IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Volume 5 - Issue 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Comparison between Natural and Synthetic Food Flavoring Extracts Using Infrared Spectra and Optical Activity
Country : Iraq
Authors : Parekhan Aljaff, Banaz O. Rasheed, Trifa Attar Omer
: 10.9790/4861-0530106      logo

Abstract: Food is the basic necessity of life. One works hard and earns to satisfy our hunger .But at the end of the day, many of us are not sure of what we eat. We may be eating a dangerous flavors and dyes. Often, we invite diseases rather than good health. The purpose of this article is to detect the presence of food adulterants in some common foods and to create awareness about the artificial tests and dyes. A study of the IR spectra and the optical activitiy of two natural and artificial most common used flavor and colors (Vanilla and Strawberry) were detected. IR spectra of synthetic Vanilla were dominated by specific peaks that attributed to corresponding synthetic pigments (specific spectral band of stretching C=0 ester of aldehydic and ketonic groups in synthetic flavor at1744.87cm-1 with a weak shoulder at1700 cm-1 .And stretching CO of sucrose at (990.49 and 923,70) cm-1.The synthetic Strawberry characterized with specific spectral bands of (C=O stretching at 1634.96 cm-1 in ester and CO stretching of sucrose at 925 cm-1), while these functional groups disappeared in natural. Vanilla and Strawberry extracts. The natural Flavoring extracts posse's levorotatory property; they are optically active, while the synthetic extracts not rotates the plane of polarization of the light which passes through the material, they are said to be; not active optically. The obtained results indicated that, Infrared spectrum and Optical activity could be adapted to detect adulterants added products, and to differentiate between natural and artificial food flavoring extracts.

Key Words: Adulteration, Food dyes, Flavors, Vanilla, Strawberry.

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[10]. Rapid Differentiation Between Natural and Artificial Vanilla Flavorings for Determining Food Fraud Using AxION DSA/TOF with No Chromatography or Sample Preparation Published in USA, September 15, 2011Publication Number 5990-8716ENPerkinElmer, Inc.940 Winter Street Waltham, MA 02451 USA .


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : On Stability Equilibrium Analysis of Endemic Malaria
Country : Nigeria.
Authors : I. I. Raji, A. A. Abdullahi, M. O. Ibrahim
: 10.9790/4861-0530713      logo

Abstract: This paper considers the stability equilibrium of malaria in a varying population. We established the Disease free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium and carried out the stability analysis of the Disease free equilibrium state (the state of complete eradication of malaria from the population).

[1]. Herbert .W. Hethcote (2000). The Mathematics of Infectious Diseases. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Vol.42(4), 599-653.
[2]. Ibrahim, M.O. and Egbetade, S.A. (2012). A Mathematical Model for the Epidemiology of Tuberculosis with estimate of the basic reproduction number. Archimedes Journal Maths. Vol .2.
[3]. Jibril. L .and Ibrahim, M.O. (2011). Mathematical Modeling on the CDTI Prospects for elimination of Onchocerciasis: A deterministic model Approach. Mathematics and Statistics. Vol.3(4), 136-140.
[4]. John, G. Ayisi, Anna. M.VanEijk, Robert D. Newman (2010). Maternal Malaria and Perinatal HIV Transmission, Western Kenya Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vol.4(3).
[5]. JulienArino, Connell. C. Mccluskey, and Van Den Driessche (2003). Global results for an epidemic model with Vaccination that exhibits Backward Bifurcation. Society for Industrialand Applied Mathematics. 64(1), 260-276.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Primer on Cointegration: Application to Nigerian Gross
Domestic Product and Export.
Country : Nigeria
Authors : A. G. Ibraheem, A. A. Adetunji
: 10.9790/4861-0531418      logo

Abstract: This paper examines Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Export (EXP) of Nigeria between 1970 and 2007 using data from Central Bank of Nigeria's Statistical Bulletin of 2008 for cointegration. Applying Autocorrelation Function (ACF), we find that each of the variables (GDP and Export) is non-stationary. Augmented Engle-Granger reveals that the regression of GDP on Export is actually cointegrated and not spurious. An error correction model shows that GDP does not adjust to change in EXP in the same time period. The regression model obtained also shows that the short-run changes in EXP have a positive impact on the short-run changes in GDP. Keywords: Autocorrelation function, Export, Gross Domestic Product, stationarity, trend.

[1]. Amzath A.; Shen Y.; and Herve D. B. G. (2010): The Effects of Real Exchange Rate on Trade Balance in Cote D'Ivoire: Evidence
from The Cointegration Analysis and Error-Correction Models, Journal of Applied Research in Finance (JARF) (1(3)/2010), pp 44-
60
[2]. Dickey, D. A. and Fuller, W. A. (1979): Distribution of the Estimator for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root, Journal of
American Statistical Association, vol. 74, pp 427 – 431.
[3]. Drama B. G. H. and Yao S. (2011): The Demand for Money in Cote d'Ivoire: Evidence from the Cointegration Test. International
Journal of Economics and Finance, Vol 3, No 1, pp 188-198.
[4]. Engle, R. F. and Granger, C. W. J. (1987): Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation and Testing,
Econometrica, vol. 55, pp. 251 – 276.
[5]. Fuller W. A. (1976): Introduction to Statistical Time Series, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
[6]. Granger, C. W. J. (1986): Developments in the study of Co-integrated Economic Variables, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and
Statistics, vol. 48, p 226-228.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Lattice Parameters and Debye Temperature of Naclx Nabry-X Kcl1-Y Ternary Mixed Crystals
Country : India
Authors : T. S. Jayanthi, S. Radhika, N. Neelakanda Pillai
: 10.9790/4861-0531923      logo

Abstract: Mixed crystals of alkali halides find applications in optical, optoelectronics and electronic devices. In the present study the pure and mixed crystals of NaClx NaBry-x KCl1-y were grown from the aqueous solution. The grown crystals were characterized by taking XRD, TG/DTA and Vicker's hardness measurement. The Debye temperature is an important parameter of a solid. Several methods of evaluating Debye temperature are available. In the present study Debye temperature were calculated from the Debye- Waller factor, melting point and microhardness. The results were compared with the Kopp-Neumann relation.

Keywords: Mixed crystals, Alkali halides, Debye temperature

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[8]. G.Selvarajan, C.K.Mahadevan, J.Mater Sci, 41(2006)8211


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Fluidization Characteristics of Nano Particles with the Assist of Stirrer
Country : India
Authors : Asadollah Kariman, V. V. Basava Rao, Majid Farjpourlar
: 10.9790/4861-0532427      logo

Abstract: Fluidization of ultrafine solid particles is widely used in a variety of industrial applications because of its unusual capability of continuous powder handling, good mixing, large gas–solid contact area, and very high rates of heat and mass transfer. As the particle size decreases the cohesive forces between particles increases. Therefore, fluidization of ultrafine particles becomes much more difficult as compared to the larger size particles and it needs efficient method.

[1]. Jaber Shabanian, Rouzbeh Jafari, Jamal Chaouki, Fluidization of Ultrafine Powders , Praise Worthy Prize (2012) 2035-1755
[2]. Wang Z., Kwauk M., Li H.Fluidization of fine particle, Chemical engg. Science, 53(1998) pp.377-395
[3]. Geldart, D., "Types of Gas Fluidization," Powder Technol., 7, 285 (1973)
[4]. Xu C., X-J.Effect of gas type on fine particle fluidization, China Particuology 4(2006) Pp. 3-4, 114-121
[5]. Chirone R., Russo S.Sound assisted fluidized bed combustion of fine particle, Combustion Science and technology, 153, pp.83-93
[6]. Rajesh.N, Yu Qun .Enhanced fluidization of nano particle in an oscillating Dave magnetic field, AICHE Journal, 51(2005):pp.1971-1977


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Subsurface 2D Image Analyses of the Uyangha Basement Area, South-Eastern Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Peter O. Odong, Brian E. Usibe, Vladimir N. Obim
: 10.9790/4861-0532831      logo

Abstract: Geo-electric soundings were made in Stella Maris Secondary School, in Uyangha, Nigeria to image the subsurface and obtain thicknesses and resistivities of different layers. A quantitative interpretation of the data obtained clearly reveals the presence of four (4) geo-electric sections which are interpreted to be dry laterite, moist laterite, weathered basement, and saturated basement. The depth probed is about 100m. The saturated basement is the aquifer unit. Depth to aquifer unit in the area is at about 65m to 80m.The thickness of the aquifer unit ranges from 20m to 35m. For ground water exploitation, boreholes in the area should therefore be drilled to the depth of 91m, for reasonable groundwater yield. The lateritic layer makes the study area suitable for building construction in the area.

Keywords: 2-D imaging, electrical resistivity, vertical electrical sounding, pseudo-section, saturated basement.

[1] Alabi, A. A., Bello, R., Ogungbe A.S., Oyerinde, H. O, 2010,: Determination of Groundwater Potential in Lagos State University, Ojo: Using Geoelectric Methods (Vertical Electrical Sounding and Horizontal Profilling), Rep. Opin., 2(5): pp 68-75

[2] Alile, O. M, Ujuambi., and Evbuomwan, I.A, 2011,: Geoelectric Investigation of Groundwater in Obaretin- Iyanornon Locality, Edo State, Nigeria, Journal of Geology and Mining Research Vol.3 (1) pp. 13-20,

[3] Bobachev, A., 2002,: IPI2win- A Window Software of an Automatic Interpretation of Resistivity Sounding Data; Moscow State University, pp.320

[4] Benson O. (1982): Field sampling Procedures; Chicago, Neally Limited. Manual PP 5-9

[5] Burger H. R(1992): Exploration Geophysics of the Shallow subsurface practice Hall, Inc. PP 80-82

[6] Ekwueme, B. N. Nyong E. E and Peters S. W. (1995): Geological excursion guidebook to Oban Massif, Calabar flank and Mamfe embayment, Southeastern Nigeria. 1st ed. Decford Publishers Ltd. PP 6-8


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study of highly broadening Photonic band gaps extension in one-dimensional Metallo-organic multilayer Photonic structure
Country : India
Authors : Sanjay Srivastava, Ritesh Kumar Kushwaha, K. B. Thapa
: 10.9790/4861-0533248      logo

Abstract: In this paper, we show theoretically that the reflectance spectra of one dimensional multilayer metal-organic periodic structure (1D MOPS) can be enhanced due to the addition of the organic constituents. We have used simple transfer matrix method to calculate the absorption, transmittance and reflectance of the 1D MOPS systems. The organic component like N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'diphenyl-1; 1biphenyl-4; 4diamine (NPB) absorbs the light in ultra-violet, visible and infrared electromagnetic region and the structure with Ag-metal also having the tendency to absorb the light by the plasmaonic action and their refractive can be calculated from Drude equation.

[1] Joannopoulos J D, Meade R D, and Winn J N. Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1995. ISBN 0691037442.

[2] Suthar B, and Bhargava A. Tunable multi-channel filtering using 1-D photonic quantum well structures, Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 2011, 27: 43-51.

[3] Bhargava A, and Suthar B. Optical switching properties of kerr-nonlinear chalcogenide photonic crystal, J. of Ovonic Research, 2009, 5(6): 187.

[4] Pendry J B, Holden A J, Robbins D J, and Stewart W J. Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech, 1999, 47: 2075–2084.

[5] Smith D R, Padilla W, Vier D C, Nemat-Nasser S C, and Chultz S. A composite medium with simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2000,84; 4184-4187.

[6] Sievenpiper D F, Zhang L, Jimenez Broas R F, Alexopolous N G, Yablonovitch E. High-impedance electromagnetic surfaces with a forbidden frequency band, IEEE MTT, 1999, 47: 2059-2074.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : 50 Hz Frequency Magnetic Field Effects On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa And Bacillus Subtilis Bacteria
Country : Egypt
Authors : Mona H. Ibraheim, Doaa B. El-Din Darwish
: 10.9790/4861-0534956      logo

Abstract: The effect of electromagnetic field of different intensities on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (as gram-negative bacteria) and Bacillus subtilis (as gram-positive bacteria) was investigated to find out the effective magnetic field strength that alters the running physiological processes of every microorganism. Equal volumes of P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis suspensions were exposed for one hour at their maximum rate of active growth to the electromagnetic field (2 - 10 mT, 50 Hz). The results indicated that no remarkable differences were found in the growth of exposed P. aeruginosa. Moreover, a remarkable inhibition in the growth of exposed relative to unexposed B. subtilis cells was achieved at (4 mT) as compared with other intensities which may indicate that this magnetic field induction had a great effect on the biological activity of the cells, so more investigations were made at this magnetic field induction. Remarkable changes in the growth characteristics could be easily detected as the absorbance decreased which indicate a decrease in the cells number and consequently an inhibition case for the bacteria. Also, the antibiotic sensitivity test of B. subtilis cells indicated either inhibition or stimulation case for the bacteria depending on the drug mode of action.
Keywords: electromagnetic field, microorganism, Bacillus subtilis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

[1]. Atlas, R., 1995. Principles of microbiology, Mosby-Year book, INC.
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[3]. Babushkina, I.V., Borodin, V.B., Smetkova, N.A., Morrison, V.V., Usanov, A.D., Skripal, A.V. and Usanov, D.D., 2005. The influence of alternating magnetic field on Escherichia coli bacterial cells. Pharm. Chem. J. 39: 398-400.
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[5]. Balcavage, W.X., Alvager, T., Swez, J., Goff, C.W., Fox, M.T., Abdullyava, S. and King, M.W., 1996. A mechanism for action of extremely-low frequency electromagnetic fields on biological systems. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 222: 374-378.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Dosimetric evaluation of the MLCs for irregular shaped radiation fields
Country : Egypt
Authors : Omar Kotb , Khaled M. Elshahat, Nabil Mohamed Eldebawi, Nassif Abd Elazim Mansour

Abstract: The three-dimensional planned conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) are the most advanced techniques in radiotherapy, which use irregular fields–using multileaf collimators (MLC) in a linear accelerator. The accuracy of these techniques depends on dosimetric characteristics of the multileaf collimators. There is an option for optimizing the jaws to the irregular MLC field to reduce the scattered radiation and intra- and inter-leaf radiation leakage beyond the field. In this study, 80 leaf MLC system has been taken to compare and differentiate their characteristics with 6 and 10 MV photon beams.

[1]. Boyer, P. Biggs, J. Galvin, E. Klein, T. LoSasso, D. Low, K. Mah, and C. Yu, "Basic applications of multileaf collimators," AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 50 Report No. 72.
[2]. L. Boyer and S. Li, "Geometric analysis of light-field position of a multileaf collimator with curved ends," Med. Phys. 24, 757–762.
[3]. L. Boyer, T. G. Ochran, C. E. Nyerick, T. J. Waldron, and C. J. Huntzinger, ""Clinical dosimetry for implementation of a multileaf collimator,‟‟Med. Phys. 19, 1255–1261.
[4]. C. Burman, C. S. Chui, G. Kutcher, S. Leibel, M. Zelefsky, T. LoSasso, S. Spirou, Q. Wu, J. Yang, J. Stein, R. Mohan, Z. Fuks, and C. C. Ling, "Planning, delivery, and quality assurance of intensity-modulated radiotherapy using dynamic multileaf collimator: A strategy for large-scale implementation for the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 39, 863–873.
[5]. C. Ling et al., ""Conformal radiation treatment of prostate cancer using inversely-planned intensity-modulated photon beams produced with dynamic multileaf collimation,‟‟ Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 35, 721– 730 .


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Structural, Electrical and Magnetotransport properties of La0.7Ca0.2Sr0.1MnO3 by self propagating high temperature synthesis
Country : India
Authors : P. P. Jagtap, Y. A. Chaudhari, E. M. Abuassaj, P. B. Patil, S. T. Bendre
: 10.9790/4861-0536468      logo

Abstract: The sample of manganite perovskite oxide La0.7Ca0.2Sr0.1MnO3 has been prepared by solution combustion synthesis. The synthesized sample has been pelletized and further sintered at 8000C for 8 hours. The XRD pattern reveals that the samples are of single phase nature with orthorhombic structure and the diffraction patterns can be indexed with the pbnm space groups. The crystallite sizes calculated from broadening of XRD peaks using Scherrer's formula were about 18 nm. Resistivity measurements were performed in the temperature range 2K under 3, 5, 10 and 14 T field using PPMS. Magnetoresistance shows a shift in metal-insulator transition temperature from ~213 K at zero field to ~250 K at 14T. MR value decreases as the temperature increases and at 300 K maximum value of MR is found to be ~ 22% for an applied field of 14 T. MR of ~ 28% is observed at 230 K. MR of ~ 35% is observed at 150 K in an applied field of 14 T and MR has negative sign.
Keywords: Manganites, Perovskite, Magnetoresistance, Magnetotransport and Combustion Synthesis.

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[2] S. W. Han, J. D. Lee, K.H. Kim, H. Song, W.J. Kim, S.J. Kwon, H.G. Lee, J.I. Jeong and J.S. Kang, Electronic Structures of the CMR Perovskites R1-xAxMnO3 (R = La, Pr; A = Ca, Sr, Ce) using Photoelectron Spectroscopy, J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 40, 2002, 501.

[3] S. Das and T.K. Dey, Electrical conductivity and low field magnetoresistance in polycrystalline La1KxKxMnO3 pellets prepared by pyrophoric method, Solid State Commu., 134, 2005, 837.

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