Volume-4 ~ Issue-5
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|Title||:||Anodic Acetoxylation of Anisole at Graphite and Platinum Electrodes|
|Authors||:||C. Thillaiyadi Valliammai, M. Pugazhenthi, S. Sivaji Ganesan|
Abstract: Anodic acetoxylation of anisole has been carried out on graphite and platinum electrodes in glacial acetic acid and sodium acetate. On graphite electrode p-acetoxy anisole is the major product along with hydroxy derivative in traces. By using platinum electrode, the major product is dimer along with hydroxy derivative in traces. The most probable mechanism has been proposed. Keywords: Anodic acetoxylation, Anisole, Graphite and platinum electrodes.
. Ulrich Griesbach, Andreas Fischer, Hermann Putter and Christos Comniellin, J.Electro anal. Chem., 614 (2008) 107-112.
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|Title||:||A optimized process for the synthesis of a key starting material for etodolac, a non steroidal anti- inflammatory drug.|
|Authors||:||Vinodkumar R. Patel, Hemant T. desai|
Abstract: An optimized process developed for the synthesis of 7-ethyltryptophol, a key starting material for etodolac, a non steroidal anti- inflammatory drug. Starting from commercially available 2-ethylphenylhydrazine. HCl and dihydro furan with con. H2SO4 as a catalyst in N, N- dimethyl acetamide ( DMAc). H2O (1:1) as a solvent in 75% yield . the method is easy, inexpensive , without purification getting pure solid. The process is very clean, high yielding & high quality and operationally simple.
Keywords: Etodolac, 7-ethyl tryptophol, 2-ethyl phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride, N,N-dimethyl acetamide.
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|Title||:||Oil and Fatty Acids Composition in Glasswort (Salicornia Fruticosa) Seeds|
|Authors||:||Elsebaie, E. M., Elsanat, S. Y., Gouda, M. S., Elnemr, K. M.|
Abstract: glasswort (Salicornia fruticosa) is the most widely distributed species of the perennial genus of glasswort in Egypt and it shows great biotechnological potential as a salt-water irrigated crop. Oil analysis of Salicornia fruticosa seeds was carried out in the current study. Chloroform and methanol mixture (2:1 v:v) extraction yielded maximum oil content from seeds (28.59%). The physical and chemical characteristics of Salicornia fruticosa seed oil were also analyzed. The results were as follows: the iodine value 84.5 gI/100 g oil, acid value 1.84 mgKOH/g oil and saponification value 195.6 mgKOH/g oil. The unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 78.05%, in which oleic acid accounted for 56.58 %, linoleic acid accounted for 17.40 %,and linolenic acid accounted for 3.98 %. It showed that Salicornia fruticosa seed oil was a high quality health oil.
Key Words: glasswort, fatty acids composition, oleic acid, oilseeds, Salicornia fruticosa.
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. Ruana, C. J.; Lia, H; Guob, Y. Q.; Inb, P.; Gallagherc, J. L.; Seliskarc, D. M.; Luttsd, S and Mahye, G. Kosteletzkya virginica, an agroecoengineering halophytic species for alternative agricultural production in China's east
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|Title||:||Qualitative Chemistry Education: The Role of the Teacher|
|Authors||:||Bugaje, Badoyya Muhammad|
Abstract: This paper discussed the role of a chemistry teacher towards improving the quality of education in Nigeria. The decline in the quality of education has been attributed to many factors. Some of these factors are unqualified teachers, examination malpractice,, lack of practical skills, method of classroom instruction, to mention but a few. The role of a chemistry teacher among others is to change the method of classroom instruction from lecture method to innovative learning strategy such as cooperative learning and concept mapping, and to make use of improvised materials in the absence of standard equipments . It also examine the problems associated with the fall in quality of education. Finally it is recommended that Government should ensure that adequate funds are released to train science teachers, since teachers are the main determinant of quality in Education.
. Abubakar I. and Rilwanu Y. G (2010). Computer simulation as key to to enhanced learning. Conceptual over view. International Journal of computer science. 2 (1) 51 – 56.
. Adekunle Y.A (1997). Innovations in science teaching and mathematics. STAN 40th Annual conference proceedings.52-54.
. Adeyemi,B.A (2010). Effects of cooperative learning and problem-solving strategies on junior secondary school student' achievement in social studies Electronic Journal of Research in Educational psychology. 16 (6) 691-708.
. Adeyemo,S.A (2010). The influence of cooperative learning and problem solving strategies in Senior Secondary School achievement. International Journal of Education Research and Technology 1(1)112-120.
. Afolabi,O, Adedapo, Y.A and Adeyanju O.l.(2005). Why college teachers do not use ICT facilities in teaching. Joural of e-learning (JOEL)1(1), 29.
. Agbenyeku, E.U. (2001) Improving the quality of science education in Nigerian schools in the new millennium. Kasugu Journal of Education 1(1), 42-48.
. Agusiobo,N.N.(2002). Constraints of effective implementation of senior secondary school physics curriculum. Journal of Technical Education Research and Development (JOTERD), 11, 43-52.
. Akale M. A. G (1992). Integrated Science Programme constraints and prospects in Nigerian schools The Nigerian Teacher Today 1 (2), 96 – 100.
. Akale M.A.G and Nwankwonta, N.A (1998). The relationship between psycho-social environment and cognitive achievement of senior secondary students in science. The Nigerian Teacher Today 6(1) 98-102.
. Batagarawa, A.M (2005). Qualitative education. What role for an accountant A paper presented at the national conference held at federal college of education, katsina.
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|Title||:||Fault Detection Technique for Compact AES Design|
|Authors||:||Nahala Basheer, Ms. Nisha Lali R., Mr. Rajeev S. K.|
Abstract:Cryptography is a method that has been developed to ensure the secrecy of messages and transfer data securely. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) has been made as the first choice for many critical applications because of the high level of security and the fast hardware and software implementations, many of which are power and resource constrained and requires reliable and efficient hardware implementations. Naturally occurring and maliciously injected faults reduce the reliability of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and may leak confidential information. In this paper, a lightweight concurrent fault detection scheme for the AES is presented. In the proposed approach, the composite field S-box and inverse S-box are divided into blocks and the predicted parities of these blocks are obtained. For high speed applications, S-box implementation based on lookup tables is avoided. Instead, logic gate implementations based on composite fields are utilized. A compact architecture for the AES Mix-columns operation and its inverse is also presented. This parity-based fault detection scheme reaches the maximum fault coverage when compared to other methods of fault detection. The proposed fault detection technique for AES encryption and decryption has the least area and power consumption compared to their counterparts with similar fault detection capabilities.
Index terms: AES, composite fields, parity prediction, fault detection, S-box.
 Mehran Mozaffari-Kermani and Arash Reyhani-Masoleh, "A lightweight High-Performance Fault Detection Scheme for the Advanced Encryption Standard Using Composite Fields" IEEE Trans. On Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Syestems, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 85–591,January 2011.
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 R. Karri, K. Wu, P. Mishra, and Y. Kim, "Concurrent error detection schemes for fault-based side-channel cryptanalysis of symmetric blockciphers," IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1509–1517, Dec. 2002.
 G. Bertoni, L. Breveglieri, I. Koren, P. Maistri, and V. Piuri, "Error analysis and detection procedures for a hardware implementation of the advanced encryption standard," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 492–505, Apr. 2003.
 G. Bertoni, L. Breveglieri, I. Koren, P. Maistri and V. Piuri, "A parity code based fault detection for an implementation of the advanced encryption standard," Proc. of IEEE Int'l S mp., Defect and Fault Toler n e in VLSI S stems (DFT '02), pp. 51-59, Nov. 2002.
 M. Mozaffari Kermani, "Fault Detection Schemes for High Performance VLSI Implementations of the Advanced Encryption Standard," M.E.Sc. Thesis, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London,Ontario, Canada, April 2007.
 M. Mozaffari-Kermani and A. Reyhani-Masoleh, "Concurrent Structure-Independent Fault Detection Schemes for the Advanced Encryption Standard," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 608-622, May 2010.
 C. H. Yen and B. F.Wu, "Simple error detection methods for hardware implementation of advanced encryption standard," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 720–731, Jun. 2006.
 G. Bertoni, L. Breveglieri, I. Koren, P. Maistri, and V. Piuri, "A parity code based fault detection for an implementation of the advanced encryption standard," in Proc. DFT, Nov. 2002, pp. 51–59.
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|Title||:||Proximate, Mineral and Anti-Nutrient Evaluation of Pumpkin Pulp (Cucurbita Pepo)|
|Authors||:||Adebayo, O. R, Farombi A. G, Oyekanmi A. M.|
Abstract: Proximate, minerals and anti-nutritional concentration of Pumpkin pulp (Cucurbita pepo) were investigated using standard analytical methods as stipulated by AOAC (1990), Agte el al; (1995), Chapman and Pratt, (1961), Kadhakrishna and Sivaprasad (1980), Nelson (1968),Day and underwood, (1986). The proximate composition (%) showed that pumpkin pulp contained Total ash 15.988 ± 0.10, Moisture 0.532 ± 0.10, Fat extract 2.300 ± 0.01 Crude fibre 11.463 ± 0.10, Crude protein 3.070 ± 0.01 and Carbohydrate by difference 66.647 ± 0.01% .The mineral element were Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Ni and P with values of 189.91 ± 0.2, 179.01 ± 0.2, 0.502 ± 0.1, 1.370 ± 0.1, 3.910 ± 0.1, 0.290 ± 0.1, 0.110 ± o.1 and 11.83 ± 0.2 mg/kg respectively also Na and K with values of 159.01 ± 0.2 and K 160.31 ± 0.1 mg/l00kg were estimated using Flame Emission spectrophotometer. The anti-nutritional analysis of pumpkin pulp gives Phytates 0.618 ± 0.100mgl100kg, Oxalates 16.297 ± 0.100 mg/100kg and Tannins 0.358 ± 0.100 mg/100kg. The results obtained above goes a long way to proof that pumpkin pulp is highly nutritious and at the same time can be used as food formulation for infant due to its nutritional composition.
Key Words: Cucurbita pepo, cucurbitaceae, pumpkin pulp, proximate analysis, mineral
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 Chapman, D. H & Pratt, P.F (1961). Methods of analysis Of soils, plants and water. University of California, Riverside: Division of Agricultural Science.
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Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of manganese (ІІ), cobalt (ІІ), nickel (ІІ), copper (ІІ), zinc (ІІ), cadmium (ІІ) and mercury (ІІ) bidentate 2-(6-methoxybenzo[d]thiazol-2-ylamino)-2-phenyl acetonitrile ligand which was prepared from Benz aldehyde and 6-methoxybenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine in the presence of KCN and acidic medium. The complexes were synthesized by treating an ethanolic solution of the ligand with appropriate amount of metal salts [1:2] [M: L] ratio. The complexes were characterized by using metal and elemental chemical analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, FTIR , electronic spectral and mole ratio method. According to the obtained data the probable coordination geometries of manganese (ІІ), cobalt (ІІ), nickel (ІІ), copper (ІІ) zinc (ІІ), cadmium (ІІ) and mercury (ІІ) in these complexes are octahedral. All complexes were found to be non-electrolyte in absolute ethanol, and the complexes were formulated as [ML2Cl2] XH2O.
Keywords: 2-(6-methoxybenzo[d]thiazol-2-ylamino)-2-phenyl acetonitrile, N2-donor, transition metals.
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|Title||:||Assessment of Water Quality in Imo River Estuary Using Multivariate Statistical Method|
|Authors||:||Akpan, I. I.|
Abstract: The water quality of Imo River Estuary, the Niger Delta region was studied for a duration of 12 months. This study was aimed at the assessment of water quality parameter of the water body. In order to have an indepth knowledge to the physical and chemical processes as well as their associated spatial distribution, the study analyses some parameters recorded at the three sampling sites through multivariate statistical methods. The principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) was employed to extract and recognize the major underlying factors contributing to the variations among the water quality measured. Results indicate that three principal components, that is nutrients, organic and meteorological factor account for 99.91% of the total variance among the water quality parameters. The spatial distribution of principal components further confirms that nutrient sources constitute the main pollutant contribution.
Keywords: Assessment, Principal Component Analysis, Factor Analysis, Estuary, Source
. Akpan, I. I. (2012). Physico-chemical and Biological Studies of Imo River Estuary, Nigeria, Ph.D Thesis, Department of Fishery, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, umudike, 184.
. Heikka, R. A. (2005). Multivariate Monitoring of Water Quality: A Case Study of Lake Simple, Finland. J. Chmonet, 22, 747-751.
. Palma, P., Albarenga, P., Palma, V. L., Fernandes, R. M., Soares, A. M. V. M., Barbosa, I. R. (2010). Assessment of Anthropogenic Sources of Water Pollution Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques. A Case Study of Alqueva's Reservoir, Portugal, Environ. Monit. Assess 165, 539-552.
. Helena B., Pardo, B., Vega, M., Barrado, E., Fernandez, J. M., Fernandez, L. (2000). Temporal Evolution of Groundwater Composition in an Alluvial Aquifer (Pisuerga River, Spain) by Principal Component Analysis. Water Res. 34, 807-816.
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. Abdul-Wahab, S. A., Bakheit, C. S., Al-Alawi, S. M. (2005). Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analysis in Modelling of Ground-level Ozone and Factors Affecting its Concentration. Environ. Modell. Softw. 20, 1263-1271.
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|Title||:||Deactivation Modeling through Separable Kinetics of Coking On Ni/CZ Catalyst Used In SMR|
Abstract: Steam methane reforming (SMR) is a very significant technique to produce hydrogen from fossil fuels. In this particular work, nickel is used as the active metal and ceria-zirconia (CZ) bi-metallic oxide is used as the support. The foremost challenge to this process is sooting or coking over the catalyst surface and blocking the active sites. For the economic viability of the catalyst, it is very significant to make it coke deposition resistant. This is the reason that the kinetic modeling of the deactivation is very important. Therefore, this paper is aimed to model the deactivation and activity of the catalyst. A rate model of the deactivation process is also developed using separable kinetics. A comparison with commercial catalyst is also reported to show that the Ni/CZ catalyst is much more stable towards the coking.
Keywords –Coking, Deactivation, Methane, Separable kinetics, Steam reforming.
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 Prashant Kumar, Yanping Sun and Raphael O. Idem, Nickel-based ceria, zirconia, and ceria–zirconia catalytic systems for low-temperature carbon dioxide reforming of methane, Energy & Fuels, 21, 2007, 3113–3123.
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