregiving characteristics, patient characteristicsand SF 36 questionnaire for measurement of quality of life was administered.
Keywords: caregivers, dementia, factors, quality of life, Malaysia
 RJV.Montgomery and KD.Koloski. Family Caregiving: Change, Continuity and Diversity. In P. Lawton and R. Rubenstein (Eds.),
Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias: Strategies in Care and Research. New York: Springer, 2000.
 S.Mohamed, R.Rosenbeck, CG.Lyketsos and LS.Schneider.Caregiver Burden in Alzheimer Disease: Cross-Sectional and
Longitudinal Patient. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(10), 2010, 917-928.
 SR.Riedijk, ME.De Vugt,HJ.Duivenvoorden, MF.Niermeijer, JC.VanSwieten, FRJ Verhey and ATibben. Caregiver Burden,
Health-Related Quality of Life and Coping in Dementia Caregivers:A Comparison of Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's
Disease. Dementia Geriatric Cognitive Disorder, 22, 2006, 405–412.
 JC.Arango-Lasprilla, T.Lehan, A. Drew, A. Moreno, X.Deng and M. Lemos. Health-Related Quality of Life in Caregivers of
Individuals With Dementia From Colombia. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementia, 25(7), 2010, 556-561.
 RD. Pattanayak, R. Jena, D.Vibha, SK. Khandelwal and M.Tripathi. Coping and its relationship to quality of life in dementia
caregivers.Dementia, 0(0), 2011, 1-10.
 SL. Hughes, A.Giobbie-Hurder, FM. Weaver, JD.Kubal and W. Henderson. Relationship Between Caregiver Burden and Health-
Related Quality of Life. The Gerontologist, 39(5), 1999, 534-545.
 AM. Hubley, D. Hemingway and AC. Michalos.A Comparison of Older Informal Caregivers and Non-Caregivers Living in Non-
Metropolitan Area.Social Indicators Research, 61, 2003, 241–258.
 Alzheimer's Disease International. 2010. Dementia in Asia Pacific: The Epidemic is here.
http://www.alz.co.uk/research/asiapacificreport.html.[2 Dec 2011].
 C. Lai and J.Chung. Caregivers' informational needs on dementia and dementia care. Asian Journal of Gerontology Geriatric, 2(2),
- Full PDF
Abstract: Objectives: 1) To know change in knowledge level after NSSK Training in peripheral health workers. 2) To know the skills & confidence development in handling cases of neonatal asphyxia in them. Introduction- The ministry of health & family welfare has launched the mannequin based, practically oriented NSSK (i.e., NAVJAAT SHISHU SURAKSHA KARYAKRAM,FOR MANAGING BIRTH ASPHYXIA AND OTHER COMMON MORBIDITIES OF NEWBORN, AT BIRTH ) training to all such health workers. Time now has come to evaluate its effectiveness as an ongoing evaluation especially in the PHNs, who are the important link in the maternal & newborn care with professional experts.
Keywords: NSSK, mannequin, Performance evaluation test, PHNs. Abdominal delivery,
of Preventive and social medicine, 21st edition.M/s Banarasidas Bhanot Publishers 1167, Premnagar , Jabalpur (M.P.)India.
 Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India Navjaat shishu suraksha karyakram , Basic newborn care and
Resuscitation program Facilitator‟s guide
 WHO-"safe motherhood: Basic newborn resuscitation: A practical guide. Maternal and Newborn Health/Safe Motherhood Unit.
Division of Reproductive Health (Technical support.)
 Menon etal,Impact of manikin based training on interns. .IJPSR, vol.2(3),2011.121-123
 Rhodes m, currant, use of the human patient simulator to teach clinical judgment skills in a baccalaureate nursing programme.CIN
:Computers, Informatics, Nursing 2005 Sept.0c;23(5):256-62.
 Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India. Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram: Basic newborn care and Resuscitation
Programme; Training Manual.
 Bremner M, Aduddell K, Bennett D, VanGeest J. The use of human patient simulators: best practices with novice nursing students.
 WHO Essential Newborn Care course .participant‟s workbook. www.who.int Last accessed 2011 Apr18.
s/lancet_neonatal_survival/en,. Last accessed 2011 Apr18.
 Sanjiv Kumar. Editorial: Indians can do better at Improving child survival. IJCM July-Sept 2011/vol 36 (Issue 3 pp 171-173)
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Medication Errors Among Nurses in Government Hospital|
|Authors||:||Hariati Johari, Fatihah Shamsuddin, Norziyana Idris & Ahla Hussin|
|Downloads : Times|
Abstract: Background: Nurses are the one who are close with patients. Medication administration is a part of the nurses' responsibility in order to make sure clients get the correct medication as supposed. Medication administration error is a universal health care concern. Objectives: This study was amed to identify the level of knowledge among nurses which contribute to medication errors, to determine the most factors which contribute to medication error among nurses and to identify the relationship between levels of knowledge with all the contributing factors which contribute to medication error among nurses. Method: A cross sectional study design by using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 using descriptive statistic and the relationship was tested using Pearson's Chi square. Result: A total of 48 respondents completed the questionnaire for respond rate 100%. The respondents' level of knowledge regarding medication was god. More than half of the nurses 54% (n= 26) had medium, 46% (n= 22) high, while none had low scores. The most factor which contribute to medication errors were heavy workload and complicated orders 95.8% (n=46), then follow by percentage new staff 81.2 % (n=39) and personal neglected 66% (n=31).
Keywords: Medication, Medication errors, nurses
of Clinical Pharmacology 43, 768-783
 Dellamin Che Abdullah, Noor Shufiza ibrahim and Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim. (2004). Medication Error Among Geriatrics
At The Outpatient Pharmacy In A Teaching Hospital In Kelantan. Malaysia Journal of Medical Science
 Maziah AM, Wichaikhum O, Nantsupawat R .(2012). Nursing Practice Environment And Patient Outcomes In University Hospital In Malaysia. Health And The Environment Journal
 Joint comission International (2007) . Patient Safety Solutions, August 19th 2008. Retrieved September 27 2012 from
 Institute for Health Systems Research (2008) August 19th 2008. Retrieved September 27 2012 from
 Raja LRG, Fazlinee Daud & Syed Zulkifli SZ. (2009). Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Nurses in Administering oral Medication
at medical Ward, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. Med & Health 4(1): 16-24
 Fu.I.T, Shuh.J.,S,Shu Y., Ien-Lan.W. and Ching-Huey.C (2007).Nurses Relate the Contributing Factors Involved in Medication
Errors. Jurnal of Clinical Nursing. Vol 16(3): 447-457
 Asim A E and Nagy H E (2007) Raising the awareness of inpatient nursing staff about medication error. September 19th 2008.
Retrieved 26 September 2012 from Springer Science + Business Media B.V
 Manias, E., Atiken, R. & Dunning, T. (2004). Medication management by graduate nurse: before, during and following medication
administration. Nursing & Health Sciences 6(2): 83-91
 Mayo.A.M, Dennis D (2004). Nurse perceptions of medication errors: what we need to know for patient safety. Journal nursing care quality, Vol 19(3): 209-217
- Full PDF
Abstract: A study determines the knowledge regarding consanguineous marriages and its genetic effects among young adults. Tools used for assessment are Socio-demographic data of the young adults, structured questionnaire to assess the level of knowledge among young adults. Sample of the study comprised of 100 young adults in selected degree colleges, Tumkur.Scrutinizes revealed that more than half 61(61%) of the young adults had scarce knowledge and only 39(39%) hadsensible knowledge regarding Cognate marriages and its genetic effects. The paraphernalia used for the study weresensible and viable.
Keywords: Consanguineous Marriages, genetic, adults, knowledge, Socio-demographic.
Psychiatry,51(1),July 2009, 3
 R.F. Mueller, I.D. Young,Elements of Medical Genetics(Churchill Livingstone, 2001) 11th Edition: 100-245.
 MD. Prof. Hanan Hamamy. Consanguineous marriages in the Arab World, The Ambassadors online magazine, 6 (2), July 2003, 108-
 R.S.Balgir. Birth Control Necessary to Limit Family Size in Tribal Couples with Aberrant Heterosis of G-6-PD Deficiency and Sickle Cell Disorders in India: An Urgency of Creating Awareness and Imparting Genetic Counseling. Journal of association of physicians of India,58, June 2010, 357-62.
 Bernadette Modell, Aamra Darr. Genetic counseling and customary consanguineous marriage. Nature Reviews Genetics, 3, March
- Full PDF
Abstract: The use of questionnaire as a tool to measure public perception on their risk of developing disease has been widely used by many researchers. However, in Malaysia, there is no validated questionnaire developed for such purpose yet. This study aim to develop and validate the questionnaire on risk perception of developing five most common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was carried out among staff and clients of Kuala Rompin Health Clinic, Pahang aged 18 years and above from different ethnicities and age groups. This study was divided into 4 phases: i) developing the questionnaire involving related specialists and pre testing, ii) improving and editing the questionnaire and redistribution to 130 respondents for the pilot study, iii) factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, and iv) internal consistency reliability testing of the questionnaire . Factor analysis performed showed that factors loading values are all more than 0.4 and items in each domain were correlated with items in the same domain, but not with items in the other domain; findings which support the convergence and discriminant validity of the questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis came up with one five factors best fit model. Internal consistency reliability analysis on health related behavior, special practices, information seeking and perceived probability of diseases have good Cronbach α values of between 0.5 to 0.8, whereas intra-class correlation (ICC) for the perceived severity has a value of between 0.1 to 0.2. Thus, the questionnaire is successfully validated and considered as a useful tool to be used in measuring public perception on their risk of developing NCDs in Malaysia. However, improvement will still be necessary from time to time to ensure its relevance especially if it is to be used by different populations or countries of different background in Malaysia, taking into account the new changes in disease pattern.
Keywords - Malaysia, non-communicable diseases, questionnaire, risk perception, validation
 J. Hubley and J.Copeman. Understanding health and illness behavior, in Practical Health Promotion, pg. 68. Cambridge: Polity Press. 2008
 J.H. McMillan and S.Schumacher. Research in Education: A Conceptual Introduction (5th Ed.), New York, NY: Longman. 2001
 M.J. Nieuwenhuijsen. Design of exposure questionnaires for epidemiological studies. Occup Environ Med 2005;62:272–280. doi: 10.1136/oem.2004.015206. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1740990/. 2005.Accessed on October 18, 2011.
 The IEA European Questionnaire Group.Epidemiology deserves better questionnaires.. www.iea-europe.org/download/Questionnaires.pdf. 1998. Accessed on October 18, 2011.
 World Health Organization.World health report: chapter 3: perceiving risk. www.who.int/entity/whr/2002/chapter3/en/index.htm. 2002.Accessed on September 5, 2010.
 World Health Organization.World health statistics: table 2: cause-specific mortality and morbidity. www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS09_Table2.pdf. 2009Accessed on September 5, 2010.
 Health Fact.Health informatics centre planning and development division Ministry of Health Malaysia. 2008
 Health Fact.Health informatics centre planning and development division Ministry of Health Malaysia. 2009
 I. M. Fesisul. Ppt: National strategic plan for non-communicable diseases (NSP-NCD). www.malaysianheart.org/file_dir/17730830514a51a6f6b9f87.pdf . 2009.Accessed on March 7, 2011.
 S. F.U. Akter, A. R. M. Fauzi, M.S. Nordin, S. Satwi, A. Mohamed, M.A. Aznan and D. Samsul. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a selected community at Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 2(10), pp. 322-328, October 2010. http://www.academicjournals.org/ijmms . 2010. Accessed on March 7, 2011.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Caring Women with Dementia: An Unheard or Hidden Suffering|
|Authors||:||Ravinder Singh, Upmesh K.Talwar , Vibha Sharma, V.K.S. Gautam|
|Downloads : Times|
Abstract: Paper illuminates four case studies of women with dementia . Contents of the case studies reveal the unheard or hidden suffering of primary care givers in the family and their concerns. It focus on the problem of these women with dementia in the family, family and kinship care dynamics, who cares them in family and their challegenes of caring?
Keywords : Women , Dementia, Family & Kinship care
 American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). Washington D C :American Psychiatric Association.
 Hinton, Ladson, Yvette Flores, Carol Franz, Isabel Hernadez and Linda S Mitteeness. (2006). The Borderlands of primary Care: Physician and Family Perspective on "Troublesome" Behavior of People with Dementia, Chapter-2 in Thinking about Dementia- Culture, Loss, and the Anthropology of Senility, ed. Annette Leibing and Lawrence Cohn (2006). Rutgers Universe Press, New Jersey  Miller, Bruce and Andrew Gustavson(2000). "Alzhiemer's Diseases and Frototemporal Dementia" in Textbook of Geriatric Neuropsychiatric ed. C E Coeffy and J I. Cummings. Washington D C :American Psychiatric Press.
 Chandra,V., R. Pandav, R. Laxminarayan,C.Tanner, B.Manyam, S. Rajkumar, D. Silberberg, C. Brayne, J.Chow, .Herman,F. Hourihan, S. Kasner, L. Morillo, A. Ogunniyi, W.Theodore, and Z. Zhang( 2006). Neurological Disorders. Chapter-32 in Mental health Disorders. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2006
 Henderson, A. S., and A. F. Jorm. 2000. "Definition of Epidemiology of Dementia: A Review." In Dementia, ed. M. Mario and N. Sartorius, 1–34.West Sussex, U.K.: John Wiley.
 Chandra, V., M. Ganguli, R. Pandav, J. Johnston, S. Belle, and S. T.DeKosky(1998). "Prevalence of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias in Rural India: The Indo-U.S. Study." Neurology 51 (4): 1000–8.
 Hendrie, H. C., B.O. Osuntokun, K. S.Hall,A.O.Ogunniyi, S. L.Hui, F.W. Unverzagt. 1995. "Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and Dementia in Two Communities: Nigerian Africans and African Americans." American Journal of Psychiatry 152 (10): 1485–92.
 Rajkumar, S., S. Kumar, and R. Thara. 1997. "Prevalence of Dementia in a Rural Setting: A Report from India." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12 (7): 702–27
 Jorm, A. F., and D. Jolley. 1998. "The Incidence of Dementia: A Meta- Analysis." Neurology 51 (3): 728–33.
 Brodaty, H., and M. Gresham(1989). "Effect of a Training Programme to Reduce Stress in Cares of Patients with Dementia." British Medical Journal 299 (6712): 1375–79.
- Full PDF
Abstract: Work related neck pain is common problem in nurses, especially among those who are intensive computer users. It is generally agreed that the its etiology is multidimensional which is associated with, and influenced by a complex array of socio-demographic, work related, lifestyle, ergonomic and psychosocial factors. Across sectional study was conducted to in August-October 2012 in University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Malaysia to estimate the 1 month and 12 months prevalence rates of neck pain among registered female nurses and to determine which socio-demographic, work related, lifestyle, ergonomic and psychosocial factors are associated with 12 months prevalence rate. A total of 250 respondents have been selected by using stratified sampling method. Data was collected via self-reporting modified Dutch musculoskeletal questionnaire. The response rate was (96.8%) and data was analyzed by using SPSS version 19. Age of respondents was around 18 to 52 years old with the mean age of 32.31±9.27 years. The point and 12 month period prevalence rates of neck pain in registered female nurses were (36%) and (45.5%) respectively. Majority of respondents were Malay (97.9%), married (72.3%), not doing physical exercise (69%), having highest education, Diploma in Nursing (88.8%) and working in night shifts (76.9%). Generally, the respondents were reported that their neck pain was associated with working hours on computer for more than 4 hours (56.7%); neck bending (56.4%) and Personnel shortage (53.2%). In bivariate; Chi square analysis, the result of present study indicated that there were seven factors significantly associated with neck pain i.e. age, BMI, physical exercises, night shifts, neck bending, prolonged working hours on computer and personnel shortage. Further analysis, by using multiple logistic regression showed that age groups 30-39 (p= 0.011, 95% CI 1.233- 5.5044) and 40-49 (p= 0.040, 95% CI 1.041- 5.311), physical exercises (p= 0.025, 95% CI 1.106- 4.384), working time on computer (p= 0.029, 95% CI 1.075-3.725), night shifts (p= 0.001, 95% CI 0.938-3.144), personnel shortage (p= 0.005, 95% CI 1.334-4.908) and neck bending (p= 0.013, 95% CI 1.192-4.299) were significant predictors to work related neck pain.The results of present study indicated that socio-demographic, lifestyle, ergonomic factors and some of psychosocial variables were associated with neck pain. These association patterns suggest also opportunities for intervention strategies in order to stimulate an ergonomic work place setting to improve physical exercises awareness and to increase a positive psychosocial work environment.
Keywords: Ergonomic, Neck pain, Nurses, Psychosocial, Socio-demographic.
 Mody, G. M. & Woolf, A. D. 2003. The Global Burden of Musculoskeletal Disorders. European pharmacotherapy.136-141.
 Hogg-Johnson S, van der Velde G, Carroll LJ, Holm LW, Cassidy JD, Guzman J, et al 2009; the burden and determinants of neck pain in the general population: results of the Bone and joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders. Manipulative Physiological Theory, 32 (2Suppl):S46-S60.
 Cagnie B, Danneels L, Van Tiggelen D, De Loose V, Cambier D. 2007;Individual and work-related risk factors for neck pain among office workers: a cross sectional study. Euro Spine Journa,l 16 (5):679-686.
 Eltayeb SM, Staal JB, Khamis AH, de Bie RA. 2011; Symptoms of neck, shoulder, forearms, and hands: a cohort study among computer office workers in Sudan. Journal of Clinical Pain, 27 (3):275-281.
 Ijmker S, Blatter BM, van der Beek AJ, van Mechelen W, Bongers PM. 2006;Prospective research on musculoskeletal disorders in office workers (PROMO): study protocol. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 7:55.
 American Academy of Family Physician. 1995. Exercise How To Get Started. (Online) Http:familydoctor.org (4 March 2011).
 Ylinen JJ, Takala EP, Nykänen MJ, Kautiainen HJ, Häkkinen AH, Airaksinen OVP, et al. 2006;Effects of twelve-month strength training subsequent to twelve-month stretching exercise in treatment of chronic neck pain. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 20 (2):304-308.
 Yeung, S. S., Genaidy, A., Deddens, J., & Sauter, S. 2005. The relationship between protective and risk characteristics of acting and experienced workload, and musculoskeletal disorder cases among nurses. Journal of Safety Research, 36(1), 85-95. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2004.12.002.
 Ando, S., Ono, Y., Shimaoka, M., Hiruta, S., Hattori, Y., & Hori, F., et al. 2000. Associations of self estimated workloads with musculoskeletal symptoms among hospital nurses. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57(3), 211-216.
 Tezel, A. 2005. Musculoskeletal Complaints among a Group of Turkish Nurses. Journal of Neuroscience, 115: 871-880.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The Need To Incorporate Reflective Practice Into Nursing Education Curriculum In Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Christie A. Enuku, Usiwoma Evawoma – Enuku|
|Downloads : Times|
Abstract: This paper examines the concept of reflective practice in nursing. It highlights the origin of nursing as it originates from the apprenticeship system in the twentieth century. Following the Second World War, nursing was introduced into higher education and thus the need to fuse practical with theoretical knowledge. It also examines sources of nursing knowledge that is reflected upon. It then examines the difficulties of practicing reflective practice in Nigeria at this point in time. Finally recommendations are made regarding the steps that need to be taken to introduce reflective practice in the nursing curriculum in Nigeria.
Keywords: Reflection, Reflective Practice, Nursing knowledge and Skills. Objective: This paper attempts to discuss the absence of reflective practice in nursing curriculum in Nigeria, identifying the obstacles to its practice at this point in time in Nigeria and suggests the way forward.
. Atkins S. and Schutz S. (2009) (as cited in Bulman C. and Schutz S. 2009) Reflective Practice in Nursing : 4th Edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
. Bernett, R. (1992) Improving Higher Education. Society for Research into Higher Education. Open University Press. London.
. Bond,D.Keogh, R. and Walker, D (1985) Promoting Reflection in Learning. A Model in Reflection Turning Experience into Learning (Eds) Bond, R, Keogh R. and Walker, D) pp. 18-39.
. Bookfleld ,S.D (1987) Developing Critical Thinkers: Challenging Adults To Explore Alternative Ways Of Thinking And Acting. Open University Press. Milton Keynes.
. Boton, G. (2005) Reflective Practice: Writing and Professional Development. Sage London.
. Burnard, P. (1992) Know Yourself, Self-awareners Activities for Nurses. Scutari Press. London.
. Burton, A. j (2000) Reflection: Nursing‟s Practice and Education Panacea? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(5) 1009-1017.
. Carper, B.A. (1986) Fundamental Patterns of Knowing in Nursing, Advances in Nursing Science Practice Orientated Theory 1(1) 13-23.
. Canfield, J.V. (1986) The Philosophy of Wittgenstein. Volume 12. Person Garland Publishing. New York.
. Cottingham, J. (1997) Descartes‟ Philosophy of Mind. Phoenix, London.