Volume-1 ~ Issue-6
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Design and Analysis of Johnson Counter Using Finfet Technology|
|Authors||:||Myneni Jahnavi, S.Asha Latha, T.Ravi, E.Logashanmugam|
ABSTRACT: Conventional CMOS technology's performance deteriorates due to increased short channel effects. Double-gate (DG) FinFETs has better short channel effects performance compared to the conventional CMOS and stimulates technology scaling. The main drawback of using CMOS transistors are high power consumption and high leakage current. Fin-type field-effect transistors (FinFETs) are promising substitutes for bulk CMOS in nano- scale circuits.FinFET, which is a double-gate field effect transistor (DGFET), is more versatile than traditional single-gate field effect transistors because it has two gates that can be controlled independently. Usually, the second gate of FinFET transistors is used to dynamically control the threshold voltage of the first gate in order to improve the performance and reduce leakage power. In this paper, we proposes a synchronous johnson counter by using FinFET Technology.FinFET logic implementation has significant advantages over static CMOS logic in terms of power consumption. The proposed counter was fabricated in 16nm FinFET technology in HSPICE.
Keywords – CMOS, Scaling, FinFET, Low Power Design, SET
 Anish Muttreja, Niket Agarwal and Niraj K. Jha,Dept. Of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544"CMOS Logic Design with Independent-gate FinFETs".
 Farhana Sheikh, Vidya Varadarajan, "The Impact of Device-Width Quantization on Digital Circuit Design Using FinFET Structures", EE 241 SPRING 2004.
 Michael C. Wang , "Independent Gate FinFET Circuit Design Methodology", IAENG International Journal of Computer Science, 37:1, IJCS_37_1_06.
 Varun P. Gopi and V. Sureshbabu,"Independently driven double gate FinFET scalable to 10nm" , 10th National Conference on Technological Trends (NCTT09) Nov2009.
 Nirmal,Vijaya kumar, Samjabaraj, Nirmal et al, ," Nand gate using finfet for nanoscale technology", International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(5), 2010, 1351-1358".
 Imran Ahmed Khan,Mizra Tariq Beg,"Comparitive analysis of low power master slave single edge triggered flip flops",World applied sciences journal 16(special issue on recent trends on VLSI Design) 15-21,2012
 V Narendar,Wanjul Dattatray,R Sanjeev Rai,R. A.Mishra," Design of High-performance Digital Logic Circuits based on FinFET Technology", International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 4,1– No.20, March 2012.
 Michael C. Wang, Low Power, Area Efficient FinFET Circuit Design, Proceedings of the World Congress of Engineering and Computer Science 2009 Vol I,WCECS 2009, October 20-22, 2009, San Francisco, USA.
 Sherif A.Tawfik, VolkanKursun, "FinFET domino logic with independent gate keepers", Microelectronics Journal.
 Vladimir Stojanovic,Vojin G.Oklobdzija,"Comparitive analysis of master-slave latches and flip flops for high performance and low power systems",IEEE Journal of Solid state circuits,vol 34,no.4,APRIL.
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||2.5v 900 MHz 0.13μm CMOS cascode low noise amplifier for wireless application|
ABSTRACT: This paper presents low noise amplifier (LNA) for wireless application as RF front end which has been implemented in 0.13μ RF CMOS technology. The LNA was designed using inductive source degeneration cascode topology which produces better gain and good stability. From the simulation results, the LNA exhibits a gain of 26.46 dB, noise figure (NF) of 1.16 dB at 115μW , output return loss (S22) of −6.55dB, input return loss (S11) of −14.46dB, reverse isolation (S12) of −39.76 dB, and a power consumption is 7 mA from a 2.5V power supply.
Keywords - Low noise amplifier; RF front-end, cascode, CMOS, inductive source degeneration.
 Brian A. Floyd, Jesal Mehta, Carlos Gamero, and Kenneth K. O, A 900-MHz, 0.8-pm CMOS Low Noise Amplifier with 1.2-dB Noise Figure, Silicon Microwave Integrated Circuits and Systems Research Group (SiMICS) Dept. of' Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville.
 Andrew N. Karanicolas, A 2.7-V 900-MHz CMOS LNA and Mixer, Member, IEEE
 Arjuna Marzuki, GaAs pHEMT cascode LNA for wireless application, International journal of computer and electrical engineering ,vol.1,No.2,June 2009,1793-8163.
 Jon Guerber,Design of an 2.4GHz CMOS LNA, ECE 621,winter 2010.
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Power Efficient Sum of Absolute Difference Algorithms for video Compression|
|Authors||:||D.V. Manjunatha, G. Sainarayanan|
ABSTRACT: Video Compression (VC) is one of the resource hungry key element in video communication and is commonly achieved using Motion Estimation (ME). In this paper we proposed power efficient one bit full adder and one of the simple and easy metric called Sum of Absolute Difference (SAD) for estimating the motion vectors in motion estimation. SAD is primarily used to detect motion in the video sub system. Here we proposed power efficient 4X4 and 8X8 SAD architectures. The proposed 4X4 SAD proves that 29%, 63.23% and 61.31% improvement in leakage power, dynamic power and total power respectively as compared with existing 4X4 SAD. Similarly the proposed 8X8 SAD which proves that 57%, 46.16% and 46.78% improvement in Leakage Power (LP), Dynamic Power (DP) and Total Power (TP) respectively as compared with that of existing 8X8 SAD at the gate level. The designs are implemented in ASIC methodology using cadence tools.
Keywords - SAD, ME, VC, CSA, DSP, LP, DP, TP, FPGA et
 Yankang Wang, Kuroda H, "Hilbert scanning search algorithm for motion estimation," IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, vol. 9, issue 5 pp. 683-691, Aug. 1999.
 Seongsoo Lee, Jeong-Min Kim, Suo-IK Chae, "New motion estimation algorithm using adaptively quantized low bit-resolution image and its VLSI architecture for MPEG2 video encoding," IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, vol. 8, issue 6, pp 734 -744, Oct. 1998.
 Pickering M.R, Arnold J.F, Frater M.R, "An adaptive search length algorithm for block matching motion estimation," IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, vol. 7, issue 6, pp 906-912, Dec. 1997.
 Jo. Yew. Tham, Surendra Ranganath, Maitreya, Ashraf Ali Kassim, "A novel unrestricted centre biased diamond search algorithm for block motion estimation," IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, vol. 8, issue 4, pp 369-377, Aug. 1998.
 Huan-Sheng Wang, Mersereau R. M, "Fast algorithm for the estimation of motion vectors," IEEE transactions on image processing, vol. 8, issue 3, pp 435-438, Mar. 1999.
 Jon Wong Kim, Sang UK Lee, "Hierarchical variable block size motion estimation technique for motion sequence coding," optical engineering, vol. 33, pp. 2553-2561, 1994.
 H.264 AVC: "Draft ITU-T recommendation and final draft international standard of joint video specification (ITUT Rec. H.264/ISO/IEC14496-10AVC‟, in 'Joint Video Team (JVT) of ISO/IECMPE Gland ITU-TVCEG', JVT G050, 2003.
 Richardson I.E.G.: "h.264 and mpeg-4 video compression: video coding for next-generation multimedia' John Wiley & Sons, 2003.  Tung-Chien Chen, Shao Yi Chien, Yu-Yeh Chen, To-Wei Chen, Liang-Gee Chen, "Analysis and architecture design of an HDTV720p 30 frames/s H.264/AVC encoder", IEEE TCSVT, v. 16, no. 6, Jun. 2006, pp. 673-688.
 Vanne J, Aho.E, Hamalainen T.D, Kuusilinna. K, "A high-performance sum of absolute difference implementation for motion estimation", IEEE TCSVT, v. 16, n. 7, Jul. 2006, pp. 876-883.
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||An Efficient Two's Complement Multiplier With FPGA Implementation|
|Authors||:||Kolathur Lakshmipathy, Voruganti Santhosh Kumar , Dr Vangala padmaja|
ABSTRACT: The performance of multiplication is crucial for multimedia applications such as 3D graphics and signal processing systems which depend on extensive numbers of multiplications. Previously reported multiplication algorithms mainly focus on rapidly reducing the partial products rows down to final sums and carries used for the final accumulation. These techniques mostly rely on circuit optimization and minimization of the critical paths. In this paper, an algorithm to achieve fast multiplication in two's complement representation is presented. Indeed, our approach focuses on reducing the number of partial product rows. In turn, this directly influences the speed of the multiplication, even before applying partial products reduction techniques. Fewer partial products rows are produced, thereby lowering the overall operation time. This results in a true diamond-shape for the partial product tree which is more efficient in terms of implementation.
Keywords:— MBE, PPR, PPRG, FPGA.
 M.D. Ercegovac and T. Lang, Digital Arithmetic. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2003.
 S.K. Hsu, S.K. Mathew, M.A. Anders, B.R. Zeydel, V.G.Oklobdzija, R.K. Krishnamurthy, and S.Y. Borkar, "A 110GOPS/W 16-Bit Multiplier and Reconfigurable PLA Loop in 90-nm CMOS," IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 256-264, Jan.2006.  H. Kaul, M.A. Anders, S.K. Mathew, S.K. Hsu, A. Agarwal, R.K.Krishnamurthy, and S. Borkar, "A 300 mV 494GOPS/W Reconfigurable Dual-Supply 4-Way SIMD Vector Processing Accelerator in 45 nm CMOS," IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 95-101, Jan. 2010  M.S. Schmookler, M. Putrino, A. Mather, J. Tyler, H.V. Nguyen, C.Roth, M. Sharma, M.N. Pham, and J. Lent, "A Low-Power, High-Speed Implementation of a PowerPC Microprocessor Vector Extension," Proc. 14th IEEE Symp. Computer Arithmetic, pp. 12-19,1999.  O.L. MacSorley, "High Speed Arithmetic in Binary Computers," Proc. IRE, vol. 49, pp. 67-91, Jan. 1961.  L. Dadda, "Some Schemes for Parallel Multipliers," Alta Frequenza, vol. 34, pp. 349-356, May 1965.  C.S. Wallace, "A Suggestion for a Fast Multiplier," IEEE Trans.Electronic Computers, vol. EC-13, no. 1, pp. 14-17, Feb. 1964.  D.E. Shaw, "Anton: A Specialized Machine for Millisecond-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Proteins," Proc. 19th IEEE Symp. Computer Arithmetic, p. 3, 2009.  J.-Y. Kang and J.-L. Gaudiot, "A Simple High-Speed Multiplier Design," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 1253-1258, Oct.2006.
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||A High Performance & Efficiently Designed IIR Filter Using Graphical Virtual Tool (LabVIEW)|
|Authors||:||Shikha Tiwari, Rajinder Tiwari, Amit Bajpai|
ABSTRACT: Designing of digital filters based on LABVIEW involves the concept of virtual instrumentation. In the recent years LABVIEW finds many applications in different fields for example industrial purpose like level sensor, temperature sensor pressure sensor etc. Virtual instruments are used in LABVIEW. Each VI has three parts a block diagram, a front panel and a connector panel. Connector panel is used to represent the VI in the block diagrams of other. Controls and indicators on the front panel allow an operator to input data into or extract data from a running virtual instrument. The front panel can also serve as a programmatic interface. A digital IIR filter system is developed using LABVIEW software. IIR filters possess certain properties which makes them preferred design choices in many situations over FIR filters. Following are the types of IIR filter Butterworth filters, Chebyshev filters, Inverse chebyshev filters, Elliptic filters. Virtual instrument reads the desired parameters of the filters entered by the user on the front panel and determines its magnitude response and filter coefficients.
Keywords: ADC, DAC, DSP, Design Approach, Virtual instrument, LABVIEW, IIR filter.
 Aimin Jiang and Hon Keung Kwan,"IIR Digital Filter Design with Novel Stability Criterion Based on Argument Principle" Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,University of Windsor , vol. 1, pp. 126-131, 2007
 Beyon, J. Y., Hands-On Exercise Manual for LabVIEW Programming, Data Acquisition and Analysis, Prentice Hall, Inc., New Jersey, 2001
 Chugani, M. L., LabVIEW Signal Processing, Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1998  Clark C. L.,LabVIEW Digital Signal Processing and Digital Communications, Tata McGRAW-HILL, 2005
 Fahmy M.F., Abo-Zahhad M. and Shoby M.1., "Design of elective Linear Phase Switched-Capacitor Filters with Equiripple Passband Amplitude Responses", IEEE Trans. On Circuits and Systems, CAS-35, no. 10, pp. 1220-1229, 1988
 Jackson L. B., Digital Filters and Signal Processing, 3rd ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996
A High Performance & Efficiently Designed IIR Filter Using Graphical Virtual Tool (LabVIEW)
www.iosrjournals.org 35 | Page
 Namjin Kim, "Digital Signal Processing System-Level Design Using LabVIEW", Elsevier Inc.,vol. 1, 122-127, 2005
 Oppenheim, A.V., R.W. Schafer, Discrete Time Signal Processing, 2nd ed., Pearson Education, 2005
 Proakis J.G., and D.G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, Principles Algorithms, and Applications, 3rd ed., Pearson Education, Inc., 1996
 Wells, L. K. and Travis, J., LabVIEW for Everyone Graphical Programming Made Even Easier, Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1997
 FDS- Filter design system for SPW, Product data sheet, Comdisco, Inc., 1990. A. H Gray and J. D Markel, "A Computer Program for Designing Digital Elliptic Filters". IEEE Trans. Acous., Speech Signal Processing vol. ASSP-24, pp.529-538, 1973
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Removal of High Density Impulse Noise Using Cloud Model Filter|
|Authors||:||Easwara.M IV Sem, Satish Babu. J|
ABSTRACT: The fact that makes image denoising a difficult task is uncertainties in the impulse noise. The most knowledge in dayflies is uncertainty and erratic, unfortunately it is similar to impulse noise. The mathematic implements for handling uncertainty mostly are probability theory and fuzzy mathematics. That means, among the uncertainties involved in impulse noise, the randomness and the fuzziness are the two most important features. In this paper we use a detail-preserving filter based on the Cloud Model (CM) to remove severe impulse noise. CM is an uncertain conversion model, between qualitative and quantitative description that integrates the concept of randomness and fuzziness. The normal random number generation method in normal cloud generator algorithm overcomes the insufficiency of common method to generate random numbers. It can produce random numbers which can be predictable and replicated, and this random numbers present to be a random sequence as a whole. The digital features of the normal cloud characterized by three values with the expectation Ex, entropy En and Hyper entropy He and are good enough to represent a normal cloud. First, an uncertainty-based detector, normal cloud generator, identifies the pixels corrupted by impulse noise. Then, the identified noise pixels are replaced by a fuzzy mean estimation of the processed noise free pixels within the detection window. Compared with the traditional switching filters, the CM filter makes a great improvement in image denoising. Especially, at high density noise level. Thus, the cloud model filter can remove severe impulse noise while preserving the image details.
Key words—uncertainty, fuzzy median, normal cloud generator, cloud drops.
. Zhe Zhou, "Cognition and Removal of Impulse Noise With Uncertainty", IEEE Transactions on image processing, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 3157-3167, July 2012.
. Zhaohong Wang, Cloud Theory and Fractal Application in Virtual Plants I.J. Intelligent Systems and Applications, 2, 17-23 , MECS (http://www.mecs- press.org/) March 2011.
. S.-J. Ko and S.-J. Lee, "Center weighted median filters and their applications to image enhancement," IEEE Trans. Circuits.,vol.38, no. 9, pp. 984–993, Sep. 1991.
. H. Hwang and R. A. Haddad, "Adaptive median filters: New algorithms and results," IEEE Trans. ImageProcess., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 499–502, Apr. 1995.
. Z. Wang and D. Zhang, "Progressive switching median filter for the removal of impulse noise from highly corrupted images," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Analog Digit. Signal Process., vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 78–80,Jan. 1999.
. K. S. Srinivasan and D. Ebenezer, "A new fast and efficient decisionbased algorithm for removal of high- density impulse noises," IEEE Signal Process. Letters, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 189–192, Mar. 2007.
. P.-E. Ng and K.-K. Ma, "A switching median filter with boundary discriminative noise detection for extremely corrupted images," IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 15, no. 6, pp 1506–1516, Jun. 2006. [
8]. T. Chen, K.-K. Ma, and L.-H. Chen, "Tri-state median filter for image denoising," IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1834–1838, Dec. 1999.
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Survey on Different Image Fusion Techniques|
|Authors||:||Miss. Suvarna A. Wakure, Mr. S.R. Todmal|
ABSTRACT: In medical imaging and remote sensing, image fusion technique is a useful tool used to fuse high spatial resolution panchromatic images (PAN) with lower spatial resolution multispectral images (MS) to create a high spatial resolution multispectral of image fusion while preserving the spectral information in the multispectral image (MS).Image fusion is the process that combines information from multiple images of the samescene. The result of image fusion is a new image that retains the most desirable informationand characteristics of each input image. Now-a-days, almost all areas of medical diagnosis are impacted by the digital image processing. When an image is processed for visual interpretation, the human eye is the judge of how well a particular method works. Clinical application demanding Radiotherapy plan, for instance, often benefits from the complementary information in images of different modalities. For medical diagnosis, Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize internal structures of the body in detail. MRI provides better information on soft tissue with more distortion. Whereas, Computed Tomography (CT) provides the best information on denser tissue with less distortion. Wavelet transform fusion is more formally defined by considering the wavelet transforms of the two registered input images together with the fusion rule .Then, the inverse wavelet transform is computed, and the fused image is reconstructed. The wavelets used in image fusion can be classified into three categories Orthogonal, Bi-orthogonal and A'trous' wavelet. Although these wavelets share some common properties, each wavelet has a unique image decompression and reconstruction characteristics that lead to different fusion results. Since medical images have several objects and curved shapes, it is expected that the curvelet transform would be better in their fusion. In this paper the fusion results are compared visually and statistically. The simulation results show the superiority of the curvelet transform to the wavelet transform in the fusion of digital image and MR and CT images from entropy, difference entropy, quality measure, standard deviation, PSNR.
Keywords- Fusion, Wavelet transform, Curvelet Transform
 A. Soma Sekhar, Dr.M.N.Giri Prasad , A Novel Approach of Image Fusion on MR and CT Images Using Wavelet Transforms, 2011 IEEE
 Smt.G. Mamatha(Phd) , L.Gayatri, An Image Fusion Using Wavelet And Curvelet TransformGlobal Journal of Advanced Engineering Technologies, Vol1, Issue-2, 2012 , ISSN: 2277-6370
 Abhijit Somnathe, Ujwal Harode, A Novel Approach of Image Fusion based on Wavelet Transform and Curvelet Transform,International Conference & Workshop on Recent Trendsin Technology, (TCET) 2012
 Rafael c. Gonzalez,richard E.woods Digital image processing, Addison-wesley.an imprint of pearson education, 1st edition
 E. J. Candes, D. L. Donoho. Curvelets: A surprisingly effective nonadaptive representation for objects with edges[J]. In:C. Rabut A. Cohen , L. L. Schumaker. Curves and Surfaces. Nashville , TN: Vanderbilt University Press ,2000. 105-120.
 E. J. Candes, D. L. Donoho. New tight frames of curvelets and optimal representations of objects with singularities[J]. Commun. On Pure and Appl. Math.2004, 57(2):219-266.
 E. J. Candes , L. Demanet D. L. Donoho et al.. Fast Discrete Curvelet Transforms[R].Applied and Computational Mathematics. California Institute of Technology , 2005.1.
 LiHui-hu,i GuoLe,i LiuHang. Research on image fusion based on the second generation curvelet transform [J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2006,26(5): 657 ~662.
 Paul Scheunders, Member, IEEE. An Orthogonal Wavelet Representation ofMultivalued Images. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 12, no. 6, June 2003
 Shaohui Chen, Renhua Zhang, Hongbo Su, Senior Member, IEEE, Jing Tian, and Jun Xia,SAR and Multispectral Image Fusion Using Generalized IHS Transform Based on à Trous Wavelet and EMD Decompositions. IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 10, NO. 3, MARCH 2010
ABSTRACT: Steganography, the art of hiding secrete messages inside other messages, innocuous wrapper, as until recently had been the poor cousin of cryptography, to communicate privately in an open channel. This area of study got widespread popularity after its alleged use by many extremist groups while hatching and executing their plans remotely. Because of this, in the recent past, many law enforcement and government agencies have also shown keen interest in it. There are many other reasons like Digital Rights Management applications (Watermarking and Finger Printing), which acted as catalyst too. This paper proposes a new steganographic encoding scheme which separates the colour channels of the windows bitmap images and then hides messages Randomly using polynomials in the LSB of one colour component of a chosen pixel where the colour components of the other two are found to be equal to the key selected. Keywords : Steganography, Data Hiding, LSB, Polynomials.
. Murray, A.H., and R.W Burchfiled (eds.), The Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1933.
. J. Bright, Jeremiah (AB; New York 1965) 209; R.K. Harrison, Jeremiah and Lamentations (Winona Lake 1973)
. D. Kahn, 'The History of Steganography' in Anderson, pp. 1-5.
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. Oosterwijk, Herman and Paul T. Gihring; DICOM Basics, 3rd ed.; OTech, Inc., Aubrey, TX;2002
. D. Kahn, 'The Codebreakers - The Story of Secret Writing', Scribner, New York, New York, U.S.A., 1996. ISBN 0-684-83130-9.
. G.J. Simmons , "The prisoners' problem and the subliminal channel" , Advances in Cryptology : Proceedings of CRYPTO 83, (ed. D. Chaum ), Plenum , New York , 1984,pp.51-67.
. NF Maxemchuk, Electronic Document Distribution", AT & T Technical Journal v 73 no 5 (Sep/Oct 94) pp 73 - 80
. A. Westfeld and A. Pfitzmann, "Attacks on Steganographic System", Proc. Information Hiding-3 Int'l Workshop in Information Hiding, Springer- Verlag, 1999, pp. 61-76.
. JijjuA.Mathew& Prof. Gurmit Singh, "Stegnography and Covert Communications in open systemsenvironment", 2009 IEEE, pp.847-849.
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Application of Segmentation Techniques on Atherosclerosis Images|
|Authors||:||Patel Janakkumar Baldevbhai , R.S. Anand|
ABSTRACT: This paper presents application of segmentation techniques on atherosclerosis images using various segmentation methods like Otsu thresholding, fuzzy C means, clustering algorithm and marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm. Atherosclerosis is one of the causes of coronary heart disease (CHD). The proposed marker controlled watershed algorithm for medical image segmentation and analysis is very important because of its advantages, such as always being able to construct an entire division of the color image and prevent over segmentation as compared to conventional watershed algorithm. Paper finds Region of Interest (ROI) values of segmented image with proposed technique for coronary atherosclerosis.
Keywords - Coronary heart disease (CHD), Clustering Image Segmentation Technique, Medical Image Segmentation, Fuzzy C means algorithm, Marker based Watershed Image Segmentation Technique.
 Milan Sonka, Vaclav Hlavac, Roger Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision, 2nd ed., Bangalore , by Thomson Asia Pte Ltd., Singapore, first reprint 2001, pp-186.
 Anil k. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, Delhi, Published by Pearson Education, 3rd Impression, 2008, pp-370.
 J. L. Vincent, "Morphological grayscale reconstruction in image analysis: Application and efficient algorithms," IEEE Trans. Image Proc., vol. 2, pp. 176-201, 1993.
 S. Beucher, "Watershed, hierarchical segmentation and waterfall algorithm," Mathematical Morphology and Its Applications to Image Processing, Dordrecht, and The Netherlands: Kluwer pp. 69-76, 1994.
 V. Grau, A. U. J. Mewes, M. Alcaniz, R. Kikinis and S. K. Warfield, "Improved Watershed Transform for Medical Image Segmentation Using Prior Information," IEEE Trans. Medical imaging, vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 447-458, April 2004.
 Valerie Pazos, Rosaire Mongrain, and Jean-Claude Tardif, "Mechanical Characterization of Atherosclerotic Arteries Using Finite-Element Modeling: Feasibility Study on Mock Arteries," IEEE Trans. on biomedical Eng., vol. 57, no. 6, June 2010.
 Christof Karmonik, Pamela Basto, Kasey Vickers, Kirt Martin, Micheal J. Reardon, Gerald M. Lawrie, and Joel D. Morrisett, "Quantitative Segmentation of Principal Carotid Atherosclerotic Lesion Components by Feature Space Analysis Based on Multicontrast MRI at 1.5 T," IEEE Transactions on biomedical engineering, vol. 56, no. 2, February 2009.
 Danijela Vukadinovic, Theo van Walsum, Rashindra Manniesing, Sietske Rozie, Reinhard Hameeteman, Thomas T. de Weert, Aad van der Lugt, and Wiro J. Niessen, "Segmentation of the Outer Vessel Wall of the Common Carotid Artery in CTA," IEEE Transactions on medical imaging, vol. 29, no. 1, January 2010
 Gozde Unal, Susann Bucher, Stephane Carlier, Greg Slabaugh, Tong Fang, and Kaoru Tanaka, "Shape-Driven Segmentation of the Arterial Wall in Intravascular Ultrasound Images," IEEE Trans. on info. Tech. in biomedicine, vol. 12, no. 3, May 2008
 Simon Le Floch, Jacques Ohayon, Philippe Tracqui, Gerard Finet, Ahmed M. Gharib, Roch L. Maurice, Guy Cloutier, and Roderic I. Pettigrew, "Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque Elasticity Reconstruction Based on a Segmentation-Driven Optimization Procedure Using Strain Measurements: Theoretical Framework," IEEE Trans. on medical imaging, vol. 28, no. 7, July 2009.
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Low Power R4SDC Pipelined FFT Processor Architecture|
|Authors||:||Anjana R, Krunal Gandhi, Vaishali lad|
ABSTRACT: When the real-time signal processing is required pipelined FFT is the suitable option because of its high throughput and low power demands. A number of FFT architectures are there. Radix-4 single delay commutator (R4SDC) architecture is researched in this paper. R4SDC is the most popular pipeline FFT architectures, because of its efficient use of butterflies and multipliers. In this a low power technique for the pipeline FFT architecture is discussed. In this, Conventional R4SDC architecture, complex multiplier, and multiplier-less architecture based on common sub-expression technique are implemented and compared for 16, 64 and 256-point FFT architectures. A new type of multiplier algorithm called Multiplier-less architecture is implemented and compared with the carry save array, Wallace and Conventional complex multiplier (NBW).
. Wei Han; Arslan, T.; Erdogan, A.T.; Hasan, M., "Low Power Commutator for Pipelined FFT Processors", Circuits and Systems, 2005. ISCAS 2005. IEEE International Symposium on 23-26 May 2005 Page(s):5274 - 5277.
. Weidong Li,Lars Wanhammar," A Pipelined FFT processor",IEEE Transactions on consumer electronics,1999.
. John G. Proakis, Dimitris G. Manolakis, "Digital Signal Processing", Third Edition. Principles, Algorithm and Applications.
. Johansson, S.; Shousheng He; Nilsson, P., "Wordlength optimization of a pipelined FFT processor, Circuits and Systems, 1999, Volume 1, Aug. 1999 Page: 501 –503.
. Baas, B.M., Student member, IEEE, "A Low-Power, High-Performance, 1024-point FFT processor, Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal, Volume 34, Issue 3, March 1999 Page: 380 – 387.
. Schoushheng He; Mats Torkelson,IEEE, "A New approach to pipeline FFT processor", Applied electronics,IEEE journal,proceedings ofIPPS,1996
. Jen Ming Wu and Yang Chun Fan "coefficient ordering based pipelined FFT/IFFT with minimum switching activity for a low power OFDM communications", Institute of communications Engineering.
. B.Guoan and E. Jones,"A pipelined FFT processor for word sequential data",IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing,vol.37,pp.1982-1985,December 1989.
. Wei Han; Arslan, T.; Erdogan, A.T.; Hasan, M., "Low Power Commutator for Pipelined FFT Processors", Circuits and Systems, 2005. ISCAS 2005. IEEE International Symposium on 23-26 May 2005 Page(s):5274 - 5277
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Multimodal Biometric Identification System Based On Iris & Fingerprint|
|Authors||:||Ms. Priyanka S. Patil, Prof.(Dr.) A. S. Abhyankar|
ABSTRACT: This paper is related to the development of an innovative multimodal biometric identification system. Unimodal biometric systems often face significant limitations due to sensitivity to noise intraclass variability and other factors. Multimodal biometric identification systems aim to fuse two or more physical or behavioral traits to provide optimal False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR), thus improving system accuracy and dependability. In greater detail, a Multimodal Biometric Identification System Based On Iris & Fingerprint. Both biometric traits (Iris & Fingerprint) are processed individually through all steps like segmentation ,feature extraction & matching. The multimodal system is fused using match level fusion at the verification stage on obtained matching score of iris and fingerprint. The performance of the biometric system shows improvement in the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Reject Rate (FRR) .The proposed multimodal system achieves interesting results with several commonly used databases.
Keywords - Unimodal biometrics, multimodal biometric systems, iris and fingerprint biometry
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