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ABSTRACT: The haematological and biochemical parameters of 140 apparently healthy goats consisting of 70 adults (35 male and 35 female; 37 buck kids and 33 doe kids) comprised of 3 indigenous and popular breeds of goats of Nothern Nigeria were studied. Data were analysed for the effect of breed, sex and season. Packed cell volume (PCV) was significantly higher (P<0.05) for Kano brown (buck and doe kid) of the north west. Haemoglobin (Hb) values was also higher (P<0.05) for Kano brown adult buck and doe (P<0.05). Red blood cell count (RBC) was significantly higher (P<0.05) for Borno white adult buck and buck kid. The mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) was higher in Kano brown doe (27.3) while the values were much higher in Sokoto red goat kids. The mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was significantly higher (P<0.05) for goat kids than in adult goats. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was observed to higher for Kano brown buck and buck kid than other breeds of goats. Borno white doe and doe-kid had the highest white blood cell count (WBC). White blood cell differentials shows that lymphocytes was significantly higher (P<0.05) for Borno white goats (adult and kids). Monocytes was only observed in Borno white goats. The serum sodium range from (136.0 to 156.0 mmol/l) for adult goats of all breeds, (132.0 to 160.0 mmol/l) for goat kids of all breeds. Serum potassium range from (6.5 to 9.4 mmol/l) for adult goats, (4.8 to 12.3 mmol/l) for goat kids. The chloride, HCO-3 and urea values was higher for adult goats than in kids for all the breeds. Values for creatinine, cholesterol and glucose was observed to be higher for kids than in adult goats. The values for total protein, albumin and globulin showed significant difference (P<0.05) among breeds age and sex. Moreso significant difference (P<0.05) was observed for the enzymes studied in all the breeds of goats of different sexes and ages.
Key Words: Haematology, blood chemistry, breeds, goat, kids, buck, doe
 Ngere L.O., Adu I.F. and Okunbajo I. O. (1984). The indegenous goats of Nigeria. FAO/UNEP. Animal genetic Resources Information 3:1-9 FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisaton of the United State Nations), Rome, Italy.
 Moruppa S.M . and Ngere L.O (1986). Bio metric studies on Bornu white and Red Sokoto (Meradi) goat breeds. Paner presented at the 11th Annual conference of Nigerian society for animal production. Ahmadu Bello University 23-27 March, 1986. Nigeria society for Animal production Ahmadu Bello University Shika-Zaria, Nigeria.
 Odo, S.A. Araujo, A.C Santos, A. E Toledo, F.C.P. Yonamine M., Sicva, A.O and lete M.C (2000). indica'oes e limites das ana'lise toxicologicas para substa'ncias psicoativas.Revista de psiquiatria clinica 27:509-56.
 Tambuwal F. M, Agale, B. M. and Bangana, A. (2002). Haematological and Biochemicalvalues of Apparently Healthy Red Sokoto goats. Proceedings of 27th Annual conference Nigerian society of Animal production (NSAP) March 17-21, 2002 FOTA, Akure.
 Alade, A. A., Bambose, A. M. Ogutona, E.B. and Fanimo, A.O. (2005). Heamatological parameters, serum metabolites carcass characteristic of weaner Rabbits fed yam feel meal diets. Proceedings of 10th annual conference of Animal science Association of Nigeria Dairo, F.A.S. So. K Fajemilehin and G.E Onobi (Eds) held on 12-15 September at university of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.pp: 280-282
 Aderemi, F.A (2004). Effects of replacement of wheat bran with cassava root sieviate supplemented of unsupplemented with enzyme on the Haematology and serum biochemistry of pullet chicks. Trop. J. animal Sci. 7:147-153
 Kamal Shah M., A. Khan, F. Rizvi, M. Siddique and Sadeeq-ur-rehman. (2007). Effect of cypermethrin on clinico-Haematological parameters in Rabbits. Pauistan vet J. 27(4):171-175.
 Ghergariu S, Rowlands, G.J. Pop, N and Moidova, A. (1984). A comparative study of matabolic profiles obtained in Dairy Herds in Romania. British veterinary Journal. 140:600-608.
 Kausslish, S.K and Arora, K.L. (1977). Studies on Reproduction in sheep. Blood andplasma contents before and after parturition in Nehi sheep. Haryna veterinarian 16 (2):74- 77.
 Schalm O.W, Jain, N. C and Carrol E. J. (1975). Veterinary Haematology. 3rd edition Lea Febiger Philadelphia USA. Pp 13-167.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||In Sacco and In Vitro Organic Matter Degradability (OMD) Of Selected Semi Arid Browse Forages|
|Authors||:||*A.A. Njidda, E. A. Olatunji, M. G. Garba|
ABSTRACT: Organic matter degradation of Acacia nilotica, Acacia sieberiana, Annana senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Cassia sieberiana, Combretum leati, Faidhebia albida, Maerua angolensis, Prosopis africana and Vitex doniana using two different techniques: (i) the in sacco nylon bag degradation and in vitro gas production techniques. Samples were incubated in sacco and in vitro for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. In sacco and in vitro OM degradation kinetics were described using the equation Y=a+b(1-e-ct). The dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were relatively high ranging from 934.00 to 984.60 g Kg-1 DM and 122.50 to 174.80 g Kg-1 DM in Cassia sieberiana and Acacis nilotica had the highest value (216.60 and 910.30 g Kg-1 DM for as and organic matter (OM) The highest value for neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) was observed in Vitex doniana. The acid detergent fibre was generally high ranging from 86.40 to 144.70 g Kg-1 DM. The OM disappearance increases with increasing incubation time in all the browse forages ranging from 28.56 in Balanites aegyptiaca at 24 h to 76.53 in Combretum leati at 96 h. The OM degradation constant (a, b, a+b, lag T and ED) were all significantly different (P<0.05) except 'c' values. The cumulative gas production was generally low for all the browse forages Acacia sieberiana and Cassia sieberiana having the lowest (9.66 ml/200 mg DM) and Vitex doniana having the highest value (22.66 ml/200 mg DM) at 96 h incubation. In vitro gas production constant showed significant difference (P<0.05) except for rate of constant 'c'. It was concluded that in sacco OM disappearance parameters of browse forages such as the samples used in this study may be predicted from in vitro gas production parameters.
Keywords: browse forages, degradability, gas production, In sacco, In vitro.
 Nherera, F. V., Ndlovu, N. R. And Dzowela, B.H. (1999). Relationships between in vitro gas production characteristics, chemical composition and in vitro quality measurements in goats fed tree fodder supplements. Small Ruminant Research, 31: 117-126.
 Papachristou, T. G. (1996). Intake, digestibility and nutrient utilization of oriental hornbeam and ash browse by goats and sheep. Small Ruminant Research 23: 91-98.
 Degen, A. A., Blanke, A., Becker, K., Kam, M., Benjamin, R. W. And Makkar, H. P. S. (1997). The nutritive value of Acacia saligna and Acacia saligna for goats and sheep. Animal Science, 64, 253-259.  McDonald, I. (1981). A revised model for the estimation of protein degradability in the rumen. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 96, 251-252.
 Ørskov, E.R., Reid, G. W. and Kay, M. (1988). Prediction of intake by cattle from degradation characteristics of roughages. Animal Production. 46:29-34
 France, J., Dijkstra, J., Dhanoa, M. S., Lopez, S., and Bannink, A. (2000). Estimating the extent of degradation of ruminant feeds from a description of their gas production profiles observed in vitro: derivation of models and other mathematical considerations. British Journal of Nutrition, 83, 43-150.
 Calabro, S., Lopez, S., Piccolo, V., Dijkstra, J., Dhanoa, M.S., France, J., (2005). Comparative analysis of gas production profiles obtained with buffalo and sheep ruminal fluid as the source of inoculum. Animal Feed Science and Technology 123 (124), 51–65.
 Khazaal, K., Denthino, M.T., Ribeiro, J.M. and Ørskov, E.R. (1993). A comparison of gas production during incubation with rumen contents in vitro and nylon bag degradability as predictors of apparent digestibility in vitro and voluntary intake of hays. Animal Production 57, 105-112.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of Entophytic Bacteria on the Rooting and Establishment of Cuttings of Hibiscus Rosasinensis|
|Authors||:||Anu Rajan S., Radhakrishna D.,|
ABSTRACT: Any plants that are propagated vegetatively are likely to have an enduring community of bacterial colonists that are transferred in successive progeny generations. The plant growth promoting effects attributed to endophytes are due to the direct production of phytohormones such as auxins, cytokinins etc or through the induction of phytohormone synthesis by the plant. Being a vegetatively propagated plant species, Hibiscus rosasinensis shoots are amenable for treatment with endophytic bacteria. The effect of endophytic bacteria on the rooting and establishment of cuttings of Hibiscus rosasinensis was studied here. Four endophytic isolates and the consortium of them screened for their plant hormone production was used for this study. The treatment of cuttings with the tomato isolate LEE19 (Klebsiella sp.) for 12 hours, showed 75 % sprouting of cuttings and the highest shoot and root parameters compared to uninoculated cuttings. The rooting also increased to 100 % in LEE19 treatment. The treatment of entophytic bacteria increased significantly the number of leaves/ cutting, the shoot length, root length and fresh weight of roots. So the pre-plant stem treatment of cuttings can be recommended as a strategy for substituting or supplementing the use of chemical plant growth hormones in vegetative propagation of cuttings.
Keywords: entophytic bacteria, Hibiscus rosasinensis, pre-plant stem treatment, vegetative propagation.
 B. Schulz and C. Boyle, What are endophytes? In: B.J.E. Schulz, ,C. J. C. Boyle and T. N. Seiber, (Eds.) Microbial Root Endophytes (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2006) 1–13.
 K. R. Aneja, Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology (New Delhi: New Age International Publishers, 2006) 245-275.
 T. Tien, M. Gaskin, and D.Hubbel, Plant growth substances produced by Azospirillum brasilense and their effect on the growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L.), Appl Environ. Microbiol., 37, 1979, 1016–1024.
 L.G. Paleg, Physiological effects of gibberellins. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 16, 1965, 291-322.
 A.S. Gordon and R.P. Weber, Colorimetric estimation of indole acetic acid. Plant Physiol., 26, 1951, 192-195.
 K. A. Gomez and A. A. Gomez, Statistical procedures for Agricultural Research. (New York: Wiley-Interscience Publication., John Wiley and Sons, 1984) 680.
 B. E. Haissing and F. T. Davis, Carbohydrate accumulation and participation in Pinus banksiana seedlings and seedling cuttings. Physiologia plantarum, 61, 1984, 13-19.
 H. T. Hartmann, D. E. Kester, F. T. Davies R. L. and Geneve, Plant Propagation, Principles and Practices (New Delhi : Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 2002.)
 S. Taghavi, C. Garafola, and S. Monchy, Genome survey and characterization of endophytic bacteria exhibiting a beneficial effect on growth and development of poplar. Appl. Environ.Microbiol., 75, 2009, 748–757.
 R. Aravind, A. Kumar and S.J. Eapen, Pre-plant bacterisation: a strategy for delivery of beneficial endophytic bacteria and production of disease-free plantlets of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protection, 48, 2012, 1–12.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Development of High Protein Populations of Maize (Zea mays L.) From Three Cycles of Reciprocal Recurrent Selection|
|Authors||:||Emmanuel Okporie, Samuel Chukwu, Godwin Onyishi|
ABSTRACT: This breeding programme was initiated at the Department of Crop Production and Landscape Management's teaching and research farm of the Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The genetic materials were sourced from the University of Nigeria gene bank. After three cycles of reciprocal recurrent selection, two high protein populations of maize (Zea mays L.) with mean protein content estimates of 14.4 Nsukka High Protein – Early (NHP–E) and 14.3 Nsukka High Protein – Late (NHP–L) were developed from populations with average protein contents of 7.6 and 8.6 per cent, respectively. The new populations can be used as commercial varieties, as parents in varietal crosses or as reservoirs of germplasm for further improvement and extraction of superior inbred lines for use in hybrid maize production.
Keywords: Maize, Protein, Reciprocal recurrent selection, Selection cycles.
. C. Lucas. Regulation of floury2-mRFP expression in response to long term selection for grain protein concentration in maize: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: 2010, 1-77 p.
. M. Scott, J. Edwards, C. Bell, and J. Schussler. Grain composition and amino acid content in maize cultivars representing 80 years of commercial maize varieties. Maydica: 2006, 417-423.
. WHO Department of Nutrition for Health and Development. Estimated numbers (in million) of underweight preschool children 1990-2020 with 95% confidence intervals by UN regions and sub-regions. Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, 2011a.
. WHO. Estimated prevalence of underweight preschool children 1990-2020 with 95% confidence intervals by UN regions and sub-regions. Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, 2011b.
. N. Scheinfeld, A. Mokashi and A. Lin. Protein-energy malnutrition. Medscape Reference: 2010, pp1-3.
. E. Nuss and S. Tanumihardjo. Quality protein maize for Africa: Closing the protein inadequacy gap in vulnerable populations. Advances in Nutrition 2: 2011, 217-224.
. M. Scott, A. Darrigues, T. Stahly and K. Lamkey. Recurrent selection to alter grain methionine concentration and improve nutritional value of maize. Crop Science 48: 2008, 1705-1713.
. I. Obi and G. Onyishi. Development of high protein populations of maize (Zea mays L.) from two cycles of reciprocal recurrent selection. Samaru J. Agricultural Research, Vol. XI, 1994, pp 63-68.
. E. Okporie and I. Obi. Development of Acid Tolerant, High Yielding and High Nutritional Maize Variety after two years of Mass selection. Sci. Agric, Food Tech and Envirn,. 4: 2004, 23-30.
. E. Okporie, S. Chukwu, G. Onyishi, L. Ekwu, H. Oselebe and E. Utobo. Effects of organic and inorganic manures on growth and yield of fluted pumpkin (Telferia occidentalis Hook.f.) in Abakaliki. Continental J. Agronomy. ISSN: 2141 – 4114. 2012, Pp. 39-49.
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of physic nut meal detoxification and the useful of this meal in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) feed. Twenty-four animals, 21-25 days old and initial mean body weight 69.9 g ± 5.40g were used. The animals received three diets: Control (base ration,. ration with 5% of detoxified physic nut meal and ration with 10% of the same meal. A no-protein diet was included aiming to correct the digestibility by protein consumption and wasted. This diet was distributed in six random blocs according to animal's initial live body weight. Total faeces excreted in 24 hours by rats were collected, dried at 60 ºC, grounded and weighted to digestibility calculation. After 28 experimental days, the animals were submitted to 12h-fasting and were anesthetized with halothane saturated chamber. Thereafter, the internal organs (liver, heart, and kidney, intestine) were weighted and blood samples were taken. The intestines were dissected and separated small intestine and intestine, which it were used to measurement of intestine length. The detoxified physic nut (DPN) had a negative effect (P>0.05) in animal growth and also in digestibility of diets. The organs weights did not differ between treatments in analysis of variance. However, the regression analysis identified a negative quadratic effect of DPN in liver weight. Moreover, DPN had a positive linear effect in intestine weights. The analysis of variance did not detect any effect of treatments in blood parameters, as well as in hepatic transaminazes enzimes. On the other hand, the regression showed that DPN had a negative quadratic effect in aspartate aminotransferase level. Therefore, the physic nut meal can be considered a promissory protein source. Further studies must be realized to evaluate the physic nut meal in diets of others species, as well as the effect and content of other bioactive molecules.
Keywords - Blood parameters, Co-product, Digestibility, Performance, Wistar rats
 Sousa. G.S.. Pires. M.M.. Alves. J.M.. 2006. Análise da potencialidade da produção de biodiesel a partir de óleos vegetais e gorduras residuais. In: XI SEMINÁRIO DE INICIAÇÃO CIENTÍFICA DA UESC. Santa Cruz. Anais...Santa Cruz. 477-478.
 Arruda. F.P.. Beltrão. N.E.M.. Andrade. A.P.. Pereira. W.E.. Severino. L.S.. 2004. Cultivo de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) como alternativa para o Semi-Árido nordestino. Revista Brasileira de Oleaginosas e Fibrosas, v. 8. 789-799.
 Neiva Junior. A.P.. Van Cleef. E.H.C.B.. Pardo. R.M.P.. Silva Filho. J.C.. Castro Neto. P.. Fraga. A.C.. 2007. Subprodutos agroindustriais do biodiesel na alimentação de ruminantes. In: II CONGRESSO DA REDE BRASILEIRA DE TECNOLOGIA DE BIODIESEL. Brasília. Anais… Brasília: 2007. 6p.
 Makkar. H.P.S.. Becker. K.. Sporer. F.. 1997. Studies on nutritive potential and toxic constituents of different provenances of Jatropha curcas. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. Washington. v. 45. 3152-3157.
 Martinez-Herrera. J.. Siddhuraju. P.. Francis. G.. 2006. Chemical composition, toxic/antimetabolic constituents, and effects of different treatments on their levels, in four provances of Jatropha curcas L. from Mexico, Food Chemistry, Whiteknights, v. 96. 80-89.  El-Sayed. A.M.. 1999. Alternative dietary protein sources for farmed tilapia Oreochromis spp. Aquaculture. v. 179. 149-168.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Establishing empirical relationship to predict the chaff cutting phenomenon energized by human powered flywheel motor (hpfm).|
ABSTRACT: In India animal husbandry is an integral part of the rural economy. Almost every rural family keeps at least a cow or buffalo for meeting milk requirement and to earn some money for daily expenses. The milk production is greatly affected by feeding to the cattle. However most of cattle feeding are provided in the form of whole crop. It may leads to wastage of feeding. It was noted that there is always feeding fodder scarcity in summer. In such situation the whole crop is to be cut into small pieces so that fodder can be used effectively. Presently fodder cutting machines are electric driven as well as hand operated. But today there is huge shortage of electricity almost every parts of India. To overcome uncertainly of electricity, we can replace electrically driven motor by human powered flywheel motor. The chaff cutter energized by human powered flywheel motor is suitable for marginal farmer who have 2-3 cattle. The experimentation carried out for establishing empirical model for identified variables affecting cutting of crop resides.
 Modak, J. P. et all, "Manufacturing of Lime-fly ash-sand bricks using manually driven brick making machine", a project sponsored by Maharashtra Housing & Area Development Authority, (MHADA), Bombay, India.
 Modak, J. P. and Bapat, A. R., "Formulation of Generalized Experimental Model for a Manually Driven Flywheel Motor and its Optimization", Applied Ergonomics, U.K., Vol. 25, No. 2, pp 119-122, 1994.
 Modak J. P. and Bapat A. R. "Various efficiency of a Human Power Flywheel motor" Human Power, USA International Human Power Vehicle Association No. 54, pp 21-23 Spring 2003.  Modak J. P. "Design and development of manually energized process machines having relevance to village / agriculture and other productive operations" Human Power, USA International Human Power Vehicle Association no 58 pp 16-22, fall 2004
 Deshpande S. B., Modak, J. P.and Tarnekar S. B., "Confirming Application of human powered flywheel motor as an energy source for rural generation of electrical energy for rural applications, and computer aided analysis of battery charging process.", Human Power, USA International Human Power Vehicle Association no 58 pp 10-16Summer 2009.
 Askhedkar R. D. and Modak J. P. "Hypothesis for the Extrusion of Lime-Fly-ash-Sand Bricks Using Manually Driven Brick Making Machine" Building Research & Information U.K. Vol. 22,N1, pp 47-54 1994.
 Sohoni V.V., H. P. Aware and Modak J. P "Manually Powered Manu-facture of Keyed Bricks" Building Research & Information, U.K. Vol. 25, N6, Pp 354-364, 1997
 Modak, J. P. and Bapat, A. R, "Manually driven flywheel motor operates wood turning process" Contemporary Ergonomics, Proc. Ergonomics Society Annual Convention 13-16 April, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp 352-357, 1993
 Modak, J. P. and Katpatal A.A., "Design of Manually Energized Centrifugal Drum Type Algae Formation Unit" Proceedings International AMSE Conference on System, Analysis, Control and Design, Layon (France), Vol. 3, 4-6 July 1994, pp 227-232.
 Dhale A. and Modak, J. P., "Formulation of the approximate generalized data based model for oilseed presser using human powered flywheel motor as an energy source" International Journal of Agricultural Engineering,
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ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted in two ecological zones of Central Southern Nigeria; Agbede (derived savanna) and Obadan (forest) of Edo State to investigate poultry manure and NPK fertilizer and their residual effects on performance of tomato. The treatments consisted of three levels of poultry manure (0, 4 and 6 t PM ha-1) and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 50, 100 and 150kg NPK ha-1). Factorial experiment using randomized complete block design was engaged. Plant height and leaf area were significantly increased by the application of 6 t PM ha-1 and 6 t PM ha-1 plus 50kg NPK ha-1 and 6 t PM ha-1 plus 100kg NPK ha-1 in both locations and years, respectively. The application of 4 t PM ha-1 alone in 2005 and its residual effects significantly enhanced plant height and leaf area in both locations. In Obadan soils, optimum fruit yields of 3.42 and 2.85 t ha-1 were obtained from the combined application and residual6 t PM ha-1 plus 100kg NPK ha-1, while in Agbede soils, optimum fruit yields of 1.44 and 1.55 t ha-1 were obtained from the application and residual 6 t PM ha-1 plus 50kg NPK ha-1 and their residual effects respectively. Responses to manure fertilizer mixtures are higher in the forest compared to the derived savanna ecological zone of Nigeria.
Key Words: Application, Fertilizer, Manure, Tomato and Yield.
. R.N. Leister, and A. Seck,Solanumaethiopicum L. Record from protobase. Oyen, L.P.A and Lemmens, R.H. (ed). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa/ Resources Vegetables. 2002
. I.C. Onwueme,Crop Science (Macmillan Publication. Ltd., 1989). 72 – 75.
. J.H. Simon, and R.A. Sobulo, Methods for higher tomato yield in Western State of Nigerian. Paper presented at Institute of Agric. research Conference. Ibadan, Nigeria, 1974
. J.O. Ehigiator, Farm yard manure; needs for its adoption as an alternative to chemical fertilizers uses in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science, 3, 1998, 19.
. L. Mukurunbira, Recycling of crop residue to supplement N requirement of maize in Zambia.In report of the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Programme.Paul, D. S and Paul, L.W (eds), 1992, 48.
. S.M. Nandu, The effects of stover placement on soil properties and processes and productivity of maize in teo agro-ecosystem in Kenya. In report of Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Programme. D. S. Paul and L.W. Paul, (eds) 48p.
. W.B. Akanbi, A.O. Togun, and R.A. Baiyewu, Suitability of plant residue compost as nursery growing medium for some tropical fruit tree Seedlings. Moor Journal of Agricultural Research 2, 2001:41-45.
. J. Mclintire, Constraints of fertilizer use in sub- Saharan Africa. In management of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in sub- Saharan Africa. A.U. Mokwunye and P.L.G. Vlek (eds). Proceedings of a symposium, Lome, Togo.MartinusNijhoff Publication. The Netherlands March 25-28, 1986, 35-37.
. I. Odiete, and S.O. Ogunmoye, Comparative effect of poultry manure and phosphorus fertilizer on the growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max) in Plateau State. The Proceedings of the 39th annual conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, Benin City, 2005, 258 – 259.
. J.P. Zublena, J.C. Baker, andT.A. Carter,Poultry manure as a fertilizer source. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.SoilFacts.Raleign.http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/publications/soil facts/AG-439-05, 1997.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Matching Credit with Season: An Issue for Non Performing Agricultural Loans in Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Christopher N. Ekong(Ph. D.), Kenneth U. Onye|
ABSTRACT: This paper empirically investigates the performance of Nigeria's agricultural credit policies with a view to unearthing the factors responsible for the poor loan performance. The findings reveal that although Nigeria's agricultural sector is abysmally underfunded with an unproductive federal budget structure that have been detrimental to agricultural productivity, the basic factor responsible for poor loan performance has been the failure to match credit with seasons. From the analysis of loans and disbursement flow to agricultural sector, it was discovered that loan are paid to farmers with utter disregard to the seasons. Evidently, the mismatch of credit disbursement with seasons attenuated growth and productivity of agriculture in Nigeria, resulting in poor loan performance. We recommend the adoption of the seasonality model, an innovative strategy, which is capable of solving the problem of default in agricultural financing and as such aiding the process of enhanced agricultural productivity and national development.
Key Words: agricultural loans, Nigeria, Seasonality model, ACGSF
. Agriculture Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF):--- Consolidated statistics
. Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Annual Report and Statement of Account (various issues).
. Ekong, C. N., &Onye, K. U. (2012). Economic Development in Nigeria: The Basic Needs Approach. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 3 (10), 54-65.
. Federal Government of Nigeria (1997).Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme, Decree No20 --- (1998): Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (Amendment Decree No.18 of 1998.
. Olaitan, M.A (2001) "‟Emerging Issues on Micro Rural Financing in Nigeria‟‟ in Bullion, a Publication of the Central Bank of Nigeria, volume 25 No1 January/March, PP 64-71.
. Olaitan, M.A (1997) Factors Influencing Repayment Pattern Under the ACGS in Ogun State, Nigeria Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation, University of Ibadan Nigeria.
. Olaitan, M.A (2006). Finance for small and Medium Enterprises: Nigeria‟s Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund. Journal of Farm Management, 3 (2), 1-9.
. Central Bank of Nigeria (2000).Annual Report Statement of Account December. Abuja, Nigeria.
. Central Bank of Nigeria (2000).Statistical Bulletin, Vol.11, No.2, Abuja, Nigeria.
. Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Annual Report and Statement of Account December, Abuja, Nigeria.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Alteration of soil carbon and pH by selected common tree species onfarms in Eastern Highlands of Kenya|
|Authors||:||*Ndlovu E, Ngamau K, Muthuri CW, Muriuki JK|
ABSTRACT: Lack of knowledge and evidence to farmers on the benefits of the tree and soil interactions which may halt land degradation on farms often results in the removal of the trees that grow on farms as scattered parklands. An on-farm study was carried out at four sites in Central highlands of Kenya to investigate the effects of selected common tree species on soil organic carbon and pH. Sampling of the top soilwas done under the canopies of selected common tree species and from control plots (away from trees).Results revealed that Croton macrostachyusHochst. Ex Delileplots had a significantly higher (P < 0.01)total organic carbonmean of 2.85%compared to 2.04% obtained in plots underGrevillearobustaA. Cunn. atKyeni site. Sennaspectabilis (DC.) H.S. Irwin &Barnebyalso had significantly higher (p < 0.05)total organic carbon mean of 2.89% compared to 2.33%obtained in control plots at Kanwaa site.In soil pH, control plots had significantly lower (P < 0.01) mean soil pH values than the plots under selectedthe trees at all the sites. Among the tree species onlyG.robusta revealed significantly lower (P < 0.01) soil pH than the C. macrostachyus, Cordiaafricana and controlplots at Kyeni site. The study suggested that S.Specatabilishelps in increasing soil carbon and consequently soil fertility.S. specatabilis, C.africana, C. macrostachyus andErythrinaabyssinicca also showed some positive influence in reducing soil acidification on farms. It is recommended that an increase in the number of trees on farms may improve soil fertility and reduce land degradation.
Key words: Agroforestry, Land degradation,Soil acidification, Soil fertility. Abbreviations: AEZ= Agro Ecological Zones; DBH= Diameter at Breast Height; LH= Lower Highlands; MASL=Meters above Sea Level; SOC= Soil Organic Carbon; TOC= Total Organic carbon.
. A. Bot, J. Benites, The importance of Soils organic matter, Key to drought- resistant soils and sustainable food and production, FAO, Rome, 2005.
. A. Chesson, Plant degradation by ruminants: Parallels with litter decomposition in soils, in G. Cadisch and K.E. Giller (eds), Driven by nature: Plant litter quality and Decomposition (CAB International, Wallingford, U.K, 1997) 47-66.
. A.C. Finzi, C.D. Canham, and N.V. Breemen, Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: Species effects on pH and cations, Ecological Applications8(2), 1998, 447-454.
. A.J. Walkley and I.A. Black, An estimation of the Degtjareft method for determining of soil organic matter and a proposed modification of chromic acid titration method, Soil Sci., 37, 1934, 29-38.
. A. Young, Agroforestry for soil management (CAB International, Wallingford, 1997)
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