Volume-7 ~ Issue-2
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Abstract: The strategy developed for sex determination in skeletal remains is to amplify the highly degraded DNA, by use of primers that span short DNA fragments. To determine sex of unembalmed human cadaveric skeletal fragments from Sokoto, North-western Nigeria, using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A single blind study of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based sex determination using amelogenin gene and alphoid repeats primers on unembalmed human cadaveric skeletal fragments from Sokoto, North-western Nigeria, was undertaken. With amelogenin gene, genetic sex identification was achieved in four samples only. PCR Sensitivity = 40%, Specificity = 100%, Predictive value of positive test = 100%, Predictive value of negative test = 25%, False positive rate = 0%, False negative rate = 150%, Efficiency of test = 50%. Fisher's exact probability test P = 1. Z-test: z-value = -1.0955, p>0.05; not statistically significant. With alphoid repeats primers, correct genetic sex identification was achieved in all the samples. PCR Sensitivity = 100%, Specificity = 0%, Predictive value of positive test = 100%, Predictive value of negative test = 0%, False positive rate = 0%, False negative rate = 0%, Efficiency of test = 100%. Fisher's exact probability test P = 1. Z-test: z- and p values were invalid. The study, has demonstrated the applicability of PCR method of sex determination in unembalmed human skeletal fragments from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria. With amelogenin gene primers, correct genetic sex identification was achieved in four samples only. With alphoid repeats primers, correct genetic sex identification was achieved in all the samples. Therefore, alphoid repeats is more efficient and more reliable than amelogenin gene, in sex determination from unembalmed human skeletal fragments. This is the first known study determining the sex of unembalmed human skeletal fragments by means of PCR in Nigeria. There is need for further studies in Nigeria to complement the findings of this study.
Key words: PCR, sexing, bones, Sokoto, Nigeria.
. E. S. M. Iwamura, J. A. Soares-Vieira, D. R. Munoz, Human identification and analysis of DNA in bones. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo, 59 (2004) 383-8.
. S. Andelinovic, D. Sutlovic, I. E. Ivkosic, V. Skaro, A. Ivkosic, F. Paic, et al., Twelve-year experience in identification of skeletal remains from mass graves. Croat Med, 46 (2005) 530-9.
. F. S. Rhonan, D. R. P. Savio, D. J. Eduardo, S. S. B. Rejane, M. O. G. Neide, S. Rafael, Genetics and molecular biology: a literature review of forensic dentistry application. BrazilianJournal of Oral Sciences, 6(20) (2007) 1254-1259.
. R. Lleonart, E. Riego, R. R. Suarez, R. T. Ruiz, J. Fuente Analyses of DNA from ancient bones of a pre-Columbian Cuban woman and a child. Genet Mol Biol, 22 (1999) 285- 9.
. C .Vernesi, G. Benedetto, D. Caramelli, E. Secchieri, L. Simoni, E. Katti, et al., Genetic characterization of the body attributed to the evangelist Luke. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 98 (2001) 13460-3. . M. Ogata, R Mattern, P. M. Schneider, U. Schacker, T. Kaufmann, C. Rittner, Quantitative and qualitative analysis of DNA extracted from post-mortem muscle tissues. Z Rechtsmed, 103 (1990) 397-406.
. N. Wurmb-Schwark, M. Harbeck, U. Wiesbrock, I. Schroeder, S. Ritz-Timme, M. Oehmechen, Extraction and amplification of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from ancient and artificially aged bones. Leg Med, 5 (2003) 169-72.
. K. Bender, M. J. Farfan, P. M. Schneider, Preparation of degraded human DNA under controlled conditions. Forensic Sci Int, 139 (2004) 135-40.
. U. Pillay, B. Kramer. A simple method for the determination of sex from the pulp of freshly extracted human teeth utilizing the polymerase chain reaction Journal of the Dental Association of the South Africa, 52 (1997) 673-677.
. A. Akane, H. Shiono, K. Matsubara, H. Nakamura, M. Hasegawa, M. Kagawa, Purification of forensic specimens for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 38 (1993) 691-701.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Detection Of Escherichia Coli, An Indicator Of Feacal Contamination, In Drinking Water Sources In Amassoma, Niger Delta Of Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||E. N. Ogamba, Tobia, P. S.|
Abstract: The detection of Escherichia coli as an indicator of faucal contamination in drinking water sources in Amassoma town, a host Community of the Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria, was carried out to determine their suitability for drinking. Result obtained showed mean total coliform bacterial counts of 2.05 x103 cfu/ml for borehole water, 1.25x103 cfu/ml for well water and 1.0x103 for pipe borne water. The mean count of faecal coliform was 2.1x103 cfu/ml for borehole water, 4.5x10 cfu/ml for well water and 1.0x10 cfu/ml for pipe borne water. The faecal coliform identified was Escherichia coli. Sources of contamination were found to be septic tanks, waste dump sites and periodic flooding of the area, being a typical wetland environment. It was concluded that water from the different sources studied in Amassoma did not meet the world health Organization (WHO) standard for drinking water. This study has therefore shown the need for continuous monitoring of our water supply systems.
Key words: Escherichia coli, fecal contamination, drinking water, Niger Delta.
. American Public Health Association (ALPHA) (1998). Standard Methods for the Evaluation of Water and Waste Water. 20th Ed. Washington, D. C. American Public Health.
. Cruickshank, R., Dugud, J. P. Marmian, B. P. & Swan, R.H.A. (1975). Medical Microbiology, (The practice of Medical Microbiology) Churchill Livingstone Edinburgh Vol. 11. 12th Edition.
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. Penman, H. L. (1976). The Biosphere: The Water Cycle; A Scientist American Book. W. H. Freeman and Co. San Francisco, PP. 40-54
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Pyogenic Bacterial Isolates in Sputum.|
|Authors||:||Parveen Anjum, V. Aruna Rajkumari, N. Pavani, Yamini. K., T. Sabarinathan|
Abstract: Drugs Have Been Used For The Treatment Of Infectious Diseases Since 17th Century , However Chemotherapy As A Science Has Began With Paul Ehrlich In The First Decade Of 20th Century . Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) Was One Of The Earliest Pioneers In The Field Of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy .1Ehrlich Formulated The Principles Of "Selective Toxicity" ,I.E; Selective Inhibition Of The Growth Of Microorganisms Without Damage To The Host.2 Resistance Has Been Documented Not Only Against Antibiotics Of Natural And Semi- Synthetic Origin , But Also Against Purely Synthetic Compounds (Flouroquinolone) Or Those Which Do Not Even Enter The Cells (Vancomycin) .3 However , The Euphoria Over The Potential Conquest Of Infectious Diseases Was Short-Lived .Almost As Soon As Antibacterial Drugs Were Deployed , Bacteria Responded By Manifesting Various Forms Of Resistance.4 Considered As "Wonder Drugs" Antibiotics Are Often Prescribed Inappropriately And Inadequately And Have Thus Became One Of The Highly Abused Agents.5
. Geo F .Brooks , Karen C Carroll , Janet S Butel , Stephen A Morse , Timothy A. Meitzner . Textbook Of Medical Microbiology , 25 Thedn , P.339.
. Ananthnarayan R. Paniker C. K. J. Textbook Of Microbiology. 8th Edition Orient Longman 2009.P.5.
. Connie R.Mahon , Donald C. Lehman , George Manuselis . Textbook Of Diagnostic Microbiology , 3rd Edition. Saunders 2007 ; 450.
. Braunwald ,Fauci , Kasper , Hauser , Longo , Jameson , Harrison's Principles Of Internal Medicine , 15nth Edn , P. 871.
. Fred C. Tenover ., Mechanism Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Bacteria . American J Med , 2006 , 119, S3 –S10.
. V Lakshmi ., Need For National/Regional Guidelines And Policies In India To Combat Antibiotic Resistance . 2008 , 26(2) : 105-7.
. National Committee For Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Performance Standards For Antimocrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty- First Informational Supplement; January 2011, Vol.31 No.1, M100 – S21.
. J. G. Collee, R. S. Miles, B. Watt. Tests For Identification Of Bacteria. In J.Geradaldcollee, Andrew G.Fraser, Barrie P.Marmion, Anthony Simmons, Mackie & Mccartney Practical Medical Microbiology, 14th Edition. Churchill Livingstone, 2006; 135 – 144.
. Amita Jain, Indranil Roy, Mahendra K. Gupta, Mala Kumar And S. K.Agarwal.Prevalence Of Extended-Spectrum Β-Lactamase Producing Gram Negative Bacteria In Septicemia Neonates In A Tertiary Care Hospital. Journal Of Medical Microbiology 2003; 52: 421-425.
. K Lee, Y S Lim, D Yong, J H Yum, And Y Chong. Evaluation Of Hodge Test And The Imipenem-EDTA Double Disc Synergy Test For Differentiating Metallo-Betalactam
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Abstract: Rauwolfia vomitoria is a natural medicinal plant which has been used over the years for the treatment of various ailments. The effects of extract of rauwolfia vomitoria on liver enzymes of carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity were observed in adult wistar rats weighing between 120g and 190g. They were divided into four groups A,B, C and D of six rats each. Group A served as the control and received 0.41ml of distilled water. The experimental groups B, C and D received different doses of drugs as follows : group B received 0.50ml of rauwolfia vomitoria extract, group C received 0.5ml of carbon tetrachloride and group D received 0.41ml of carbon tetrachloride + 0.4ml of rauwolfia vomitoria extract. The drugs were administered once in a day using intubation method for a period of twenty one days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were anaesthetized under chloroform vapour and dissected . liver tissues were removed and weighed. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and Serum samples were separated from clot by centrifugation using bench top centrifuge. Activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were determined using randox kit method. The relative liver weight for carbon tetrachloride treated group were significantly higher (p<0.001) than the control and groups B and D. serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotraansferase and alkaline phosphate level of group C were statistically higher (p<0.001) than the control. The extract exhibited a liver protective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity.
Keywords: Liver enzymes, , Liver weight, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Wistar rats.
. Anusha M., M. Venkateswarlu, V. Prabhakaran,1 S. Shareen Taj, B. Pushpa Kumari, and D. Ranganayakulu Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in combination with lycopene in ratsIndian Journal of Pharmacology. Sep-Oct 2011; 43(5)563
. Christen P. and D. E. Metzler. (1985).Transaminases . ISBN-10: 0471085014 | ISBN-13: 9780471085010
. Coodley Eugene L. (1970). Diagnostic Enzymology. Submit query lea and febiger publications. ISBN 0812100441
. Cotran R., Kumar V and Robins S (1989). Robin's pathological basis of disease. 4th edn. W.B Saunders Co. Harcourt. Pp: 212-217.
. Hansel R. (1968). Flavonoide, endaugestacting and vertedung ulcer daspflama system, wirking pharm press, China,pas. 6: 121-124.
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. Ngaha EO (1981). Renal effects of potassium dichromate in the rat: composition of urinary excretion with corresponding tissue pattern. Gen Pharmacol 12: 291-358.
. Shavarov Z. (1965). The healing powers of herbs with special reference to obstetrics and gynaecology 43-44.
. 0Wright P. J. and D. J. Plummer (1974). The use of urinary enzyme measurements to detect renal changes caused by nephrotoxic compounds. Biochem. Pharmacol., 12:65-68.
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Abstract: This study was conducted purposely to evaluate the effects of shea butter effluent (SBE) on the freshwater inhabitant using Clarias gariepinus as a biological model. A prominent Local factory of shea butter at Tede, ATISBO Local Government was chosen because the effluent flows directly into a near-by stream that ends up at a popular Dam in the Local Government on which more than 120,000 people depend for domestic use.Static bioassay was conducted to determine the LC50 of shea butter effluent to Clarias gariepinus. Ten fishes each were exposed to 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, and 0.09ppt (lethal concentration) of SBE in separate water plastic bowl of (40cmX29cmX28cm) of 60litres capacity.The lethal Concentration (LC50) value of SBE was 0.057ppt for 96hrs of exposure. Total mortality occurred in the concentrations of 0.08 and 0.09ppt within 24hours of exposure period. Behavioural reactions exhibited by the fish include erratic movement, air gulping, loss of reflex, molting, barbell deformation, hemorrhage, and excessive mucus secretion in fish exposed to higher concentration of shea butter effluent. The appreciable increase in the mean value of heavy metal, such as Manganese, Nickel, Cadmium, Zinc, Copper and Lead revealed that the increase in the concentration of shea butter effluent leads to bioaccumulation of the aforementioned heavy metals in the test organisms. The values for all the metals exceed the permissible Criteria of the national and international regulatory body. Therefore, Shea butter effluent is highly toxic to freshwater fishes, its discharged directly into water bodies, new fish farms or in areas close to aquatic environment should not be encouraged.
Keyword: Pollution, shea butter, fish, heavy metal, behavior
. Adewoye .O., O.O., Owolabi, O.D and Omotosho J.S. (2005): Toxicity ofCassava wastewater effluent to African catfish: Clariasgariepnus.Ethiop. J.Sci, 28(2) pp. 189-194
. Annume, P.A., Ebele, S.O. and Oladimeji, A.A. (1994): Acute toxicity of Cadmium to Clariasgariepinus (Teugels) and Orechromisniloticus(Trewavas). Journal of Environmental Science and Health.29(7); 1357.
. APHA (1985): Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater.AmericanPublic Health Association 16th edition, Washington DC.1268pp.
. APHA (1989): Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater(17th Edition): prepared and published jointly by: American PublicHealth Association (APHA); American Water Works Association(AWWA) and Water Pollution Control Federation (WPCF).
. Avoajah, D.A and Oti, E.E (1997): Effect of sublethal concentration of some Pesticides on thegrowth and survival of the fingerlings of the African Freshwater Catfish: - HeteroclariasHybrid Fingerlings) Nigeria Journal of Biotechnology 8; 40 – 45.
. Egborge, A.B.M (1991): Industrialization and heavy metal pollution in WarriRiver.32ndInagural lecture, University of Benin city, Nigeria. 12thApril, 1991, 32pp.
. FEPA (1991): Federal Environmental Profection Agency: Guidelines and standards for environmental pollution in Nigeria.
. Ikpi G.U., Ogunyemi O.O., Offem B. (2003): Toxicity of industrial effluent on Oreochroomisniloticusfingerlings in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria 1 (1) 177 – 182.
. Kotze, P. Du Preez H.H., and VanVuren J.H.J. (1999): Bioaccumulation of copper and zinc in OreochromismossambicusandClarias gariepinus from the Olifants River, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Water SA 25(1) 99-110.
. Mackereth F.J.H. (1963): Some Methods of water analysis for limnologists. Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication No 21, 70pp
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Proposal of Reaction-Steps of NADPH+H+ Formation in Photosynthesis|
Abstract: The complete procedure of NADPH+H+ formation in photosynthesis is proposed. Here it is expressed that NADPH+H+ formation process is not a single-step reaction process, rather it is a multi-steps reaction process occured in photosynthetic cells. Keywords: Light Phase of Photosynthesis, Structural Analysis of NADP+ and NADPH+H+, NADPH+H+ Formation System.
 David O. Hall, Krishna Rao, Photosynthesis (Studies in Biology), Chembridge University Press (1999).
 Robert E. Blan, Molecular Mechanism of Photosynthesis, Wiley-Blackwell (2002).
 Bobbie Kalman, Photosynthesis : Changing Sunlight Into Food, Crabtree Publishing Company (2005).
 A.S.Raghavendra, Photosynthesis, Chembridge University Press (1997).
 Hans-Walter Heldt, Birgit Piechulla, plant Biochemistry, Academic Press (2011).
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Electrophoretic Patterns of Esterases in Eri silkworm Samia Cynthia ricini|
|Authors||:||Raju Neerati, Prasanna D., Bhargavi.G.Y., Venkaiah Y.|
Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the patterns of esterase isozymes extracted from the silk gland, haemolymph and mid gut of Eri silkworm (Samia Cynthia ricini). The qualitative analysis of esterases was carried out by 7.5% of native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). The inhibitor sensitivity of the enzymes towards paraxon, eserine and pCMB was used to classify the individual zones of esterases. Three zones of esterases were observed in different tissues of Eri silkworm. Silk gland esterases were classified as CHsp (Cholinesterase like enzymes) esterases. The haemolymph and mid gut esterases were classified into Esdp (Enzyme inhibited by paraxon and pCMB).
Key words: Eri silkworm, Electrophoresis, Esterases.
. S. Krishnaswami , M.N. Narasimhanna , S.K. Suryanarayan, S. Kumararaj, Manual on sericulture, Vol. II (silkworm rearing). Pub. By. FAO, USA, Rome, Agric., Service, Bulletin AGS ASB/ 1973, 15:64.
. Priyadarshini PA, Quantification of crude and extracted proteins from deoiled male and female pupae eri silkworm Philosamia ricini. International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Alied Sciences, 2(5) 2013:1057-1063.
. Thomas, C.T., A. Szekas, D.B. Hammock, W.B. Wilson and G.M.Mc Namee. Affinity chromatography of neuropathy target esterase. Chem. Biol.Interaction. 87: 1993, 347-360.
. Shahjahan, R.M., K. Afroza, R.A. Begum, M.S. Alam and A. Begum. Tissue specific esterase isozyme banding pattern in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Univ. J. Zool. Rajasahi Univ., 27: 2008, 01-05.
. Oakeshott, J.G., E.A. van Papenrecht, T.M. Boyce, M.J. Healy and R.J.Russell: Evolutionary genetics of Drosophila esterases. Genetica, 90: 1993, 239- 268.
. Shiotsuki, T. and Y. Kato. Induction of carboxyl esterase isozymes in Bombyx mori by Escherichia coli infection. Insect Biochem. Mol.Biol., 29: 1999, 731- 736.
. Amanullah, B., A. Stalin, P. Prabhu and S. Dhanapal. Analysis of AchE and LDH in mollusc, Lamelli dens marginalis after exposure to chloropyrifos. J.Environ. Biol., 31: 2010, 417-41.
. Krishnamurthy, N.B. and R.S. Umakanth. Contribution of esterase isozymes during mating in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Indian J. Seric., 36: 1997, 11-16.
. Stoykova, T., P. Popov, D. Grekov and M. Panayotov: Genetic control of nonspecific esterases in mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) silk glands during ontogenesis. Sericologia, 38, 1998, 237-242.
. Chattopadhyay, G.K., A.K. Sengupta, A.K. Verma, S.K. Sen and B.Saratchandra: Esterase isozyme polymorphism, specific and nonspecific esterase, syngenic lines development and natural occurrence of a thermo stable esterase in the tropical silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol., 31, 2001, 1191-1199.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||"Recurrent Lower Abdomen Pain, An Introspection."|
|Authors||:||Dr. Anil K. Sahni, M. S., F. I., C. S, Advanced D. H. A.|
Abstract: Introduction: Recurrent Pain Lower Abdomen, ("RLAP‟), With/Without Previous Appendecectomy & Or Other Surgeries, Comprise Large No. Of Patients Being Treated Indiscriminately For Years, Without Proper Diagnosis.
Key words: Rec.Lower Abdomen Pain With/WithOut Previous Surgery (RLAP-Group A & B) 2.Discrete Clinico-Investigatory Methodology 3.Obscured Definite Causative Lesions 4.Innovative Management Techniques.
. Millham FH. Acute abdominal pain. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran‟s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 10.
. Yamamoto W, Kono H, Maekawa M, Fukui T. The relationship between abdominal pain regions and specific diseases: an epidemiologic approach to clinical practice. J Epidemiol 1997; 7:27.
. Silen W. Cope's Early Diagnosis of the Acute Abdomen. In: Cope's Early Diagnosis of the Acute Abdomen, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1990.
. Kirkpatrick J. The acute abdomen diagnosis and management. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.
. Mellinkoff S. The differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959. . Smith L. An atlas of pain patterns. Springfield, III.: Charles C Thomas, 1961. Copyright © 1990, Butterworth Publishers, a division of Reed Publishing.
. Schiller LR. Abdominal Pain. American College of Gastroenterology. http://www.acg.gi.org/patients/gihealth/aps.asp. Accessed Oct. 15, 2010.
. Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2011. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2009. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/109418463-2/0/1701/0.html. Accessed Oct. 15, 2010. . Parente F, Cernuschi M, Antinori S, et al. Severe abdominal pain in patients with AIDS: frequency, clinical aspects, causes, and outcome. Scand J Gastroenterol 1994; 29:511.
. Spencer SP, Power N; The acute abdomen in the immune compromised host. Cancer Imaging. 2008 Apr 22;8:93-101.
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Abstract: Perinatal HBV transmission is common in South East Asia approximately 25- 30% of the carrier pool. The problem is not only to the mother but also pertains to the offspring, in pregnancy hepatitis; the immune alterations in pregnancy may modify the dynamics of the disease. The infants of the mothers, who are carrying both HBsAg and HBeAg, have the highest risk of acquiring the HBV infection by the perinatal route. The over all risk may vary from one population to another, depending on the prevalence of HBeAg positivity in the pregnant women. It is reported and estimated that 22,000 pregnant women in the United States get infected with hepatitis B virus, which necessitated hepatitis B vaccination of the newborn mandatory in the United States. This study was aimed to bring about authenticated documentation on impact of preventive measures by vaccination that are essential features to plan and implement health measures package in a country. Results: Inspite of neonatal vaccination against hepatitis B given to all 158 children born to their HBsAg positive mothers, 6.8% (6/87) of these infants reached the status of chronic HBV infection from their infected mothers after 12 months follow-up. Conclusion: 6.8% (6/87) of the infants developed chronic HBV infection in spite of hepatitis B vaccination all the children by acquiring HBV from their infected mothers as confirmed by twelve months of follow-up. Keywords: Perinatel, vertical transmission; screening; hepatitis B; intrauterine infection, Viral Hepatitis, Hepatitis B virus
. Schweitzer JL, Wing a. and PetersR.I. Viral Hepatitis and HAA in 56 mother infants. Am.J.Med Assoc. 1972;220:1092-1095
. Anderson K.E., Stevens, C.E., Tsuei J.J, Lee, W.C., Sun., T. and Beasley R.P.
. Australian antigen in infants born to mothers with chronic Australian antigenaemia in Taiwan. American J. Disease Child 1975; 129:1389-1392.
. WHO: Department of Vaccines and Biologicals: Introduction of Hepatitis B Vaccine into Childhood Immunization Services.(World Health Organisation Geneva) 2001: 1-55.
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Abstract: Present study was conducted to determine the baseline widal titer of healthy population of Dehradun city. A total of 300 serum samples were collected from healthy individual with no history of fever and who had not received any vaccination for enteric fever. Tube agglutination test was done with commercially available antigens which contained the Salmonella enterica serovar typhi O and H antigens, the Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi AH antigen and paratyphi BH antigen. In the present study an agglutination titer for TO – 1:20 is 28%, for 1:40 is 24%, followed by 1:80 and 1: 160 which is 10%, 4% respectively. The highest sample with an anti-H titre found with 1:20 (22%) followed by 1:40(17%). Based upon the results of the study it has been recommended that a single Widal can be significant in an endemic region when higher titre (1:160) is obtained.
Keywords: Baseline titre, Dehradun, Salmonella typhi, Typhoid fever, Widal.
 Punia JN, Joshi RM, Gupta V, Arora RK. Determination of the baseline Widal titre in Chandigarh. Ind. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2003; 21 (2): 144.
 Parry CM, Hoa NT, Diep TS, Wain J, Chinh NT, Vinh H, et al. The value of a single tube Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever in Vietnam. J of Clin Micro. 1999; 37(9): 2882-85.
 Pal S, Prakash R, Juyal D, Sharma N, Rana A, Negi S. The Baseline Widal Titre Among the Healthy Individuals of the Hilly Areas in the Garhwal Region of Uttarakhand, India. J of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2013; 7(3): 437-440.
 Freeman R. Bacterial immunoserology, in (10 Ed), Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial infections ( ASM Press. USA. Edward Arnold Publishers Limited.2005) 744.
 Alam ABMS, Ahmed FR, Chaiti F. Utility of A Single Widal Test in The Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever. Bangladesh J Child Health 2011; 35 (2):53-58.
 Olopoinea LA, King AL. Widal agglutination test- 100 years later: still plagued by controversy. Postgrad Med. J. 2000; 76:80-84.
 Shukla S, Patel B, Chitnis DS. 100 years of WIDAL test and its reappraisal in an endemic area. Indian J Med Res. 1997; 105: 53-57.
 Patil AM, Kulkarni ML, Kulkarni AM. The baseline Widal titre in healthy children. Ind. J. Paed. 2007; 74: 1081-83.
 Prashant Peshattiwar. Study of the Baseline Widal Titre Amongst Healthy Individuals in Amlapuram, Indian Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2012; 6(3):416-417.
 Pang T, Puthucheary SD. Significance and value of the Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever in an endemic area. J. Clin. Pathol 1983;36: 471-75.
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Abstract: Aims: The main objective of this work was to observe the analgesic activity of Vitex negundo (leaves) on mice. Study Design: Present study was designed to isolate pure compounds as well as to observe pharmacological activities of the isolated pure compounds with crude extracts of the plant Vitex negundo (leaves). The study protocol consisted of the following steps:
Key words: Analgesic Activity, Acetic acid-induced writhing Method, Vitex negundo Leaves.
. Kumara, N.K.V.M.R., 2001. Identification of strategies to improve research on medicinal plants used in Sri Lanka. In: WHO Symposium.University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka.
. Prasad S and Wahi SP, (1965) pharmacognostic study of leaf of Vitex negundo linn.(Nirgundi), J Res Indian Med.72,208-211.
. Tandon VR, Gupta RK. Intern J Pharmacol 2006; 2(3):303-308.
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. Adnaik RS, Pai PT, Mule SN, Naikwade NS, Magdum CS. Asian J Exp Sci 2008; 22(1): 159-160.
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. Vishal R, Tandon V, Khajuria B, Kapoor D, Kour, Gupta S. Fitoterapia December 2008; 79(7-8): 533-538.
. Zimmermann m, 1983.Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals.Pain,16:109.
. Ahmed F,Selim MST,Das AK,Choudhuri MSK ,2004.Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Lippia nodiflora Linn.Pharmazie,59:329 -333.Dol:10.5555/phmz.2004.59.4.329.
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Abstract: Iron is a component of a number of proteins including haemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes and enzymes involved in redox reactions. Inadequate iron intake can lead to varying degrees of deficiency, from low iron stores to early iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anaemia and this is dangerous to both baby and mother. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia among pregnant women in Calabar, Cross River State Nigeria. Seventy pregnant women within the age range of 15-45 years from University of Calabar Teaching Hospital were recruited as subjects in this study. The control consisted of fifty age-matched apparently healthy non-pregnant women . The tests that were carried out using standard method include include full blood count (packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration and red cell count), serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation,serum ferritin and soluble transferrin recptor. The prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia were found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) among pregnant women(20.0%, 15.7%) when compared to non-pregnant women. The mean haemoglobin, haematocrit, serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were significantly reduced (p<0.01) in pregnant than non-pregnant women while total iron binding capacity and soluble transferrin receptor significantly (p<0.01) increased in pregnant than non-pregnant. It was also shown that pregnant women in their third trimesters and multigravidae had the highest prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia while pregnant women in their second trimester had the highest prevalence of anaemia. In conclusion the study has shown that the prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia among pregnant women in the studied area were still high and can be considered public health problem.
Key words: Anaemia, Iron deficiency , Soluble transferrin receptor
. Alhossain, A. & Amanda, E. D. (2012). Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Pregnancy and Postpartum: Pathophysiology and Effect of Oral versus Intravenous Iron Therapy. Journal of Pregnancy, 2012, 1155-1165
. Roskams , A. J. & Connors, J. R. (1994). Iron transferring and ferritin in the rat brain during development and aging. Journal of Neurochemistry, 63(2), 709-716.
. Finch, C. & Huebers, H. (1996). Perspective in iron metabolism. New England Journal of Medicine 306, 1520 -1528.
. Bothwell, T. H. and Charlton, R. W. (1997). A general approach of iron deficiency and iron overload in the population at large. Seminars in Haematology, 19, 54.
. Debenoist, B., Mclean E., Egli I. & Cogswell M. (2008). Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993–2005, WHO Global Database on Anemia. Geneva: World Health Organization, 21.
. Taylor, P. G. (1995). Iron bio-availability from diets consumed by different socio-economic strata of the Venezuelan population. Joural of Nutrition, 25, 1860-1868.
. Baynes, R. D., Shih, Y. J. & Cook, J. D. (1991). Production of soluble transferrin receptor by K563 erythroleukemia cells. British Journal of Haematology, 78, 450–455
. Okafor, I. M., Akpan, P. A., Usanga, E. A. (2012). Prevalence and Types of Anaemia in Malaria Infected Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 2(7), 73-78
. Ogbeide, O., Wagbatsoma, V. & Orhue, A. (1994). Anaemia in Pregnancy. East African Medical Journal, 71(110), 671–673.
. Desalegn, S. (1993). Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in Jimma town, South-western Ethiopia. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 31, 251-258.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Ingoldian Fungiin Kigga Falls, Chikmagalur District, Karnataka.|
|Authors||:||Suresha, H. R, Krishnappa, M., Raju, G. H.|
Abstract: Fungi are the ubiquitous organism.The exist in diverse forms in a range of habitats, arboreal, freshwater, marine, subterranean and terrestrial. In fresh water we concentrated only Ingoldian fungi. The selected study sites of foam samples and decaying debris were collected in the same study area and kept for screening and incubation respectively. The conidia developing on decayingdebris were screened using microscope. The collected foam samples wererevealed Ingoldianfungi. In this contribution of occurrence and abundance of Ingoldianfungi were enumerated. A total of 24 species were isolated twelve genera were identified.
Key words: Ingoldian fungi, decaying debris, Water bodies.
. Barlocher F:Aquatic hyphomycetespora in 10 strems of New Brunswick and nova scotia.Canadian journal of Botany 65:76-79.1X
. Barlocher, F. 1992. Community organization. The ecology of aquatic hyphomycetes, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 38-76.
. Barlocher, F., Schweizer, M. 1983. Effect of leaf size and decay rate on colonization by aquatic hyphomycetes. Oikos. 41: 205-210.
. Barlocher,F.(1992)Effect of drying and freezing autumn leaves on leaching and colonization by aquatic hypomycetes.Fresh water biollogy28:1-7.1X
. El-Hissy, F.T., Rouf, A. and Khallil, M. 1990. Fungi associated with some aquatic plants collected from fresh water areas at assuit (Upper Egypt). Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences.13: 298-304.
. Ellis,M.B. 1971:Dematiaceoushypomycetes.Commonwealthmycological institute, Kew, 608pp. figs.48.51,180.T+1X PARTIAL.
. Griffith, M.B. and S.A. Perry. Fungal biomass and leaf litter processing in streams of different water chemistry. Hydrobiology. 294: 51-61.
. Guilis K. Suberkropp. 2003. Effect of inorganic nutrients on relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to carbon flow from submerged decomposing leaf litter. Microbe. Ecol.45: 11-19.
. Kaushik,N.K. and Hynes,H.B.N.(1971):The fate of the dead leaves that fall in to streams.Archiv fur Hydrobiologie68:465-515.ix
. Ingold, C.T.1975 Conidia in the foam of two English streams. Transactions of the British mycological society65:522-527.Text-fig.1-4.1X
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Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the effects of the eccentric physical training's time on daily plasma concentrations of testosterone among sedentary athletes. Sixty male athletes, with homogeneous age, size and weight were selected for the study during three months. They were subjects to a strength training of the extensor and flexor muscles of the knee. After they were divided in two groups of thirty subjects and then had physical training either in the morning between 6 and 7, or in the evening, between 16 and 17. The dosage of testosterone on each athlete was performed before and after submission to an eccentric physical program at the antecubital vein in a restful sitting. Our results have shown that eccentric physical training induces the increase of this steroid hormone in the two groups of athletes and the training in the evening promotes better its production. Our results also showed that the rate of this androgen drop significantly during the day in both groups of athletes trained in the morning or in the evening as well as their respective controls. However, the decline was even more pronounced for subjects trained in the morning.
Keywords: testosterone; training time; eccentric training.
. Anderson V.L., McLean R.L. 1974. Design of experiments. Marcel Dekker, New York.
. Bernard T., Giacomoni M., Gavarry O., Seymat M., Falgairette G. 1998. Time-of-day effects in maximal anaerobic leg exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 77, 133-138. . Bhasin S., Woodhouse L., Storer TW. 2001. Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle. J. Endocrin., 1701, 27-38. . Bird S.P., Tarpenning K.M. 2004. Influence of circadian time structure on acute hormonal responses to a single bout of heavy-resistance exercise in weight-trained men. Chronobiol. Int., 21, 131-46. . Cadoux H.T., Few J.D., Imms F.J. 1985. The effect of exercise on the production and clearance of testosterone in well trained young men. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 54, 1985, pp. 321-325.
. Callard D., Davenne D., Gauthier A., Lagarde D., Van Hoeke J. 2000. Circadian rhythms in human muscular efficiency: Continuous physical exercise versus continuous rest. A crossover study. Chronobiol. Int., 17, 693-704.
. Cook C.J., Liam P., Kilduff L.P., Crewtherc B.T., Beavenf M., Westb D.J. 2013. Morning based strength training improves afternoon physical performance in rugby union players. J. Sci. Med. in Sport. (In press).
. Falgairette G., Billaut F., Ramdani S. 2003. Durée de la récupération et puissance maximale anaérobie au cours de la journée. Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 28, 213-224
. Ferrando A.A., Tipton K.D., Doyle D., Phillips S.M., Cortiella J., Wolfe R.R. 1998. Testosterone injection stimulates net protein synthesis but not tissue amino acid transport. Amer. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 275, 864–871.
. Gauthier A., Davenne D., Martin A., Van Hoeke J. 2001. Time of day effects on isometric and isokinetic torque developed during elbow flexion in humans. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 84, 249-252.
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Abstract: This study was concerned with the investigation of acute pharmacological responses (pharmacodynamics) including analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ketorolac tromethamine fast dissolving tablets prepared by direct compression method using 3% croscarmellose sodium as a superdisintegrant by applying tail flick test and carragenan induced rat paw edema test respectively. Also, the work aimed to develop a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of ketorolac tromethamine in human plasma samples released from fast dissolving tablets. Also, to estimate whether the prepared tablet dosage form increases the bioavailability of ketorolac tromethamine in the body compared to marketed conventional tablet. From this study, it could be inferred that ketorolac tromethamine fast dissolving tablets (G5) containing (3% corscarmellose sodium as a superdisintegrant, 30% Avicel pH102, 5% aspartame, 1% talc, 1% magnesium stearate, and mannitol Q.S.) and prepared by direct compression method could be considered as a promising formula to enhance bioavilability of the drug.
Keyword: Ketorolac tromethamine fast dissolving tablet , Tail flick, Rat paw edema and bioavialbility
. Romay C, Ledón N, and Gonzȁlez R. Further studies on anti-inflammatory activity of phycocyanin in some animal modles of inflammation. Inflam.Res.1998: 334-338 .
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. Young-Liang JIA, Zhao J, Zhang LH, et al. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ginger oil. Chines Herbal Medicines. 2011: 15-155.
. Bajad S, and Shulaev V. Highly –parallel metabolismic approaches using LC-MS/MS for pharmaceutical and environmental analysis. Trend in Analytical Chemistry.2007: 625-636 .
. Gibaldi M . Biopharmaceutics and clinical pharmaco- kinetics. 3rd ed. Lea & Febiger . Philadelphia. 1984; pp131-136.
. Schoenwald RD. Introduction in pharmacokinetics in drug discovery and development.3rd ed. CRC Press. London. (2002): pp 3-30.
. D'Amour FE, and Smith DL. A method for determining loss of pain sensation. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.1941: 74– 79 .
. Winter CA, Risely E.A, and Nuss GW. Carageenan induced edema hind paw of the rats as an assay for anti inflammatory drugs. Proc. Soc. Expt. Bio. Med.1962: 544-547 .
. Webster AA. Pharmaceutical product stability. In: Pharmaceutical sciences Encyclopedia: Drug discovery, development and manufacturing ( Webster AA ).Jon Wily and Sons, Inc.New York. 2010;pp 1-14.
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Abstract: The demand for mouth dissolving tablets has been growing during the last decade especially for elderly and children who have difficulties in swallowing. Ketorolac tromethamine is an effective anti-inflammatory agent that has been extensively used for the prevention of pain and inflammation associated with a wide variety of reasons. This study was aimed to form Ketorolac tromethamine mouth dissolving tablets by direct compression using superdisintegratants as crospovidone (CP) ,crosscarmellose sodium (CCS), and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) at concentrations of 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12%. The physical mixtures of the drug and the used excipients were evaluated for their micromeretric properties such as angle of repose, particle size, Hausner's ratio and % compressibility. Also, FTIR spectroscopy and DSC calorimetry were performed to indicate any possible interaction between the drug with the used excipients.All the prepared tablets were evaluated for their weight variation, thickness, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time. Also in-vitro release study was done for all the prepared tablets using distilled deionized water as dissolution medium at 37.5± 0.5 c˚. Based on in-vitro release study and stability studies, G5 (contained 3% CCS) was found to be the promising formulae and subjected to further studies.
Key words: Fast dissolving tablets, Ketorolac tromethamine, Crospovidone, and Crosscarmellose.
. Change RK, Guo X, Burnsidw B, et al. Fast dissolving tablets. Pharm. Technol.2000: 52-58 .
. Goel H, Rai P, Rana V, et al .Orally disintegrating systems: Innovations in formulation and technology. Recent Patent on Drug Delivery & Formulation. 2008: 258-274 .
. Reddy LH, Ghose B. Fast dissolving drug delivery systems: A review of the literature. Indian J. Pharm.Sci. 2002: 331-336 .
. Gicil M, Wilkes RN, Terri B.American cancer society consumer guide to cancer drugs. 2nd ed. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Canada. 2004; p 410.
. MC Guire DB, Yarbaro HC, and Ferrill BR. Cancer pain management. 2nd ed. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, UK. 1995; p 94 .
. Patil SB, Rao DK, Kulkarni U, et al. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of granisetron hydrochloride by direct compression technique.Int.J. Curr. Pharma. Res.2011: 124- 128 .
. Tiwari V, Kinikar DJ, Pillai K, et al. Preparation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of celecoxibe. J. Curr. Pharm. Resc.2010: 4-10 .
. –Shah D, Shah Y, and Rampradhan M. Development and evaluation of controlled release diltiazim hydrochloride microparticles using cross-linked polyvinyl alchol.Drug dev.Ind.Pharm.1977: 567-574.
. Raju SR, ShanmuganathanS, Sekharan RT, et al. Formulation and evaluation of mouth dissolving famotidine tablets. IJCRGG.2009: 1251-1256 .
. Govedrica B, Injac R, Dreu R, and Srcic S. Formulation and evaluation of immediate release tablets with different types of paracetamol powders prepared by direct compression. African . J.Pharm. Pharmaco.2011: 31-41.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Kinetic study of free and immobilized protease from Aspergillus sp.|
|Authors||:||Namrata Sharma, ShwetaTripathi|
Abstract:In the present investigation partially purified alkaline protease from Aspergillus sp. As#6 and As#7 strains were entrapped in calcium alginate beads and characterized using casein as a substrate. Temperature and pH maxima of protease from As#6 strain showed no changes before and after immobilization and remained stable at 450C and pH 9, respectively. However km value was slightly shifted from 4.5mg/ml to 5 mg/ml. Proteases from As#7 strain showed shifting in pH optima to a more alkaline range (10.0) as compared with free enzyme (9.0). Optimum temperature for protease from As#7 strain showed changes after immobilization and shifted from 650C to 850C. However there was no significant effect on Km value but Vmax of immobilized protease from As#7 strain was also shifted from 200U/ml to 370U/ml. Immobilized protease from As#6 strain was reused for 3 cycles with 22% loss in its activity whereas immobilize protease from As#7 strain was reused for 3 cycles with 17% loss in its activity. Protease from As#7 strain has a higher affinity for the substrate and higher proteolysis activity than protease from As#6 strain. The present work concludes that Aspergillus As#7 strain may be a good source of industrial protease.
Key Words: Alkaline protease, Aspergillus sp, Immobilized protease, Km, pH, Temperature, Vmax.
. M.B. Rao, A.M. Tanksale, M.S. Ghatge and V.V. Deshpande, Molecular and biotechnological aspects of microbial proteases, Microbial Mol. Biol Rev. 62, 1998, 597-635.
. H.S. Joo, C.S. Chang, Production of an oxidant and SDS - Stable alkaline protease from an alkalophilic Bacillus clausii 1-52 submerged fermentation, Feasibility as a laundry detergent additive, Enzyme Microbiol Technnol, 38, 2006,176-183.
. H. Ishikawa, K. Ishimi, M. Sugiura, A. Sowa and N. Fujiwara, Kinetics and mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis of gelatin layers of X-ray film and release of silver particles, .J Ferm. Bioeng. 76, 1993, 300-305.
. R. Tunga, B., Shrivastava, R. Banerjee, Purification and Characterization of a protease from solid state cultures of Aspergillus Parasticus, Process Biochem, 38 (11), 2003, 1553-1558.
. F.J. Ustariz, A. Laca, L.A. Garcia, M. Diaz, Fermentation of individual proteins for protease production by Serratia marcescens, Biochem. Engr. I. 19, 2004, 147-153.
. M. Madan, S. Dhillon and R. Singh, Production of alkaline protease by a UV mutant of Bacillus polymyxa, Indian J. Microbiol, 42, 2002, 155-159.
. D .Anandan, W. Marmer and R.L. Dudley, Isolation, characterization and optimization of culture parameters for production of an alkaline protease isolated from Aspergillus tamarii, J.Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 34 (5), 2007, 339-47.
. R. Chakraborty, M.S. Srinivasan and S.K. Raghwan, Production of acid proteases by a new Aspergillus niger during solid substrate fermentation, J . Microbiool, Biotechnol, 10, 1995, 17-30.
. M.S. Thakur, N.G. Karant and K. Nand, Production of fungal rennet by Mucor Miehi using solid state fermentation, Appl, Microbiol Biotechnol, 32, 1990, 409-413.
. M.R. Khan J.A. Blain and JDE Patterson, Intracellular protease of Mucor Pusillus Lindt. Pak. J. Biochem, 1, 1981-, 1-8.
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Abstract: The present study examined the effects of artesunate –amodiaquine combination therapy on spatial memory and anxiety- related behaviors in healthy Swiss mice. Neurobehavioural models used were the Y maze and elevated plus maze. Selected for the experiments were eighty adult mice weighing 20-25 g. Forty animals were used in each behavioral model; they were randomly assigned into five groups A, B, C, D and E. Group A served as control and received normal saline, groups B, C and D received artesunate (4 mg/kg), amodiaquine (10 mg/kg) and artesunate- amodiaquine combination(4 mg/kg and10 mg/kg) respectively while group E animals were given diazepam (5mg/kg). Drugs and vehicle were given orally for three days. The animals were exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the Y-maze on day 1 immediately after administering the first dose and day 3 immediately after the last dose, the number of entries and percentage time spent in the open and closed arms after five minutes' exposure to the plus maze and Y–maze spontaneous alternations over a five minute period was scored for each animal. Statistical analysis was carried out using a one way ANOVA followed by a post-hoc test. Results of elevated plus maze tests revealed a significant increase in number of open arm entries and percentage time spent in the open arm and a significant reduction in the total number of arm entries compared to control; Y-maze task performance showed a significant reduction in percentage correct alternations compared to control .In conclusion artesunate- amodiaquine administered over a three day period had anxiolytic and memory retarding effects in healthy mice thereby giving an insight into the possible behavioral effects in humans.
Keywords: Neurobehavior, Artesunate, Amodiaquine, Antimalaria, Anxiety, Memory
. World Health Organization, World malaria report, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerlandhttp://www.rbm.who.int/wmr2005.
. Breman, J.G.; The ears of the hippopotamus: manifestations, determinants and estimates of the malariaburden. Am. J. Tropical Med. Hygiene, 64: 2001;1-11.
. World Health Organisation; Guidelines for the treatment of malaria. WHO/HTM/MAL/2006.1108.
. Garner, P., & Graves, P.M.;The benefits of artemisinin combination therapy for malaria extend beyond the individual patient. PLoS Med 2(4) 2005: e105.
. White NJ ;"Assessment of the pharmacodynamic properties of antimalarial drugs in vivo".Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.41 (7) 1997: 1413–22. PMC 163932. PMID 921065
. Douglas NM, Anstey NM, Angus BJ, Nosten F, Price RN ; "Artemisinin combination therapy for vivax malaria". Lancet Infect Dis10 (6) 2010: 405–16. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70079-7
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. Gary H. Posner, Michael H. Parker; Northrop, John; Elias, Jeffrey S.; Ploypradith, Poonsakdi; Xie, Suji; Shapiro, Theresa A; "Orally Active, Hydrolytically Stable, Semisynthetic, Antimalarial Trioxanes in the Artemisinin Family". J. Med. Chem.42 (2) 1999: 300–304. doi:10.1021/jm980529v
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. Brewer TG, Peggins JO, Grate SJ, Petras JM, Levine BS, Weina PJ, Swearengen J, Heiffer MH, Schuster B;Neurotoxicity in animals due to arteether and artemether. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg , 88,1994: Suppl 1:S33-S36
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Comparative Study of Neem Seed Oil and Watermelon Seed Oil as Quenching Media for Thermal Processing of Steel.|
|Authors||:||S. A. Salihu; Y. I. Sulaiman, S. B. Hassan|
Abstract: In this work, comparative analysis of two biodegradable oils (neem seed oil and watermelon seed oil) were compared with conventional quenching oil (mineral oil) for heat treatment of steel. The plain carbon steel of 0. 37%C of 25 mm diameter was austenitized at different temperatures (800, 830, 850, 880, and 9000C) for 1 hr, quenched separately in these respective oils and tempered at different tempering temperatures (250, 270, 300, 330, 350 and 4000C) for 1 hr, thereafter cooled to room temperature in these oils. The microstructure resulted by different conditions have been correlated with mechanical properties through optical microscopy. The results indicate that the mechanical properties and microstructural features are affected by tempering temperature and austenitizing temperature on both quenchants. The tensile strength, hardness and retained austenite of tempered samples drop as the tempering temperature increased. However, the impact strength increases with increasing tempering and austenitizing temperature, indicating improvement of ductility. Microstructural observations reveal that the carbide precipitates have a plate-like structure at lower tempering temperatures, but are spheroid-like at high temperatures on both quenchants, but less pronounced on watermelon oil. Keywords: Quenching media, heat treatment, mechanical properties, quenching, tempering,
. Gulyaev, (1980): Physical metallurgy; vol. 1 Mir publishers, Moscow, USSR. pp 240-301
. American Society for Metals (1997):, ed. Metals Handbook. 9th ed. Vol. 4. pp. 32-35.
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. Fujimura, Y., Sato, T., (1963). The composition of quenching oil and quenching effects, The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ), Vol. 49, p. 1008-1015.
. Hassan S. B., Agboola J. B., Aigbodion V. S. Williams E. J. (2011): Hardening characteristics of plain carbon steel and ductile cast iron using neem oil as quenchant, Journal of Minerals & Materials characterization & Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 161-172.
. Novokov, (1980): Theory of heat treatment of metals, Mir publishers, Moscow, USSR. pp. 361-373
. M. Philip, B. Bolton, (2002): Technology of engineering materials, Butterworth Heinemann, Great Britain, pp 45-52, 200-222
. R. Dabrowski, R. Dziurka, (2011): Tempering temperature effects on hardness and impact tougness of 56NiCrMo7 steel, Archives of metallurgy and materials, Vol. 56. pp.11.
. S. A. Salihu, (2011): Fundamentals of materials science and engineering, first edition, Bolt project Nig. Limited printers, Nigeria. pp 331-341
. Tagaya, M., Tamura, I., (1954) Studies on the quenching media 3rd report. The cooling ability of oils. Technology Report, Osaka University, Vol. 4, p. 305-319.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Prevalence of Cleft Lip and Palate in Abuja Nigeria (From December2000 to December 2010)|
|Authors||:||Abue, A. D., Nwachukwu, M. I., Aniah, J. A., Ayang, U.|
Abstract: The prevalence of cleft lip and palate in University of Abuja Teaching Hospital from December 2000 to December 2010 was investigated in this works and was found to be 3.2 in every 1,000 live birth. This is very high as compared to reports from earlier works but was suspected to be due to the smile Train Project which is a private sector driven initiative that takes up the burden of paying for cleft lip and palate repair. Left sides clefts of the lip and palate were found to be almost twice that of right sides cleft of the lip and palate. This was in keeping with reports from earlier works. This study shows there is need for further studies in the field of cleft lip palate in all regions of the country.
Keywords:Abuja, cleft lip, cleft palate, prevalence and smile train project.
. Ross, E. A.Tale of two systems: Beliefs and prefaces of Traditional Healers concerning cleft lip and palate. Cleft palate- Cranvofalval Journal. 2007. 44:642-648.
. Butali A. P. A. Mossay, epidemiology of orofacial clefts in Africa. Methodological challenges in Ascertainment. The Pan African Medical Journal 2009;2.5
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. Mooney M, Siefel M, understanding oramiofacral anomalies: new York: wiley-Liss 2002: 3-11
. E.J Curtis and Associates – genetical and environmental factions in the etiology of cleft-lip. And cleft palate cam. Dent. Association J. 1957:23:570
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