Volume-1 ~ Issue-5
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Abstract: Aims and Objective: To assess the prescriptions of private practitioners for legibility and accuracy.Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty prescriptions of private practitioners were taken for assessment of legibility and accuracy. The prescriptions were assessed by two investigators and a third adjudicated in case of disagreement. For assessment of handwriting, a scoring method was used. Other parameters which were assessed were: spelling of medicine names, formulation, drugs strength and dosage form, use of nonspecific abbreviations, use of archaic terminologies such as OD, HS etc. and use of capital letters. Results: Results were expressed in percentages. Spellings of medicine names in all prescriptions were correct. About ninety four percent of prescriptions were legible (scored 3 or 4). In formulations and drugs strength were not mentioned in 4.2% and 5% of cases respectively. Abbreviations of names of drugs were written by 6.6% of prescribers. Sixty percent of prescribers preferred to use archaic terminology and only 6.6% of the prescribers written the prescriptions in capital letters. Conclusions: A major percentages (60%) of private practitioners using the archaic terminologies which usually cause confusion to the dispensers and consumers. Use of capital letter while preparing a prescription, avoiding use of abbreviations and archaic terminologies as well as using the technology such as printing the prescription may ensure a quality service to the consumer.
Keywords: prescription, legibility, accuracy.
. Ian L.O. Buxton. Principles of Prescription order writing and patient compliance. In Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 2006. 11th edition. Macgraw Hill. 1777-1786.
. Lofholm PW, Katzung BG. Rational prescribing and prescription writing. In Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 2009. 11th edition. Tata Macgraw Hill. 1127-1136.
. Teichman PG., Caffe A.E. Prescription Writing to Maximize Patient Safety. Fam. Pract. Manag. 2002. 9. 27-30.
. Rodriguez-Vera F.J., Marin Y.,Sanchez A., Borrachero C., Pujol E. Illegible handwriting in medical records. J R Soc Med. 2002. 95(11). 545-546.
. Bruner A, Kasdan ML. Handwriting errors: harmful, wasteful and preventable. J Ky Med Assoc. 2001; 99: 189-192.
. Berwick DM, Winikoff DE. The truth about doctors' handwriting: a prospective study. BMJ. 1996; 313(7072): 1657-1658.
. Lyons R, Payne C, McCabe M, et al. Legibility of doctors' handwriting: Quantitative comparative study.BMJ. 1998; 317: 843-844.
. White KB, Beary JF. Letter to the editor: Illegible handwritten records.N .Engl J Med. 1996; 314(6):390-391.
. Winslow EH, Nestor VA, Davidoff SK, Thompson PG, Borum JC. Legibility and completeness of physicians' handwritten medication orders. Heart Lung. 1997; 26(2): 158-164.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Diet – A New Approach To Treating Endometriosis – What Is The Evidence?|
|Authors||:||Deepa Shaji Thomas , Jansi Rani Natarajan|
Abstract: Endometriosis affects over 70 million women worldwide and is more common than breast cancer and diabetes. A survey in 2005 showed that in the European Union, endometriosis cost member states more than €30bn a year in lost working days, and of the 7025 women with endometriosis who completed the survey, 82% reported that the condition had caused them to take time off work in the past five years. Endometriosis is a gynecological disorder characterized by the presence and growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity1. The prevalence of endometriosis among asymptomatic women ranges from 2–22%, while in women with infertility the incidence of endometriosis is 35% to 50%2. This pathology represents one of the most frequent gynecological disorders during women's reproductive age. Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent, chronic inflammatory gynaecological condition that causes pelvic pain symptoms impacting on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of reproductive-age women (Bianconi et al., 2007)3. Despite the high prevalence, which has been estimated to be between 6–10% (Parazzini et al., 1994)4 and the recognized economic burden associated with the disease (Simoens et al., 2012)5, its aetiology remains elusive. Various pathogenetic factors – menstrual, genetic, environmental, lifestyle – have been claimed to be implicated in the disease establishment and development (Viganò et al., 20046 and Viganò et al., 20127).
 Farquhar CM: Endometriosis. Extracts from the "clinical evidence". BMJ 2000, 320:1449-1452.
 Duckitt K: Infertility and subfertility. Clin Evid 2003, 9:2044-2073.
 Bianconi L, Hummelshoj L, Coccia ME, Vigano P, Vittori G, Veit J, Music R, Tomassini A, D'Hooghe T. Recognizing endometriosis as a social disease 2007: the European Union-encouraged Italian Senate approach. Fertil Steril;88:1285-1287
 Parazzini F, Ferraroni M, Fedele L, Bocciolone L, Rubessa S and Riccardi A (1994) Pelvic endometriosis: reproductive and menstrual risk factors at different stages in Lombardy, northern Italy. J Epidemiol Commun Health 49, 61–64.
 Simoens S, Hummelshoj L, D'Hooghe T. Endometriosis: cost estimates and methodological perspective. Hum Reprod Update 2007;13:395-404.
 Vigano, P, Parazzini, F, Somigliana, E, et al. (2004) Endometriosis: epidemiology and aetiological factors. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 18, 177–200.
 Sanchez AM, Vigano P, et al. (2012). The molecular connections between the cannabinoid system and endometriosis. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 18 (12): 563-71.
 E. Seli, M. Berkkanoglu, A. Arici Pathogenesis of endometriosis .Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am, 30 (1) (2003), pp. 41–61.
 Bulun, SE (2009) Endometriosis. N Engl J Med 360, 268–279.
 Hediger, ML, Hartnett, HJ & Louis, GM (2005) Association of endometriosis with body size and figure. Fertil Steril 84, 1366–1374
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Abstract: Introduction: Enhancement of treatment adherence in bipolar disorder is a necessary and promising management component as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. The main purpose of the study was to find the effect of psycho-educative intervention on adherence to treatment among persons with BPAD. Method: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a sample size of 50; 24 in experimental and 26 in control group. Four sessions of psycho-education was given to the patient in experimental group and the outcome was measured immediately after the intervention and at 1 month and 3 months. Results: The study findings shows that there was a significant improvement of knowledge and attitude scores among the experimental group to the control group (p =0.001).There was a difference in adherence seen between the groups, however the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.111). Conclusion: From the present study it was concluded that psycho educative intervention along with pharmacotherapy is one of the most easy, flexible and cost effective intervention to enhance treatment adherence in bipolar disorder.
Keywords: Adherence to treatment, attitude. Bipolar affective disorder, effect, knowledge, psycho-educative intervention. Trial registration: Clinical Trial Registry India / 2010/091/000476
 Akiskal, HS. Bourgeois, ML. Angst, J. Post, R. Moller, H. Hirschfeld, R. Re-evaluating the prevalence of and diagnostic composition within the broad clinical spectrum of bipolar disorders. J Affect Disord, 59(suppl) , 2000, S5-S30.
 Angst, J. Gamma, A. Benazzi, F. Adjacie, V. Eich, D. Rossler, W. Toward a re-definition of subthreshold bipolarity: epidemiology and proposed criteria for bipolar II, minor bipolar disordersand hypomania. J Affect Disord, 73, 2003, 133- 146.
 Ganguli, H C. Epidemiological findings on prevalence of mental disorders in India.Indian J Psychiatry.42 (1) ,2000,14-20.
 Berk, KL. Hallam, KT. Colom, F. Vieta, E. Hasty, M. Macheil, C. etal.Enhancingmedicationadherence in patients with bipolar disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol. [internet]. [cited 2010 Dec
6]; 25(1):1-16 (Availablefrom:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ hup.1081/abstract).
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Impact of Alcohol Consumption on Health and Economy (A Focus on Mc Dowellization of World)|
|Authors||:||Dr. NTK Naik, Dr. B. Suresh Lal|
Abstract: This paper focus the health impact of alcohol consumption in term of injuries, illness, disorders, including liver cirrhosis, mental illness, and several types of cancer, pancreatitis, and damage to the fetus among pregnant women and loss of economy. It also focus there is a strong correlation relation between alcohol consumer and smoker.
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Abstract: Head nurse leadership is needed to improve nurse practitioner working performance. Nowadays, there is no such optimal leadership model in Indonesia based on staffs' trust and any other involving part which effectively applicable in hospital ward, that results on good organization performance and high quality health care services. This research was conducted to identify relating consept in order to develop nursing leadership model in class A-hospital ward in Indonesia. This research was conducted by using qualitative and quatitative method with cross sectional design. Sample in qualitative research is six people, while 450 head nurse-respondents were involved in quantitative one. This research shows synthesize of five leadership model in literatur, which are effective, transformational, transactional, visioner and servant leadership model, supports Indonesia nursing leadership model plan which can be leadership model alternative for head nurse in class A-hospital in Indonesia. Expected head nurse attitude are good coach for staff, providing challenge and significany of staff's working performance, team-bulding and team-work, define and arrange group interaction, organize group activities in order to reach organization goal and know staff's need.
Key word: nursing leadership model, class A-hospital ward in Indonesia
 Alannah, E.R. & Mark, A.G. (2004). Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions.
 Amadeo, C.A. (2008). A correlational study of servant leadership and registered nurse job satisfaction in acute health-care settings. Doctoral dissertation – research, University of Phoenix; Ed.D. (184 p).
 Anderson, S.(2007). Nursing department heads' transformational and transactional leadership: Relationships to nursing faculty satisfaction, willingness to exert extra effort, and perceived department head effectiveness. Journal of Nursing Informatics, Spring; 11(1): 9p
 Bernadette, D.(2008). Impact of clinical leadership development on the clinical leader, nursing team and care-giving process: A case study. Journal of Nursing Management, 16, 753–763DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008. 00930.x
 Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A., & Dennison, P. (2003), A review of leadership theory and competency frameworks. Journal Servant Leadership Centre for Leadership Studies. United Kingdom: University of Exeter.
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 David, W.S.(2006). Introductory statistics: Concepts, models, and applications. Psychological Statistics at Missouri State University, www.psychstat. missouristate. edu.
 Departemen Kesehatan R.I (2006). Panduan Nasional Keselamatan Pasien Rumah Sakit. Jakarta: Bhakti Husada
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Abstract: Background: Abdominal strength is required for preventing injuries in athletes as well as in normal individual. So to improve abdominal strength we can choose many ways that includes exercise on Flat bench, on Swiss ball etc, will help in improving abdominal strength. Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of stable and unstable platform on strength and work capacity of abdominal muscles during instability resistance abdominal muscles training. Method: 19-25 years old 30 female subjects with BMI range from 18.5 to 23 from the student community of a physical therapy college were selected through convenient sampling method, subjects were divided into two groups of 15 subjects each. The control got only the conventional method of abdominal and low back muscle strength training by recruit them in flat barbell chest exercise. The experimental group got the barbell chest exercise in swiss ball. The exercise was repeated for 5 times with maximum weight with advent of calculated 1 RM with 2 sessions for 7 days. The variables of interest 1 RM and Abdominal Muscle Strength through Sit-up test as a functional outcome measure of abdominal strength was measured after and before the intervention. Results: Baseline values of demographic and variables of interest were homogenous in both groups with p˃0.05. There was statistically significant improvement within group for both variables of interest with p˂0.05 where there was not statistically significant improvement between groups for both variables of interest with p˃0.05. Conclusion: There is no statistically significant difference in 1 RM and abdominal muscle strength in between the Flat Bench and Swiss Ball Groups while there is significant improvement in both groups individually after the intervention of abdominal muscle strengthening exercises.
Keywords: abdominal muscles, instability resistance training, swiss ball, flat bench
. C.M .Norris MSc MCSP, Abdominal muscle training in sports, Br j Sp Med. 1993: 27(1).
. Hodges PW, Richardson CA. Altered trunk muscle recruitment in people with low back pain with upper limb movement at different speeds. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Sep; 80(9):1005-12.
. Hodges PW, Richardson CA. Contraction of the abdominal muscles associated with movement of the lower limb. Phys Ther. 1997 Feb: 77(2):132-42.
. Hodges PW, Richardson CA, Relationship between limb movement speed and associated contraction of the trunk muscles. Ergonomics. 1997 Nov: 40(11):1220-30.
. Vera-Garcia FJ, Grenier SG, McGill SM. Abdominal muscle response during curl-ups on both stable and labile surfaces. Physical Therapy. 2000: 80: 564-66.
. Mori. A, Electromyographic activity of selected trunk muscles during stabilization exercises using a gym ball. Electromyogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 2004: 44: 57-64.
. Behm, D.G., Power, K.E., and Drinkwater, E.J, Muscle activation is enhanced with multi- and uni-articular bilateral versus unilateral contractions. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 2003: 28: 38-52.
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Abstract: I have taken 100 samples from 10-12 years children towards Effectiveness of yogic practice on respiratory problems among school children in selected schools at Madurantakam and using Quantitative research approach, Quasi-experimental research design. In that the study suggested that the table (11.c) found 72 % improvement in lung function, 68% improvement is seen in manifestation of respiratory problems towards yogic practice due to the intervention program, viz., Yogic practice given by the researcher to the children of the present research.The study findings showed that the yogic practice was very effective in reducing the number of episodes as well as the prevention of respiratory problem and promoting/ improving the respiratory function of sample school children who had yogic practice and also the planned teaching program was very effective in improving knowledge as well as attitude towards yogic practice of sample children.
Keywords: Effectiveness, respiratory problems, school children, yogic practice
 Francis C.M. (1995), Health for all by 2000 AD.
 Terri kyle (2009), Essentials of Pediatric Nursing, 1st edition, Lippincott Williams and wilkins publication, London.
 Parthasarathi (2013), IAP Text book of Pediatrics, 5th edition, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, NewDelhi.
 Jane Ball, Bindler (2009), Pediatric Nursing, 1st edition, Pearson education Publications, South Asia.
 Bhole M.V. and Karambedkar P.V. (1970), various yogic practices involving sub-atmospheric pressure changes, Yoga Mimansa.
 Dr.Asana Andiappen (2005), Ashtanga yoga a therapeutic approach to good health , Chennai, India.
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Abstract: This study investigated the prevalent ASO titer values and serogroups of BHS prevalent in the throat of apparently healthy children in Calabar with the aim of detecting the risk in the children of developing RF and RHD in their later years. The throats of 437 children drawn randomly from elementary schools in three communities in Calabar, Nigeria were examined and throat swabs collected. Fifty children clinically diagnosed with bacterial pharyngitis were used as control. Throat swabs were cultured aerobically on goat blood agar in an atmosphere of 5-10% carbon-dioxide and grouped serologically using the Strep PRO grouping kit. ASO titers in the sera of 437 subjects were determined by the Rheumajet ASO 500T. Culture of the 437 throat specimens yielded 90(20.6%) Streptococcal species belonging to 5 groups, 4 of which were definite and included C, D, F and G. The fifth group was not identified by the available grouping kit. The most prevalent Streptococcus group in the study was group C with 32(35.6%) isolates. The most frequently occurring ASO titer was 400IU/mL, obtained from 186/437(42.5%) subjects, with those in Group C associated with high titers (30; 93%). Overall, the mean ASO titers for test and control subjects were 902IU/mL and 929IU/mL respectively. There was a positive correlation (r=0.5, P=0.000) between presence of Streptococci in the throats and high ASO titers in the sera of subjects. The study established a high prevalence of BHS in the throat of children in Calabar howbeit, with no evident risk of RF and RHD as no Group A Streptococcus was isolated.
Keywords: beta-haemolytic streptococci (BHS), rheumatic fever (RF), rheumatic heart disease (RHD), Antistreptolysin O antibodies (ASO), pharyngitis
 M. Gerber, S. Baltimore, C. Eaton, et al. Prevention of Rheumatic fever and Diagnosis and Treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis, AHA Scientific statement Endorsed by American Academy of Pediatrics Circulation, 119, 2009, 1541-51.
 J. Carapetis, A. Steer, E. Mulholland, et al. The Global Burden of Group A Streptococcal Disease, Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5, 2005, 685-694.
 M. Batzloff, H. Yan, M. Davies, et al. Preclinical Evaluation of a Vaccine Based on Conseved Region of M protein that prevents group A Streptococcal Infection, Indian Journal of medical Research, 119suppl, 2004, 104-107.
 E. H. Ismail, Rheumatic fever, Bailliere's Clinical Rheumatology, 9, 2006, 11-120.
 R.M. Manase, Awareness of Rheumatic Heart Disease Prevention among Primary Health care Providers and People aged 9years and above in Kinondoni Municipality Cares Salam, Tanzania. Muhimbili University of Health Allied Science (Doctorate Dissertation) 2011.  R. K. Krishna and R. Tondon, Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease: The last 50years, Indian Journal of Medical Research, 137, 2013, 643-658.
 A. Haiden, S.R. Talay, M. Rohde, et al. Pharyngeal carriage of Group C and Group G streptococci and acute rheumatic fever in an Aboriginal population, Lancet, 356, 2000, 1167-1169.
 M. A. Zaoutis, R. Gross, and V. Klein, The role of group C and group G streptococci in acute pharyngitis in children, Clinical Microbiology Infection, 10, 2004, 37-40.  S. Hashikawa, Y. Iinuma,and T. Furushita, Characterization of group C and group G streptococcal strains that cause streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, Journal of Clinical Microbiolology, 42, 2004, 186-192.
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Abstract: Nursing professionals form the backbone of any hospital. Nurses play a vital role in imparting health services in all level viz, protection, prevention, promotion and treatment. Their level of awareness regarding biomedical wastes can go a long way towards safe disposal of hazardous hospital waste & protect the community from its various adverse effects. In this connection a cross sectional study was done among 50 staff nurses regarding knowledge, attitude and practices regarding biomedical wastes and the results show a higher level of awareness and attitudes as well as practices regarding biomedical waste management except for the injury report which is as low as 30%. The study highlights the importance of training regarding biomedical waste management needs.
Key words: Biomedical waste management, knowledge, Practices
. Das SK, Sushant P, Jayaram K : A TQM approach to implementation of handling and management of Hospital wastes in TATA main Hospital; issued by Hospital waste management committee, T.M.H.2001:11-12(1-2):75-78
. Pruss A, Circouit E, Rushbrook P: safe management of wastes from health care activities; WHO199 pg 2
. Patil AD, Shekhar AV. Health Care Waste management in India. J.Enviorn Mange 2001;63:211-20
. Ministry of Environment and forest notification on the Bio- Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998.
. Plianbangchang PH. "A Report on Alternative Treatment and Non-Burn Disposal Practices"; Safe Management of Bio-medical Sharps Waste in India. W.H.O. Publication.
. Rao PH. Report: Hospital waste management--awareness and practices: A study of three states in India. Waste Manage Res
. Mathur V, Dwivedi S, Hassan MA, Misra RP. Knowledge, attitude, and practices about biomedical waste management among healthcare personnel: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Community Med 2011;36:143-5.
. Pandit NB, Mehta HK, Kartha GP, Choudhary SK. Management of bio-medical waste: Awareness and practices in a district of
. Gujarat. Indian J Public Health 2005;49:245-7
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Abstract: The present study assessed perception of nurse-midwives (NMs) on factors influencing oral contraceptives (OC) use, misuse, nonuse and discontinuation among clients in Ibadan Nigeria. Thus, to ascertain possible factors that influences the application of OC among users in order to improve measurement quality as well as attract clinical importance. A qualitative randomized survey data from interviewer administered structured-based questionnaires and in-depth interviews were conducted. One hundred and fifty practicing nurse-midwives participated and only 88 (84 females and 4 males, mean age 32±0.1) have experience with clients on OC. From Our results, 10.2% were registered nurses (RN), 64.8% were midwives (RN/RM), 20.5% bachelors (RN/RM/BNSC) while 3.3% had masters and doctorate respectively. 64.8% of NMs disclosed that clients got pregnant because of inadequate knowledge of differences in medications while 84.1% NMs emphasized on forgetfulness. 76.1% of NMs associated high risks of side effects to switching pills. NMs associated unwanted pregnancy and adverse drug effects to ineffective use, misuse and discontinuation respectively. Significant association (CI= 95% = 0.000-0.064; df=4) existed between NMs perception and factors influencing OC application. According to the NMs, those who do not use OC and or users who misused or discontinued the method were dissatisfied either directly or indirectly. Key words: Oral Contraceptives, Nurse-Midwives Perception, Use, Nonuse, Discontinuation.
. J. Trussell and E.G. Raymond . Emergency contraception: a last chance to prevent unintended pregnancy. Office of Population Research, Princeton University. Available at: http://ec.princeton.edu/questions/ec–review.pdf. Retrieved December 3, 2009.
. World Health Organization and Guttmacher Institute. Facts on Induced Abortion: Worldwide Incidence and Trends. October 2008.
. Population Reference Bureau, World Population Data Sheet: 2010, Washington D.C., 2010.
. United Nation Population Fund. UNFPA, Nigeria Country Office Publication.Nigeria Family Planning Analysis, seletected demographic and socio-economic variable, 2010; 2.
. World Health Organization. Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. Geneva, Switzerland: 2004.
. Federal Government of Nigeria. National Policy on Population for Sustainable Development. Policy Document, 2004; 68p.
. S.J. Coons. Medication compliance: The search for answers continues. Clin Ther., 2001; 23:1294–1295.
. L. Osterberg, T. Blaschke. Adherence to medication. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:487–97.
. J.F. Steiner, M. A. Earnest. Lingua Medica: The language of medication-taking. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132:926–930.
. J.W. Brown, A.M. Villarruel, D. Oakley, C. Eribes. Exploring contraceptive pill-taking among Hispanic women in the United States. Health Educ Behav., 2003;30:663–682.
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Abstract: Development of independent family group model is a model of family empowerment which aims to reduce caregiver burden and improve the caregiver ability on providing care for elder person in community. Experimental with control group design was employed in this study with total sample 196 people in five areas in Jakarta selected by random selection method. The result shows significant decreasing of caregiver burden after application of this model and improvement of knowledge, attitude, and skill on intervention group after six months model application. In conclusion, independent family group model is effective to reduce caregiver burden and improve the caregiver ability on providing care for elder person in community. As one of family empowerment model in community, it can be duplicated in other provinces
Keywords : caregiver, independent family group, caregiver burden, caregiver ability
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. World Health Organization, PopulationAgieng : A Public Health Challenge. https://who.int/inf-fs/en/fact135.html, diperoleh 30 Juli 2011.
. BadanPusatStatistik, StatistikIndonesi,(Jakarta, 2009).
. Boonyakawee, C.,The Functional Disability of the Elderly in TambonKrabi-NoiMuang District Krabi Province, Thesis, Degree of Master of Public Health Program in Health System Development,Chulalongkorn University, 2006.
. Liu, Family Involvement in and Satisfaction with Long Term Care Facilities in Taiwan, Asian J. GerontolGeriatr, 4, 2009, 30-35.
. Sales, E., Family Burden and Quality of Life,Quality of life research, 12(supp.1.1),2003, 33-41.
. Magliano, L.,Families of People with Severe Mental Disorder : Difficulties and Resources, (Italy : WHO Collaborating Center for Research and Training in Mental Health, 2008).
. Lee, M., Caregiver Stress and Elder Abuse Among Korean Family Caregiver of Elder Adult with Disabilities,Original Article. J Fame Vio, 23, 2008, 702-712.
. Sahar, J.,(2002). Supporting family carers in caring for older people in tha community in Indonesia, Disertation. Queensland University of Technology, School of Nursing. Centre for Nursing research.