Volume-2 ~ Issue-6
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Abstract: Pregnancy and labour impose lots of physical, physiological and emotional strain on mother's life. It becomes difficult to balance life in such transaction period. Family members, husband and relatives need to know her expectation and meet them to ensure safe deliver & a healthy baby. Nurses being one of the front line health care provider should feel her helplessness and realise her need during labour and come forward to satisfy those. Through this study the needs of a labouring woman as verbalised by herself and realised by nursing personnel is inquired through a structured opineir. The study was conducted upon 20mothers at their 1st stage of labour and 20 midwives working in labour room. The opinions of both the groups were recorded and differences were seen through percentage. 75% women required complete privacy, 40% need husband near to her, 80% liked to change position frequently, 80% -70% want calm and quite environment, 70% liked cool liquid, 50% like back massage, 35% like slow breathing 75% liked to express feeling to near one, 50% liked to relieve anxiety by diverting mind, 90% want to know the progress, 60% wants to get information from doctors, whereas 50% alteration in opinion found in case of staff of labour room. Age & parity was not associated with support & relieving anxiety.
Key words: Comforting in Labour, labour needs, labour support
. Klaus MH, Kennell JH. The doula: an essential ingredient of childbirth rediscovered. Act a prediat 1997; 86:1034-6
. Kathryn D.S, Gale B, Marshall K. A comparison of intermittent and continuous support during labour: a meta analysis. Amr J obstet Gynaecol 1999; 180:1054-9
. Penny P, Simkin; MA. Non pharmacological relief of pain during labour: systematic review of five methods. Amr J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 186(supp):131-59
. Cogan R, Spinnato J. Social support during premature labour: effect on labour and the newborn, J Psychosom obstet Gynaecol 1988(8):209-16
. Hudnett ED, Osborn RW. A randomized trial of the effect of monitrice support during labour: mother's views two to four weeks postpartum, Birth 1989;16:177-83
. Hemminki E, Virta AL, Koponen P, Malin M, Kojo Austin H, Tirumala R. A trial on continuous human support during labour: feasibility, interventions and mothers' satisfaction. J psychosom obstet gynecol 1990;11:239-50
. Breat G, Mlika-cabane N, Kuminski M, Alexander S, Herrozo Nalda, Mandrussato P, Evaluation of different policies for the management of labour-Early human dev 1992;29(1-3):309-12
. Ellen DH. Pain and women's satisfaction with the experience of child birth: a systematic review. Amr J obstet Gynecol 2002;186(w):160-72.
. Million Feshome, Ahmed Abdella, Solomon Kumbi, parturients' need of continuous labour support in labour ward; Ethiop J Health dev. 2007;21(1);35-39.
. D Zomekhu, M.V,Maternal satisfaction with care during labour: a case study: International journal of nursing and midwifery 2011, Vol-3(3), PP 30-34.
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Abstract: Childhood is a unique phase of human development. Children are the important feature of every society and also a future of a nation.Though epilepsy is a symptom primarily of a neurological disorder it has a great extent psychiatric and psychological involvement. Epilepsy may cause personality disturbance, depression, poor academic ability, poor self confidence, learning difficulties. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge regarding epilepsy in children among school teachers before and after the Structured Teaching Programme (STP). The data were generated by using structured questionnaire, Simple random sampling technique was adopted to select 50 subjects based on the sample frame and every 2nd sample was selected for the study. STP was developed in regard to knowledge on epilepsy in children. The data obtained from the study subjects were analyzed and interpreted in term of the objectives and hypothesis of the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis; the level was set at 0.05 levels. The mean post test score 36.10 was higher than the mean pre test score 25.38. The computed"t‟ value 23.321, indicated that there was a significant difference between pre test and post test knowledge score. The findings identified that there was no significant association between pre test knowledge score of teachers and the selected personal variables, which shows the knowledge of school teachers was independent of selected personal variables. This study revealed that the knowledge of teachers regarding epilepsy in children was inadequate and was increased after the administration of STP. Thus the research hypothesis was accepted.
Key Words: Structured teaching program (STP); Knowledge; Epilepsy in children; School teacher
. Singhal BS, Devika Nag. Epilepsy in India. Mumbai: Indian Epilepsy Association; 2002.
. WHO. Epilepsy: historical overview. Fact sheets [serial online] 2001 Feb [cited 2008 Oct 10];168:[4screens].Availablefrom:URL:http://www.who.int/mediacenter/factsheets/fs168/en/print.html
. Ministry of health and family welfare. Report on epilepsy in South India. New Delhi: Stationary office; 2001.
. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and Sadock‟s synopsis of psychiatric: Behavioral science/ Clinical psychiatry. 10thed. New York: Lippincott Williams &Wikins; 2007.
. WHO. Global compaign against epilepsy. Fact sheets [serial online] 2007 [cited 2008 Oct 10];16:[2 screens]. Available from:URL:http://www.who.int /epi
. WHO. Atles: Epilepsy care in world. Geneva: WHO library cataloguing-in-publication data; 2005.
. Shridharna R. Epidemiology of epilepsy. Current science 2002; 82:664-70.
. Kankirawatana P. Epilepsy awareness among school teachers in Thailand. Epilepsia 1999 Apr;40(4):497-501.
. Tiamko S, Aaaevitchayapat N, Arunpongpaisal S, Chaiyakum A, Jitpimolmard S, Phuttharak W, et al. Knowledge of epilepsy among teachers in KhonKaen province, Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai [serial online] 2005 Dec [cited 2008 Oct 10];88(12):[6 screens]. Available from:URL:http://www.pub med.com/16518977.html.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module regarding Emergency Management of patient with Myocardial Infarction on Knowledge among Staff Nurses|
Abstract: A quasi experimental study with one group pretest and posttest without control group design was undertaken in Vinayaka Missions Hospital, Salem to assess the effectiveness of self instructional module regarding emergency management of patient with myocardial infarction on knowledge among staff nurses Data was collected from 98 staff nurses selected by convenient sampling technique using closed ended questionnaire from 19.09.2009 to 02.10.2009. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Demographic characteristic reveals that the highest percentage (69%) of the staff nurses were in the age group of 21-25 years, were females (74%) were having B.Sc. nursing degree (80%). Highest percentage were having 3-4 yrs years of experience (69%), were working emergency unit (3%), ICU (20%), and general ward(29%) and other wards (48%) and did not attend in-service program (93%). The overall pretest mean score 22.06+1.92 which is 48% whereas in the post test the mean score (30.04+2.82) which is 65% of the total score with an overall difference of 17% of pretest score reveals good knowledge. Highly significant difference found between the pretest and posttest KS (P<0.01) but no significant association was found between the posttest KS when compared with the demographic variables of staff nurses (P<0.05).
Key Words: Effectiveness, self instructional Module, myocardial Infarction, staff Nurses
. Agarwal .K (2007)., "An aspirin a day can keep a heart attack away in high risk patients" ; Asian journal of clinical cardiology, Vol.10, No.7, Pp:5 – 8.
. American Heart Association. (2007). "When Every Second Counts: Cardiac Arrest and the Need for Early Defibrillation". Dallas
. American Heart Association. (2005). "Management of myocardial infarction, including primary angioplasty" Circulation; 112(24_suppl): IV-35 - IV- 46.
. Bartorelli A.L (2003)., Hypoxemic perfusion for treatment of reperfusion microvascular ischemia in patients with M.I, American Journal of Cardiovascular procedures; 3 (4):Pp: 253 – 263.
. Bahrmann P and Rach J(2004).,Incidence and distribution of occluded culprit arteries and impact of coronary collaterals on outcome in patient with non ST segment elevation M.I and early invasive treatment strategies; Dec.14,51 (6):371 – 76.
. Drew B.J (2002)., Bedside ECG monitoring, AACN clinical issues and Critical care nursing, February 4 (1), Pp: 25- 33.
. Elaine K (2004).,Initial clinical results using intra cardiac electrogram monitoring to detect and alert patients during coronary plaque rupture and ischemia., Journal.Am Coll Cardiol., Sep.28: 56 (14):1089 – 98.
. Henderson R.(2000)., "Comparison of two methods of teaching advanced arrhythmias to nurses; Journal of continuing nursing education, Sept – Oct; 24 (5),Pp:221 – 226.
. MahajanR. and Guptha R.(2003)., Prevalence and mortality among patients with myocardial infarction, Journal of American Medical Asso.283:3223 – 3224
. Zinkstok S.M, Stam .J (2009).,A randomized controlled trial of antiplatelet therapy in combination with Rt-PA thrombolysis in ischemic stroke; Trial; May 12:115 – 18.
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Abstract: Burnout is a familiar term for today's health care professionals with emotional, psychological, physical, and social consequences for those who experience it. It leads to job dissatisfaction, low organizational commitment, absenteeism, as well as inter personal conflict in teams and patient care. The commitment of nurses is a worldwide concern which is necessary to describe their commitment and what keep them committed in nursing and hospitals. it is an undeniable fact that organizations need workers with high commitment and low burnout levels more than ever before.
Keywods: Burnout , Nurses, Organizational commitment,
. White, R A. Perceived Stressors, Coping Strategies, and Burnout Pertaining to Psychiatric Nurses Working on Locked Psychiatric Units. MASTER Thesis OF SCIENCE in Nursing, College of Health and Human Services, Eastern Michigan University, October 21, 2006;
. Carolina DS. Correlates of job-related burnout in nurse managers working in hospitals. Doctor of Philosophy .Graduate Program in Nursing. New Jersey. 2010;
. Fazelzadeh A., Mehdizadeh A. & Sahraeeian A. Burnout in hospital nurses: a comparison of internal, surgery, psychiatry and burns wards. International Nursing Review ,2008;55, 62–67.
. Hall E. Nurse Burnout in a high stress Health care Environment: prognosis better Than expected?2006; 19) 8.
. Aleandri A, Sansoni J, (2006), nurses and burnout : a survey in emergency department in the lazio Region. Prof Inferm. 59(3): 165-70
. Jennings B M.. Work Stress and Burnout Among Nurses: Role of the Work Environment and Working Conditions Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Chapter 26,2008.
. Gemlike N, Sisman F A & Sigri U. The relationship between burnout and organizational commitment among health sector staff in Turkey. Journal of Global Strategic Management | 08 | 2010, December
. Malik M I, Zaheer , Khan M. A& Ahmed M. Developing and Testing a Model of Burnout at Work and Turnover Intensions among Doctors in Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 5, No. 10; October 2010, 1833-8119 www.ccsenet.org/ijbm
. Matin H Z, Kalali NS, Reza M & khavan Anvari A. Do demographic variables moderate the relationship between job burnout and its consequences? Iranian Journal of Management Studies (IJMS) Vol.5, No.1, January 2012 PP: 47-62
. SalahianA, Oreizi H R, Abedi M R & SoltaniI. Burnout and relevant factors in organization . Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in business VOL 3, NO 12 2012
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effectiveness of counseling and correction of background factors of staff nurses on job satisfaction.|
|Authors||:||Mrs Esther. Sudhir. Joseph|
Abstract: Background: 60-75% of hospital operating cost is directly related to the personnel. Maximal utilization of human resources is of course related to employee's productivity. Concern must also be centered on employee motivation or more precisely on how the hospital provides employees, a change to satisfy their needs, which in turn produces motivation. Registered nurses account for a significant part of manpower expenditure in the hospitals. Hospital management face problems in terms of motivation, absenteeism and turnover.
Keywods: Background factors, counselling and correction, Job satisfaction, personal satisfaction, staff nurse.
. Avallon et. al. Nurses Perception of their Work Environment in a Nursing Development Unit. Journal of Advance Nursing 26(6), 1998, 193-201
. Anderson A. Nurse Physician interaction and Job Satisfaction, Nursing Management 27(6), June1996, 33-34
. Longest B. Satisfaction for Registered Nurses in Hospital Setting, The Journal of Nursing Administration 4(3), May-June 1974, 46-52
. Freeman T. Factors Influencing job satisfac25-51, tion in Speciality Nursing units, Canadian Journal of Nursing Administration 11(3), sept-oct 1998,
. Larson Elaine Job Satisfaction Assumption and Complexities The Journal of Nursing Administration 14(1), Jan1984, 31-37,
. Robinson E. Effective Counselling Methods ABNF Journal 7(5), July 2006, 109-111
. Wusiying Predicators of Job Satisfaction, Turnover and Burnout Journal of Nursing Research 2(6), 2012, 50-65
. Shitao Effectiveness of Application Counseling Programme Journal of Advance Nursing 7(12), 2007, 193-201
. Lynn pontin Effective Counseling Methods ABNF Journal 7(5), 2006, 109-111
.  Morland et.al. Supportive Counseling programmes on Personal Behaviours of Nurses, Journal of Nursing Administration 28(6), June1999, 152-160
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect Of Distributed Model Of Constraint Induced Movement Therapy For Subacute Stroke Patients|
|Authors||:||Muthuukaruppan Muthiah, Vikram Mohan, Moses Arun Kumar|
Abstract: Background: Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) has proved to increase the amount and quality of function of an affected upper extremity after stroke by overcoming learned non-use to bring about functional reorganization of the primary motor cortex. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of distributed model of CIMT in improving upper extremity (UE) functions in subacute stroke and to study the importance of constraint in improving the upper extremity function. Methods: Sixteen subjects with subacute stroke were recruited based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects were assigned to the experimental (constraint) group and the control (non-constraint) group using random sampling method. Subjects in the constraint & the non-constraint group were provided therapy for 3 hours with repetitive functional task practice. The subjects in the constraint group wore the constraint for 5hrs/day on their less affected UE which included 2 hrs at home and 3 hrs during repetitive functional task practice for 20days. The non-constraint group did not wear the constraint. Three UE subscales of the motor assessment scale were used to measure the activity level of the more affected arm pretest & posttest. Results: The results expressed that the constraint group significantly improved with P = 0.008 (P<0.01) than the non-constraint group, which emphasizes that distributed model of constraint induced movement therapy could facilitate the UE function after stroke in subacute patients. Conclusion: The constraint group significantly improved than the non-constraint group, which emphasizes that distributed model of CIMT could improve the upper extremity function after stroke in subacute patients
Keywords: Constraint induced movement therapy, upper extremity function, subacute stroke and repetitive functional task practice
 Page SJ, Sisto SA, Levine P, McGrath RE. Efficacy of modified constraint-induced movement therapy in chronic stroke: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2004; 85: 14-18.
 Bakheit AMO, Thilmann AF, Ward AB, Poewe W, Wissel et al. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Ranging study to compare the efficacy and safety of three doses of botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) with placebo in upper limb spasticity after stroke. Stroke 2000; 31: 2402-2406.
 Gad Alon, Alan F. Levitt and Patricia A. McCarthy. Functional electrical stimulation enhancement of upper extremity functional recovery during stroke rehabilitation: A Pilot Study. Neurorehabilitation Neural Repair 2007; 21: 207-215.
 Jorgenson HS, Nakayama H, Raaschou H, et al. Outcome and time course of recovery in stroke, part II: time course of recovery. The Copenhangen Stroke Study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1995; 76: 406-412.
 Siegert RJ, Lord S, & Porter K. Constraint-induced movement therapy: Time for a little restraint. Clinical Rehabilitation 2004; 18: 110-114.
 Paci, M. Physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept for adults with post-stroke hemiplegia: A review of effectiveness studies. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2003; 35 (1), 2-7.
 Hafsteinsdo´ttir TB, Algra A, Kappelle LJ, Grypdonck MH, Dutch NDT Study Group. Neurodevelopmental treatment after stroke: a comparative study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgey Psychiatry 2005; 76 (6), 788-792.
 Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP et al. Effect of constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function 3 to 9 months after stroke: the EXCITE randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2006; 296: 2095-2014
 Page SJ, Levine P, Leonard A. Mental practice in chronic stroke: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Stroke 2007a; 38: 1293-1297.
 Gauthier LV, Taub E, Perkins C, Ortmann M, Mark VW et al. Remodeling the brain: plastic structural brain changes produced by different motor therapies after stroke. Stroke 2008; 39 (5): 1520-1525.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Knowledge of the nursing personnel regarding ECT in a view to develop an informational booklet.|
|Authors||:||Aashish Parihar, Himanshu Vyas, Naveen Kumar Sharma|
Abstract: A study to assess the knowledge of nursing personnel regarding ECT in a view to develop an information booklet. The samples consisting of 50 nursing personnel were selected by purposive sampling technique. The tool comprise of 40 knowledge questionnaire which was given to subjects for their response. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Knowledge of nursing personnel was statistically significant at P< .001. This data help the researcher to develop an information booklet.
Key words: Nursing Personnel, Knowledge, ECT, Informational Booklet.
. Abdellah, F.G., et al, Better Patient Care Through Nursing Research, 2nd Edition, New York, Mac Millan Company, 1979
. Fox, Devids J. Fundamental Of Research In Nursing, New York, Appleton Country, Crobts, 1970
. K Park, 2007, Text Book Of Preventive And Social Medicine, 19th Edition, Jabalpur, Banarsi Das Behnot Publisher, pp644-649
. Kerlinger, Fred N., Foundations and Behavioral research, 2nd Edition, Delhi; Surjeet Publication, 1983
. Potter P.A. and Perry, A.G. Foundation of Nursing, 5th Edition Mosby Company, St. Lois, 2004
. Pollit P.F. and Hungler, B.P. Nursing Research, Principle & Methods, 6th Edition, Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1999
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. BT Basvanthappa, 2008, Nursing research, 2nd Edition, 2008, Jaypee Brothers, Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, p224
. Ahuja Neeraj, A Short Textbook of Psychiatry, New Delhi, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., 6th edition (2006) pp 178-181.
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Abstract: A Quasi experimental study to assess the effectiveness of a planned teaching program on knowledge regarding Non pharmacological techniques of relieving labor pain in primigravida women in selected hospitals at Gulbarga, Karnataka. The sample consisting of 60 primigravida mothers was selected by using Simple random sampling technique. The tool comprised of knowledge questionnaires. The pre-test was conducted and planned teaching program was administered on the primigravida women immediately after the pretest. The post test was conducted after one week of the pre test with same questionnaires. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. In pre-test the sampled subjects were having poor knowledge on non pharmacological techniques of managing labor pain. i.e. about 34%. Regarding the post-test the sampled subject had an improved knowledge on non pharmacological techniques of managing labor pain i.e. about 83.9%. In relation to Planned teaching program, the paired "t" test showed that, the teaching program was statistically significant at p<0.0001 level in primigravida women. These data proved that the knowledge of primigravida women had been markedly increased after the administration of planned teaching program.
Keywords: Primigravida women, Non pharmacological techniques, Knowledge
 Lowder Milk Perry Bobak , Text Book of Maternity Nursing Mosby 5th edition 1999, Page No. :301-307
 Dutta DC. Text Book of Obstetrics ,5th edition,2001 Page Number 113-117
 Sherwen, Text Book of Maternity Nursing, 6th edition ,2003,Mosby Page No. 265-271
 Myles Text book for Midwives , Fraser Cooper, 14th Edition page no.471-480
 Text book for midwives , Annama Jacob Page number 161-162
 Nursing Nightingale Times , May 2008 issue ,Page number 15 -20
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||A Study onTrees-basedRemedies used for the treatment of maternal illnesses in Madaroumfa Village of Maradi Department of Niger Republic|
|Authors||:||M.N. Danjuma, B. Maiwada|
Abstract: Tree-based remedies are historically integral parts of societies' medical regimes in many parts of the World.This is as a result of their efficacieswhich are widely acknowledged by users in all parts of developing world where folks medicine is relevant.The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of tree remedies for the treatment of maternal illnesses in Madaroumfa village. The study is a survey research in which a total of 59 respondents were drawn from the population of 175 individuals offive vegetation user groups using systematic sampling technique. Using the technique, every 3rd order individual of a user group (farmers, herbalists, wood carvers, blacksmiths and pastoralists) is selected as a respondent. These groupswere however identified during reconnaissance. The respondents were later interviewed using 12 semi-structured questions in a group interview schedule. The study revealed that out of 53 inventoried trees of the area; about 15 are used for medicinal applications. The result further shows that there are about 10 illnesses (treated with 15 trees) which are prevalent among women in Madaroumfa. Herbal practitioners of the area used these trees or parts to prepare remedies to treat ill women at homes as well as in specialised centres. From these results, it was concluded that all respondents refer all medical cases to herbal practitioners even if they seek health from alternative sources such as hospital and clinics. The study further recommended that activities of herbal practitioners should be looked into closely because they are unstoppable and have relevance to health care of the people of the area.
Key Words: Trees-basedremedies,maternal illnesses,herbal practitioners, Madaroumfa
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Abstract: Background: Urinary Schistosomiasis (US) caused by Schistosoma haematobium constitutes a major public health problem in Nigeria. Efforts in this study were devoted to evaluate the current prevalence and associated risk factors on the intensity of disease burden. Methods: A survey was conducted with the use of semi-structured questionnaires to collect sociodemographic and anthropometric data of the pupils. Urine samples were collected from One hundred and two (102) pupils for microscopic analysis for the detection of S.haematobium eggs. Results: Of the 102 children (age ranges between 5-15 years) examined, prevalence of infection was (80/102) 78 % of which (44/102) 43 % were heavy and (36/102) 35 % mild while (22/102) 22 % were negative (p<0.05). The frequency of infection was higher among the female pupils (62/102) 61 % compared to the male counterpart (40/102) 39 % (p<0.05). Striking risk factors that could predispose the pupils to S.haematobium infection follows the order: swimming / drinking contaminated water> washing of clothes in streams > playing / bathing in rivers> unknown > mosquito bites > fresh water snail. No significant difference exists between the risk factors (p>0.05). The mean age, weight, height, waist circumference and hip circumference of the negative individuals (both males and females) were significantly higher than that of their positive counterpart (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the mean age, height and waist circumference of the heavy and mild infected females compared to their male counterpart (p>0.05). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the mean hip circumference of the heavy and mild infected male and female (p>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that there is significant correlation between infection status and age (r= 0.385, p>0.01), weight (r = 0.404, p>0.01), height (r=0.401, p>0.01), waist (r=0.396, p>0.01), hip circumference (r=0.415, p>0.01) and risk factor (r=-0.231, p>0.05). Risk factor is not significant to age, weight, height, waist, hip circumference and infection status (p>0.05). Conclusion: Prevalence rate obtained in the study was high, an indication that the region is endemic by WHO classification. This calls for an urgent effective urinary schistosomiasis control programme in the zone.
Key words: Schistosoma haematobium; Prevalence; Gender; Age; Risk factors
. Chitsulo L, Engels D, Montresor A, Savioli L: The global status of schistosomiasis and its control. Acta Trop 2000,77:41–51.
. Uneke CJ, Egede MU: Impact of Urinary Schistosomiasis on nutritional status of school childen in South-Eastern Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Health 2009, 9 (1)
. Ofoezie IE, Oladejo SO: Unabated schistosomiasis transmission in Erinle River Dam, Osun State, Nigeria: evidence of neglect of environmental effects of development projects. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2006, 11 (6) 843-850
. Odaibo AB, Adewunmi CO, Olorunmola FO: Preliminary Studies on the Prevalence and Distribution of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria. Afr J Med Sci 2004, 33(3): 219–24.
. Okoli CG, Iwuala MO: The Prevalence, Intensity and Clinical Signs of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Imo state, Nigeria. J Helminthol 2004, 78(4): 337–342.
. Mafiana CF, Ekpo UF, Ojo DA: Urinary Schistosomiasis in Preschool Children in Settlements around Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria: Implications for Control. Trop Med Intl Health 2003, 8(1): 78–82.
. Nduka FO, Etusim PE, Nwaugo VO, Oguariri RM: The Effects of Quarry Mining on the epidemiology of Schistosoma haematobium in schoolchildren, in Ishiagu, South-eastern Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2006, 100(2): 155–161.
. Ogbe MG, Olojo AO: A preliminary survey of urinary schistosomiasis in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Niger J Basic Appl Sci 1989, 3:158-168.
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