Volume-2 ~ Issue-2
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Factors Influencing Compliance with Immunization Regimen among Mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Fatima. R. Rahji, Chizoma M. Ndikom|
Abstract: Immunization is one of the world's most cost-effective health interventions that helps prevent childhood diseases. However, many infants are not usually fully vaccinated especially in developing countries. This contributes to mortality Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (VPD) in children. This study examines factors influencing compliance with immunization regimen among nursing mothers in Moniya Community Ibadan, Nigeria. stress.
Keywords: Compliance, Immunization Regimen, Vaccine-Preventable Diseases.
. Federal Government of Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Health and National Programme on Immunization (2004). 5 years National Strategic Plan. 2004-2008 Abuja FGN.
. Babalola S 2011. Maternal reasons for non-immunization and partial immunization in northern Nigeria. Journal of Pediatric and Child Health. 47(5):276-81
. United Nation's Development Programme (UNDP) (2004). Human Development Report. New York.
. World Health Organization (2005). An Evaluation of Infant Immunization in Africa a Transformation in Progress 6. Vol. (85) 421-500. Geneva.
. World Health Organization (2010). Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Vol. (5). 210-350 Geneva.
. United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2002). Evaluation Report NGR 2002/2004 National Review of the National Programme on Immunization in Nigeria.
. Smith and Marrow, (2003). Risk Factors for Delay in Age-appropriate Vaccination. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Public Health Reports, 119, 144-155. http://web.lexis-nexis.com.
. Akinsola H.A. (2006) A-Z of Community Health in Medical, Nursing and Health Education Practices (2nd ed)( College Press and Publisher Limited. Mosaderin Road, Jericho GRA, Ibadan. Oyo State.)
. National Population Commission (NPC) Nigeria and ICF Macro 2009. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008.Abuja : National Population Commission and ICF Macro
. Owolabi, B. (2010). Review of Immunization Schedule in Oyo State of Nigeria by Oyo State Ministry of Health, Health System Information Unit.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||A Study on Azygos System of Veins and Venous Aneurysm|
|Authors||:||Narayanan.G., Aruna S., Balaji T. K., Kannan.G., Venkateshgobi V.|
Abstract: Introduction: The azygos system of veins drains most of the posterior abdominal and thoracic wall. It also receives mediastinal, bronchial and oesophageal veins. The azygos vein serves as an important channel of communication between superior and inferior venacava. The vein also communicates with the vertebral venous plexus. Materials & methods: The present study on azygos system of vein was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, SIMS. A total of 32 cadavers irrespective of age and sex were used for this study. The azygos vein was traced right from its formation. Its course in the posterior mediastinum and termination into superior venacava, any variation in the origin, termination and its tributaries such as hemi azygos and accessory hemi azygos vein was carefully observed and photographed. Results: Variation in the drainage pattern of hemi azygos and accessory hemi azygos were observed in seven specimens of which three specimens show a two way drainage of hemi azygos vein and accessory hemi azygos vein into azygos and left brachiocephalic vein.
Conclusion: Knowledge of such variations exhibiting different drainage pattern is significant during mediastinal surgeries as it may poses a potential source of haemorrhage,and aneurysm of azygos systems of veins. Such abnormal communications may also lead to misinterpretation of CT and MRI findings of posterior mediastinum.
. Ainory P. Gesase, Flora M. Fabian, David N. Ngassapa. Double superior venacava presenting with anomalous jugular venous systems. Indian Heart Journal.1978; 1 – 10.
. Arslan G, Cebuk M, Ozkaynak C, Sindel T, Luleci E. Absences of the azygos vein. J clin imag. 2000; 24: 157-158.
. Bergman.RA, Afifi.AK, and Miyauchi.R. Illustrated encyclopedia of human anatomic variation: opus ll: cardiovascular system: veins, head, neck, and thorax,12 edition.1966.
. Butler H, Balankura K. Preaortic throcic duct and azygos veins. J. Anat. Rec. 1952; 113: 409-419.
. Constantin B. Marcu, Aernout M. Beek and albert C. Van Rossum. Unusual variation in upper body venous anatomy found with cardiovascular MRI. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2006; 175(1), doi: 10.15039.
. Coscina WF, Arger PH, Mintz MC, Coleman BG. Concurrent Sduplication and azygos continuation of the inferior venacava. J Comput Tomogr. 1986; 10: 287-290.
. Datta AK. Essentials of human anatomy. 5th edition, Current books international. 2000; 102-103.
. Datta AK. Essentials of human embryology. 5th edition, Current Books International. 2000; 197-212.
. Elzbieta Krakowiak-Sarnowska et al. Variability of the azygos vein system in human foetuses. Via medica J. 2003; 62, No. 4, 427 – 430.
. Hamilton WJ, Mossman HW. Hamilton, Boyd and Mossman's Human embryology. 4th Ed., London & Basingstoke, The Macmillan press Ltd.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Utilization of Antenatal care among pregnant women of Urban Slums of Dhaka City, Bangladesh|
|Authors||:||Russell Kabir, Hafiz T. A. Khan|
Abstract: Maternal health services have a potentially critical role in the improvement of reproductive health. The use of health services is related to the availability, quality and cost of the services, as well as to social structure, health beliefs and the personal characteristics of the users. Antenatal care (ANC) is an important determinant of high maternal mortality rate and one of the basic components of maternal care on which the life of mothers and babies depend. It is a key strategy for reducing maternal mortality, but millions of women in developing countries do not receive it. Extracting 3549 women from the 2006-2007 Urban Health Survey, this study assessed the utilization of antenatal care and its related factor in urban slums for pregnant women. A Cross-sectional survey was carried out large, medium and small urban squatter settlements of Dhaka City. Two hundred married women in the age range 15-49 years were interviewed. Socio-demographic characteristics of women who received and who did not receive antenatal care in their previous pregnancy were assessed by frequency distribution and bivariate analysis. Antenatal care used in any of the previous pregnancy among women under study was 861(64.3%). Education and ANC is significantly related suggesting that the higher the level of education the higher is the likelihood of receiving ANC during pregnancy because educated women are aware about the importance of ANC during pregnancy. There is a strong association between the income of the respondents and ANC received by the respondents. This study indicates that overall knowledge about antenatal care was found to be better among women who had utilized antenatal care as compared to women who did not receive antenatal care.. There is also a need to evaluate the services provided by government health facilities and to find out why women are not utilizing the government health services though these services are available at subsidized rate.
Keywords – Antenatal Care, Mortality, Maternal health, Urban, Slum
 A.Wagstaff and M.Claeson, The Millennium Development Goals for Health Rising to the Challenges, Washington DC: World Bank 2004.
 N. Chakraborty, M.A.Islam, R.I. Chowdhury, W.Bari and H.H.Akhter, Determinants of the use of maternal health services in rural Bangladesh, Health Promotion International, 18(4), 2003,327-337.
 World Health Organization (WHO), Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA Geneva WHO 2004.
 Ministry of Health and Family Planning Welfare (MOHFW), Bangladesh National Strategy for Maternal Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh: MOHFW, 2001.
 Z. Matthews, S, Mahendra, A. Kilaru, S Ganapathy, Antenatal care, care seeking and morbidity in rural Karnataka, India: results of a prospective study, Asia-Pacific Population Journal 16(2), 2001,11-28.
 WHO/UNICEF, Antenatal care in developing countries: promises, achievements and missed opportunities: an analysis of trends, levels and differentials, 1999-2001, World Health Organization, 2003,Geneva.
 A.M., Vanneste , C. Ronsmans, J. Chakraborty, A.A. Francisco ,Prenatal screening in rural Bangladesh: from prediction to care, Health Policy and Planning, 15(1),2000, 1-10.
 S.L. Gortmaker, The effects of Prenatal Care upon the Health of the Newborn, American Journal of Public Health 69,1979, 653-660.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Competency of School Teachers Regarding Learning Disabilities|
|Authors||:||Ms. Anjana Williams, Mrs. Grace Singh, Mrs. Priya J. P. Narayan|
Abstract: Quasi experimental Study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a Learning Package on competency of Primary School Teachers regarding Learning Disabilities among children. The study was conducted in a Primary School of Bhainyawala, Dehradun. Total 38 teachers were selected who met the inclusion criteria by non-probability, convenience sampling technique. Pretest was taken by structured knowledge questionnaire, attitude scale and knowledge of skill checklist followed by Learning Package and post- test was taken after 7 days which showed that mean post -test knowledge score (13.7 ±3.2) was higher than the mean pre- test knowledge score (5.4±2.6). Mean post- test Attitude score (31.9±4.7) was higher than the mean pre- test Attitude score (26.6±5.4). Mean post-test knowledge of skill scores (23.1±4.2) was higher than the mean pre-test knowledge of skill scores (17.2±6.6). After post- test the knowledge, attitude and skills of primary school teachers had increased significantly. Hence it is proved that the Learning Package improves the competency of primary school teachers regarding Learning Disabilities.
Keywords: Competency, Learning Disabilities, Learning package, Primary school teachers.
. Psychology Wiki. Introduction to learning disability[homepage on the internet]. psychology.wikia.com;[cited on2012 May 14] Available from: http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Introduction_to_learning_disability
. Knowledge and practice standards articlebase.com [cited on 2011 march 21] available from www.interdys.org/ewebeditpro5/.../Knowledge_and_Practice_Standards.pdf
. KlassenRM,Lynch SL. Self-Efficacy From the Perspective of Adolescents With LD and Their Specialist Teachers‟ Learn Disabil. 2007 November/December; 40(6): 494-507.
. Web health center. Disability in India/Get Help[homepage on the internet] Web health center;[updated 2011 April 11; cited 2011 August Available from: www.webhealthcenter.com/diseaseconditions/cerebral-palsy-india.aspx
. Padmavati D, Lalitha K. Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme for teachers towards learning disabilities. Nightingale Nursing Times. 2009 Jul;05(04):14-7.
. Learning disability article[Internet document].cited in august 2011 available from http://www.articlesbase.com/education-articles/learning-disability-in-india-1126528.html
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Abstract: The challenge of newborn health faced by India is more than any other country in the world. Globally out of 3.9 million, 30% neonatal deaths occur in India. A Quasi-experimental study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of an 'Instructional Teaching Programme' (ITP) on the Knowledge of Postnatal Mothers regarding Newborn Care in multi-specialty, teaching hospital in Uttarakhand. Total 62 postnatal mothers were selected by consecutive sampling technique. The pre-test was taken by using structured knowledge questionnaire designed by researcher and validated by the various experts in the specific field followed by Instructional Teaching Programme. After 7 days post-test was taken. The overall mean pre-test knowledge score of postnatal mothers was (30±4.3) which reveals that mothers had good level of knowledge and mean post-test knowledge score of postnatal mothers was (42±1.1) which revealed that mothers had very good level of knowledge and 't' value for total pretest and posttest was 22.22. Area wise post-test highest mean percentage was (96%) in the area of breast feeding and the lowest mean percentage was (88.88%) in the area of prevention of low body temperature. No significant association was found between pretest knowledge scores with their demographic variables except age. The findings of the study concluded that 'Instructional Teaching Programme' (ITP) was effective to increase the knowledge of postnatal mothers regarding newborn care.
Keywords- Instructional Teaching Programme, Knowledge, Newborn Care, Postnatal Mothers
. Anil Narang,Srinivas Mukri.Research in neonatology, Indian Pediatr2002;17:170.
. Kathmandu University Medical Journal (2009);7(3):231-7.[Internet document]cited on 2011 April 9.Available from:http://www.kumj.com.np/ftp/issue/27/231-237.pdf
. U.K. Choudhry, Traditional practices of women from India: pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn care in North York Ontario Canada. (cited in April 2011).
. G.L. Dhamstadt, V. Kumar, R. Yadav, Introduction of community based skin to skin care in rural Uttarpradesh, India, J Perinatol, 2006;26;597-604.
. S. Menaka, Assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on newborn care among primigravida mothers in Bangalore. [internet document]cited on 2012 April 20, Available from: http://126.96.36.199:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/1412/1/CDNNOBG00018.pdf
. World Health Organization, 1996 world health statistics annual Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998. A-5.
. Polit F Denis and Cheryl tatano beck. Nursing research generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. New Delhi Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 8th edition.
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Abstract: A quasi-experimental study was conducted to assess the predisposing factors of URTI, effectiveness of teaching programme on the recovery of children and on the practice of their caregivers. This study was conducted in a child nursing home at district Haridwar, Uttarakhand. Total 51 children and their caregivers who met the selection criteria were selected by convenient sampling technique. Pretest was taken by using structured questionnaire, practice checklist and rating scale followed by URTI preventive education programme. After five days post test was taken. The mean post test practice score (9.8±1.27) was higher than the mean pretest practice score (5.8±1.43) and 't' value was 15.3. The mean post test assessment score (22.01±1.03) was higher than the mean pretest assessment score (16.03± 1.43) and 't' value was 24.9. The difference between pretest practice score and posttest practice score was 4 and between pretest assessment score and posttest assessment score was 5.98. It means practice and assessment score improved after implementation of education programme. The finding of the study reveals that the education had a vital role in improving the practice of caregivers and recovery of the children.
Keywords - Children, care givers, URTI
 World Health Organization. (2002) state of child health, world health report available from http://www.who.int/topics/child_health/en/
 World Health Organization. (2002) statistical data about child health available from http://www.who.int/ceh/en
 Journal of Pediatric Infectious Disease, 2008;27(1), 8-11
 Nelson, Keliegman, Behram, textbook of pediatric (Elsevier publication 2008)
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 D. Acharya, K.S. Prasanna, S. Nair and R.S.P. Rao, Acute respiratory infections in children a community based longitudinal study in south India, Indian J Public Health 2003 Jan-Mar;47(1), 7-13.
 Agustinus sutanto, Bradford d. Gessner, Igg djlantik, Mark steinhoff, Helen murphy, Carib nelson,et al. Acute respiratory illness incidence and death among children, The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66(2), 2002, 75–179
 Parul Datta, Respiratory diseases, paediatric nursing, (Jaypee publication 2009), 273- 275
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Risk Assessment Tool for the Prediction of fall|
|Authors||:||Parul Saini, Ashok Kumar Bishnoi, Mercy Madan Lal|
Abstract: An effective tool for the prediction of fall risk among the patients admitted in wards requires high sensitivity with specificity, good predictive value and easy to use in the clinical practice. Objective of the study is to develop fall risk assessment tool. Study was done on patients admitted at MMIMS&R Hospital, Mullana, Ambala and Methodological approach was used. From related review of literature, experts' guidance and investigators' personal experience, a list of risk factors were identified and compared with standardized risk assessment scales i.e. Morse Fall Scale & Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool i.e FRAST. Content validity was ascertained by expert's opinion & was found to be 0.94. The range of rating score was 12 to 48, with the assumption that higher the scores, the greater the risk of falls. At a cut-off point of ≥ 18, the best balance between the sensitivity and specificity was achieved, i.e. sensitivity was 26.42%, specificity 85.71%, predictive value positive 26 % and predictive value negative 74%. Cronbach's alpha and item item Correlation were used to measure the internal consistency of the tool, Coefficient alpha was 0.75, statistically significant at 0.001 levels. Item-item correlations were moderate (between 0.30 to 0.70) among most of the items. In order to estimate equivalence Inter-rater reliability method was used & percentage of agreement between raters was 84%. Concurrent validity of fall risk assessment tool was checked by calculating Pearson correlation in between the fall risk assessment tool and Morse Fall Scale & was found to be 0.70.
. Askham J, Glicksman E, Owen P. Home and leisure accidental research: a review of research on falls among elderly people. London: Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College, 1990.
. Nevitt MC, Cumming SR, Kidd S, Black D. Risk factors for recurrent nonsyncopal falls: a prospective study. The Journal of American Medical Association.1989; 261:2663–2668.
. Galinsky D. Falls in the elderly: a new challenge in medicine. Israel Journal of Medical Science. 1992;28:460–462
. Dresner-Pollak R, Ginsberg G, Cohen A, Stessman J. Characteristics of falls in 70 year olds in Jerusalem. Israel Journal of Medical Science. 1996;32:625–628.
. Vetter N, Ford D. Anxiety and depression scores in elderly fallers. International journal of Geriatrics Psychiatry. 1989;4:163–185.
. Liddle G, Gillard C. The emotional consequences of falls for patients and their families. Age Aging 1984;23(4):17.
. Papaioannou A, Parkinson W, Cook R, Ferko N, Coker E, Adachi JD. Prediction of falls using a risk assessment tool in the acute care setting; BoiMed Central Medicine. 2004 Jan 21;2:1
. Oliver, D.Prevention of falls in hospital inpatients. Agendas for research and practice. Age and Ageing, 2004;33:328-330.
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. Ann L Hendrich, Patricia S. Bender, Allen Nyhuis. Validation of the Hendrich II Fall Risk Model: A large concurrent case/control study of hospitalized patients. Applied Nursing Research. 2003 Feb;16(1):9-21.
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Abstract: Background And Objectives: HIV/AIDS pandemic has been on the rise in Nepal since the first case was reported in the country in 1988. HIV/AIDS being growing problem is fueled by ignorance about nutrient requirement and brutal discrimination against people. Kailali district is one of the highly HIV and AIDS endemic districts of Nepal.
Keywords – HIV and AIDS children, HIV and Nutritional status among children, Nutritional care and support, Nepal
 World Health Organization, HIV/AIDS in South-East Asia Region—Situation Update2010.
 National Centre for AIDS and STD Care, National Estimates of HIV infections: 2009 Nepal ,2010.
 Friis, H, The possible role of micronutrients in HIV/AIDS infection. SCN News 17,1998, pp. 11–12,
 Department of Food Technology and Quality Control (DFTQC), Nutrient Contents in Nepalese Food. 3rd Ed. Kathmandu, Nepal, 2004.
 Nepal Demographic Health Survey(NDHS), 2011
 E. Rush. and J. Paterson,,"Food frequency information—relationships to body composition and apparent growth in 4-year-old children in the Pacific Island Family Study." Clinical Correspondence, 2008.
 P. Chege., E. Kuria. and J. Kimiywe,. A comparative study on dietary practices, morbidity patterns and nutrition status of HIV/AIDS infected and non-infected pre-school children in Kibera slum, Kenya. Applied Biosciences, 32, 2008-2014.
 A.C.Onyango, and M. K. Walingo,. "Food consumption patterns, diversity of food nutrients and mean nutrient intake in relation to HIV/AIDS status in Kisumu district Kenya." African Journal of AIDS Research 8(3), 2009,359-366
 World Health Oganization ,"Nutrient requirements for people living with HIV/AIDS: report of a technical consultation." Geneva: WHO, 2003.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of Static Stretching On Vertical Jump Performance on Apparently Healthy Subjects|
|Authors||:||Balaji Palaniappan, V. Pasupatham, Deivendran Kalirathinam|
Abstract: With an idea to determine the effectiveness of static stretching on vertical jump performance on apparently healthy subjects, hundred male subjects on the age of 18 to 25 years in the Division of PM&R, RMMC&H, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar were selected for this study. Only the subjects with normal body mass index values were included. The subjects were assessed for their vertical jump performance by vertical jump test. Then static stretching was given for quadriceps, hamstrings, and calf muscles of both limbs. Immediately participants were assessed for their post stretching vertical jump performances. The values of pre-stretching and post stretching vertical jump performances were statistically analyzed. There was a statistical significance between pre and post values of passive static stretching and vertical jump performance. There was an increased vertical jump performance when passive static stretching applied. It may be concluded that passive static stretching can be beneficial to improve vertical jump performance while performing explosive type activities.
Key words - body mass index, vertical jump performance
. Augustsson J. Thomee R. "Ability of closed and open kinetic chain tests of muscular strength to assess functional performance." Scand J Med Sci sports, 2000 Jan: 10(3): 164-8.
. Bazett-Jones DM - Gibson MH, Mcbride JM. "Sprint and vertical jump performances are not affected by six weeks of static hamstring stretching." J. Strength cond Res. 2008 Jan; 21(1):25-31.
. Behm DG, Kiblle A. "Effects of differing intensitites of static stretching on jump performance." Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007 Nov; 101(5): 587-94. . Bradley PS. Olsen PP. "The effect of static, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on vertical jump performance." J Strength cond Res. 2007 Feb; 21(1) : 223-6
. Carolyn Kisner - Lynn Allen Colby, Therapeutic Exercise -Foundation and Techniques 4th edition.
. Church JB - Wiggins MS, Moode FM, Crist R. "Effect of warm-up and flexibility treatments on vertical jump performance." J. Strength Cond Res. 2001 Aug; 15(3): 332-6.
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. Knudson D, Bennett K, Corn R, Leick D. Smith C. "Acute effects of stretching are not evident in the kinematics of the vertical jump." J. Strength cond Res 2001Feb; 15(1): 98-101.
. Power K, Behm D-Cuhill F. "An acute bout of static stretching: effects on force and jumping performance." Med Sci. sports exerc. 2004 Aug; 36 (8): 1839-96.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Non-Pharmacological and Pharmacological Intervention of Type 2 Diabetes among Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Systematic Review.|
|Authors||:||Norma S, Zaleha MI, Azmi MT|
Abstract: The efficacy of various non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions are to reduce the incidence of diabetes had been proven especially in the high-risk group such as those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The aim of this systematic review is to provide evidence on non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions as supporting the early treatment for diabetes, and focusing on the pre-diabetic state in order to stop further deterioration of glycemic level in the predisposed subjects. There are convincing evidences that non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions can lower the progression rate of overt diabetes and glucose status goes back to normal after a follow up of several years. Evaluations in many clinical trials were used the outcome measures such as weight reduction, and plasma blood glucose level. Based on the available evidences, there is the greatest hope and implementation of intervention programs in population at large, especially those of high risk for T2DM as an approach in preventing T2DM, even though the interventions into clinical setting is quite challenging and requires significant financial and human resources .
Keywords : Prevention T2DM, primary intervention, impaired glucose tolerance, pre diabetes
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