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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Flower Waste Degradation Using Microbial Consortium|
|Authors||:||Jadhav A. R., Chitanand M. P., Shete H. G.|
ABSTRACT:Huge amounts of flowers are offered in temples in India creating a large amount of flower waste. The temple wastes are released in the water bodies or dumped at the available places of land which creates severe environmental pollution and health hazards. Hence present study was under taken to develop efficient microbial consortium for degradation of flower waste. In nature, microorganisms do not live isolated, they coexist with many different microorganisms establishing relationships with each other which help them to degrade highly complex organic compound to simple stable end products. Therefore in the present work instead of individual isolates an attempt is made to develop microbial consortium for degradation of flower waste. Soil samples were collected from the area near the temple. Serial dilutions of soil were prepared. Bacteria were isolated by spreading one ml of each dilution on sterile nutrient agar plates. Soil isolates obtained were tested for its ability to degrade the flower waste. The flower waste was collected from the different temples, it was dried and 1% sterile, dried powder of this flower waste was added in the minimal medium (without carbon source). The soil isolates were streak inoculated on this flower waste agar medium. Isolates showing prominent growth on this medium were selected for consortium development. Various combinations of soil isolates were used. Five percent inoculum of different consortia was spread on flower waste chambers. It was incubated aerobically. Degradation was checked after specific time interval. Microbial consortium helped in reducing the time required for degrading large amount of flower waste. With this approach we can prepare good quality bio manure without causing any harm to the environment.
Key words: Flower wastes, Bacterial consortium, Biofertilizer, Pot experiment
. Boraste A., Vamsi K.K., Jhadav A., Khairnar Y., Gupta N., Trivedi S., Patil P., Gupta G., Gupta M., Mujapara A.K., Joshi B. ( 2009 ).Biofertilizers: A novel tool for agriculture. International Journal of Microbiology Research, ISSN: 0975-5276, Volume 1, Issue 2, 2009, pp-23-31.
. Crueger, W., Crueger, A. (1990). Biotechnology: A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology, 2nd Ed. Science Tech Publishers (Madison).
. Debosz, K., Petersen, S. O., Kure, L. K. and Ambus, P. (2002). Evaluating effects of sewage sludge and household compost on soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties. Application of Soil Ecology, 19 (3), 237-248.
. Gurav M. V., Pathade G. R., Production of Vermicompost from Temple Waste (Nirmalya): A Case Study. ( 2011 ). Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, Volume 1, Issue 2: 182-192.
. Jelin J., Selvakumar T. A., Dhanarajan M. S., ( 2013 ). Phytological Analysis For Designinig A Microbial Consortium To Enhance Plant Growth. International Journal of Chem Tech Research. Vol.5, No.3, pp 1370-1375, April-June 2013.
. Navarrete-Bolaños, J.L., Serrato-Joya, O., Botello-Alvarez, E. Jimenez-Islas, H., Cardenas-Manriquez, M., Conde-Barajas, E., Rico-Martínez, R., Analyzing microbial consortia for biotechnological processes design. Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied Microbiology. A. Méndez-Vilas (Ed.) 2007, pp: 437 – 449.
. Pavan kumar Pindi, SDV Satyanarayana ( 2012 ). Liquid Microbial Consortium- A Potential Tool for Sustainable Soil Health. J Biofertilizers and Biopesticides. Vol. 3, Issue 4.
. Siti Zulaiha H., Hassan M. A., Sheikh I. S. A., Siti Hajar M. S., Mohamad Roji S., Ramlan A., ( 2013 ). Agriculture wastes conversion for biofertilizer production using beneficial microorganisms for sustainable agriculture applications. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 9(1) 2013, pp. 60-67.
. Tandon, H. L. S. (1993). In: Tandon, H.L.S. (Eds.), Methods of analysis of soils, plants, waters and fertilizers. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization, New delhi, India, pp. 36-48.
. Tsai, S.-H., Liu, C.-P. and Yang, S.-S. (2007). Microbial conversion of food wastes for biofertilizer production with thermophilic lipolytic microbes. Renewable Energy, 32, (6), 904-915.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Influence of post-hatch starvation on broiler chick's productivity|
|Authors||:||Obun, C. O., P. O. Osaguona|
ABSTRACT: The effect of post hatch starvation on growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and nutrient digestibility coefficient was evaluated in broiler chicks. One hundred and eighty "Sayed" day-old broiler chickens were placed in six treatments with three replications of 10 chickens each. The experiment was arranged in a complete random design (CRD) at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours delay access to feed as treatments. Birds subjected to fasting at 12, 24 and 36h showed no significant (P>0.05) differences in body weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. Body weight increased significantly (P<0.05) at 12, 24 and 36h compared with those at 48, 60 and 72h delayed access to feed. At 7 days of age, the nutrient digestibility coefficient of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ash and nitrogen free extracts (NFE) was significantly (p<0.05) better at 12, 24 and 36h compared with those at 48, 60 and 72h. At 28 day of age, the results of the digestibility coefficient of birds at 12, 24 and 36h feed holding period was similar (p>0.05) for DM, CP and CF but significantly (P<0.05) differed from those on 48, 60 and 72h. The EE, ash and NFE were similar (P>0.05) across the treatments with improved values in birds with decreasing starved period. The results of this study revealed that delayed access to feed has adverse effects on broiler performance. It recommended that a source of energy in the hatching basket or during transportation be provided to chicks to reduce starvation.
Key words: Post-hatch starvation, feeding, performance, digestibility, broiler chicken
. Noy, Y., and D. Sklan. Different types of early feeding and performance in chicks and poults. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 1999 8:16-24.
. Noy, Y.,A. Geyra, and A. Sklan. The effects of early feeding on growth and small intestinal development in the post hatch poultry. Poult. Sci., 2001, 80: 912-919.
. Gonzales, E., N. Kondo, S. P.B. Saldanha, M. Loddy, C. Careghi, and D. Decuypere,. Performance and physiological parameters of broiler chickens subjected to fasting on the neonatal period. Poult. Sci., 2003, 82:1250–1256.
. Halevy, O., Y., Y. Nadel,, M. Barak, I. Rozenboim,I. and D. Sklan,. Early posthatch feeding stimulates satellite cell proliferation and skeletalmuscle growth in turkey Poults. J. Nutr.133:1376–1382.
. Latour, M. A., E. D. Peebles, C. R. Boyle, and J. D. Brake. 1994.The effects of dietary fat on growth performance, carcass composition, and feed efficiency in the broiler chick. Poult. Sci. . 2003, 73:1362–1369.
. Uni, Z., A.Smirnov. and D. Sklan. Pre- and post hatch development of goblet cells in the broiler small intestine: Effect of delayed access to feed. Poult. Sci. 2003, 82:320–327.
. Pinchasov, Y. and Y. Noy. Early post-natal amylolysis in the gastrointestinal tract of turkey poults (Meleagris gallopavo). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 1994, 106: 221-225.
. Pinchasov, Y. and Y. Noy, Comparison of post hatch holding time and subsequent early performance of broiler chicks and turkey 7. Poults. Br. Poult. Sci., 1993, 34: 111-120.
. Bigot, K., S. Mignon-Grasteau., M. Picard, and S. Tesseraud. Effects of delayed feed intake on body, intestine, and muscle development in neonate broilers. Poult. Sci., .2003, 82:781-788.
. Nir, I. and M. Levanon. Research note: effect of posthatch holding time on performance and on residual yolk and liver composition. Poult. Sci., 1993, 72: 1994-1997.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of irrigation treatments onmaize (Zea mays L.)Yield & yield components during two growing seasons.|
|Authors||:||H. A. Sadalla, J. B. Guznay, T. F. Sadiq, S. A. Kakarash|
ABSTRACT: Effect of five irrigation treatments on the yield and yield component of maize variety TALAR were studied at Gurdarash Research station. College of Agriculture, Erbil-Iraq during spring and fall season 2011.The result Showed significant differences among irrigation treatments for a must studied characters ear length, grain yield/plant, kernel/ear, 250 kernel weight and yield at both seasons. In spring season the total irrigation water used was about (3503 L/4m²), the value of must character were decreased. While in fall season the total irrigation water was about (3177 L/4m²) and the value of all characters were increased, the irrigation water was profitable for plant even at late maturity, which caused the higher irrigation efficiency in fall season than spring season according to crop productivity and less irrigation water used.
Keywords- irrigation, maize, yield component.
. Oweis,T. and A. Hachum. (2007). Water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improve water productivity of dry farming system in west Asia and North Africa. Natural Resource Management Program, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). Aleppo, Syria.
. Hamood, J. A. and M .M. Elsahoki. (2011). Yield of maize under skip irrigation and planting depth. I. J. A. S. 42 (1): 1-12.
. Kirda, C. (2002). Deficit irrigation scheduling based on plant growth stages showing water stress tolerance. In: Deficit irrigation practices. Water report No. 22. FAO, Rome, Italy.
. English, M. (1990). Deficit irrigation. Analytical Frame work. J. I. D. E. 116 (3), 214-399.
. Jajjo, N. M. and B. M. N. Alzaidi. (2010). Effect of Application uniformity or production under deficit sprinkler irrigation. AL-Rafidain Engineering Vol. 18. No.2.
. Geerts, S. and D. Raes. (2009). The effect of plant density and water stress during vegetative phase on grain yield, yield components and water use efficiency of maize. Iranian Journal of crop Sci. 2 (3), 50 -62.
. Fahad. A. A., S. A. El-hadethy and K. M. Malih. (2005). Maize (Zea mays L.) Water requirement in fall season cultivation under complete and deficit irrigation. Agric. Sci. vol 3 No 32: 315 – 323.
. EL- henish, T., M. R. EL- Ubaidy and K. EL- Smaiel. (2009). Effect of water stress on growth and productivity of some varieties and hybrids of maize in Der-Elzoor. 7th Sci. Conf. of General Board of Scientific Agri. Res.
. Jurgens, S.K. R. R. Johnson and J. S. Boger (1978). Dry mater production translocation in maize subjected drought during grain filling. Agron. J. 70: 678 – 682.
. ECK, H. V. (1986). Effects of water deficits on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of irrigated corn Agron. J. 78: 1035 – 1040.
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ABSTRACT: Adansonia digitata, a shrub used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer was investigated for the treatment of experimental trypanosomiasis. Methanol seed extracts of the seed of Adansonia digitata was investigated for in-vivo anti-trypanosomal activity in albino mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and treated intraperitoneally with the extracts 24 hours post infection, at doses ranging from 50-500mg/kg for 14 days. The parasitaemia in each mouse was monitored including the control group which were treated with the standard drug; BerenilR. Seed extracts at dose of 400mg/kg showed significant antitrypanosomal activity (P<0.05). Although parasites were not completely cleared from circulation, 67% of the experimental animals survived for over 43 days. Fraction E obtained from column chromatography of the seed extract cleared parasites completely with no relapse. The treated control (berenil at dose of 3.5mg/kg) showed 100% survival and parasites were completely cleared. The L.D50 value of the crude seed extract was estimated to be more than 2900mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of the seed indicated the presence of carbohydrate, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, saponins, steroids and triterpene, flavonoids and alkaloids. The result of this study shows that Adansonia digitata has great potential as anti trypanosomal agent, which could be developed into an alternative drug to complement treatment options for African trypanosomiasis.
Key words: Trypanosomiasis, anti-trypansomal, intraperitoneally, parasitaemia, phytochemical screening.
 G. Hide, History of sleeping sickness in East Africa. Clinical microbiology reviews (1999). 112-125. (12)
 R.H. Gooding, Genetic variation in Tsetse flies and implication for trypanosomiasis. Parasitology today. (1992). 92-95 (8)
 WHO, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Geneva, Switzerland technical report. (2010) 295.
 P.P .Simarro, J.Jannin, and P. Cattand, Eliminating Human African trypanosomiasis. Where do we stand and what comes next? Plos medicine. (2008). (2 article e55). (5)
 G. Cecchi, M. Paone, and J.R. Franco, Toward atlas of human African trypanosomiasis. Internal journal of Health Geography. (2009). 1-5. (8)
 E.M. Fevre, B.V. Wissmann, , S.G. Welburn and P. Lutumba, The burden of human African trypanosomiasis. Plos neglected tropical disease. (2008). (12 article e333). (2)
 L. Berrang-ford, J. Laudine, and S. Breau, Conflick and human trypanosomiasis. Social science and medicine.: (2011). 398-407. (72)
 M.P. Barrett, Boykin, D.W., Brun, R., and R.R. Tidwell, (2007). Human African trypanosomiasis: Pharmacological re-engagement with a neglected disease. British journal of pharmacology. 152: 1155-1171.
 E. Abdel-Sattar, F.M. Harraz, S.M.A. Al-Ansari., S. El-Mekkawy, C. Ichino, H. Kiyohara, K . Otoguro, S. Omura, and H. Yamada, Antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activity of plants from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of National Medicine (2009). 232–239. (63)
 V.A. Maikai, Antitrypanosomal Activity of Flavonoid Extracted from Ximenia Americana Stem Bark. International Journal of Biology, 3: (2011). 115-121. (1)
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ABSTRACT: This study examines the training needs of extension workers of Kaduna State Agricultural Development Project (KADP). For purpose of in-depth analysis, two (2) zones of KADP: – Maigana from the north and Samaru from the southern part were selected for the study. Data for the study were collected through the use of structured questionnaire involving a population of sixty one (61) respondents all agricultural extension workers selected through simple random sampling. The descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were employed in analyzing the data. The finding shows that, there is training needs for extension workers in the area of, developing community group was the most desired training needs with 30.6%, while crop protection, training for potential workers with 20.8%, 12.5% respectively; weed control and subject matter specialist on cassava production with 2.8% each and 1.4% represent less training needs. Lack of funding was found to be the major constraint with 45.2%. About 64% of the extension workers rated their performance as very useful and 32.8% are rated useful. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that constraints and needs were positive and statistically significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels. Thus, it is recommended that extension workers should be encouraged to attend seminars, conference, and additional courses in higher institutions. And their welfare needs such as regular promotions so as to motivate them to work more effectively, and there should be enough funding for continuous in-service training.
Key Words: Problems, Needs, Extension workers
. Akpoko, J. G. (1988). Socio-economic constraints on Agricultural Production in Jema'a Local Government Area of Kaduna State. (M.Sc Thesis), Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (1988), P76
. Ajakaiye, M.B. (1984). The private Sector and Nigerian Agricultural Development. Agriculture and Rural Management Training institute, Ilorin, Nigeria, 250pp.
. Androuhdkis, S. I., and Siardos, G. C. (2005). Agricultural extension agent's Perception regarding their relevance and competence in certain professional task area. 11 4p. Availabl at www.Jimmyproject.org
. Awoyemi, O.(1981). Problems of Agriculture in Nigeria pp37-49. In: - Ojo, M.O; Edordu, C.C.; and Akingbade, J.A. eds) Agricultural Credit Finance in Nigeria: Problems and prospects. Proceedings of a seminar organized by the Central Bank of Nigeria, April 27 –30, 1981 at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, 659 pp.
. Benor, D. and Harrison, J. (2006). Funding, training and visit extension, extension approach. Journal of International Agricultural and extension Education 4(1); 9 – 12.
. Benor, Daniel; and Harrison, Q.James (1977). Agricultural Extension. The Training and Vision System. World Bank, Washington, D.C; 20433, USA, pp 6 –7
. Cho, K. M. and Hermann B. (2003). Technological and Institutional Innovations for sustainable Rural Development Towards a sustainable Development in Agriculture: An Analysis of Training Needs for Potential Extension Agents in Myanmar.Deutscher Tro-pentag, October 8-10, 2003 in Gottingen(International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development), PP1-8.
. Ellis-Jones, J., S. Schulz, D. Chikoye, N. deHaan, P. Kormawa, and D. Adedzwa. (2005). Participatory research and extension approaches: guide for researchers and extension workers for involving farmers in research and development. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria and Silsoe Research Institute, UK, 52p
. FAO, (2001). Global consultation on agricultural extension services. A Journal of extension Education 2 (3); 11 - 14
. Fremy, J. (1995). Human Resources Development and Management Issue: In service Training Needs and challenges. In: - Cassaday, K.A., G. Monnet and C.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of Fig Tree (Ficus Sycomorus) Root Exudates on Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Javanica)|
|Authors||:||Jada, M. Y., Oaya, C. S., Stephen, S. N.|
ABSTRACT: The effect of fig tree (Ficus sycomorus) root exudates on root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) was evaluated in the Laboratory of the Department of Crop Production and Horticulture/Crop Protection, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola in 2008. This was to determine the egg hatch and juvenile mortality of M. javanica and also the nematicidal properties of the root exudates. The experimental design used was the Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisting of six (6) treatments replicated four (4) times for both F. sycomorus root exudates for egg hatch and juvenile mortality. The result obtained shows that, egg hatch in 10% concentration of F. sycomorus root exudates at 168hours of exposure was significantly higher (318.00) followed by 8% concentration (296.00) at 168hours and the least was observed in 2% concentration of F. sycomorus root exudates at 24hours of exposure (97.00). Similarly, juvenile mortality at 100% concentration of F. sycomorus root exudates at 168hours of exposure was significantly higher (132.00) followed by 80% concentration (107.00) at 168hours and the least was reported in 0% concentration at 24hours exposure (9.00) at p≤0.05 using the least significant difference (LSD) test for variables. The result clearly shows that, egg hatch and juvenile mortality in all the treatments increased significantly with increase in time of exposure and concentration of the root exudates. 70% of juvenile mortality was recorded on the 7th day (168hours) at the highest concentration of 100%, which further stressed that, F. sycomorus root exudates has nematicidal properties. The chemical analysis of the root exudates also reveals that, saponins, phenols, 3.5% alkaloids and pH of 6.81 were confirmed.
Keywords: Concentration, Exudates, Eggs, Juveniles, Nematodes, Hatching, Mortality.
. Adesiyan, S. O.,Adeniti, M.O., Caveness, F. E. and Fawole, B. (1990). Nematode pest of Tropical crops. Hgeria) Plc, Ibadan, pp.19-29.
. Baker, K. R., Hussey, R. S. and Krusberg, L. R. (1994). Plant and Oil Nematodes: Societal impact focus for the future 26: 127-137.
. Bridge, J. (1972). Plant Parasitic Nematode on Irrigated Crops in Northerrn States of Nigeria. Samaru Miscellaneous paper 42, 111pp.
. Ferris, H., Castro, C. E. and Caswell- Chen, E. P. (1992). Beyond Pesticides-Biological Approaches to Management in Califonia.
. For Management of Plant Parasitic Nematodes. No. 117, 2pp.
. Jackson, G.V.H., Ruabete, Y.K. and Wright, J.G. (2003). Burrowing and lesion nematodes of bananas 2nd edition . Secretariat of the Pacific Community Pest Advisory Leaflet, No. 5.
. Jada, M. Y. (2001). Effect of Water Soluble Extracts of Three Mimosaceae Plants on Penetration Ability of Meloidogyne incognita Juveniles into Roots of Tomato C. V. Roma VF. Nigerian Journal of Tropical Agriculture. Vol. 3:10-14.
. Jada, M. Y. (2007). Short Communication Responses of Some Hausa Potato [Salanostemon rotcardifollices (Pair) J. K. Morton] Cultivars to the Root-knot Nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood in Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. http://www.fspublishing. 1560- 8530/2007/09-4.
. Noling, J. W. (2005). Nematode Management in Tomatoes, Pepper and Egg plants. Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. P. 1-4.
. Olabiye, T. I., Babatola, J.O. and Ogyegunurade, E. A. (1992). In vitro assessement of some extracts for nematicidal properties. In eds. Fawole, B. J.O.A., Egunjobi, S.O., Adesiyan, O. A. and Idowu, A. A. The Biology and Control of Nematode Pests of Crops in Africa. Proceedings of the First Regional Symposium on the Biology and Control of Nematode Pests of Food Crops in Africa. University of Ibadan 26-29th July, 1992.
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ABSTRACT: LC50 of the alcoholic 80% extract of Euphorbia pulcharrima (Ephorbiaceae) (0.714%),essential oil of Garlic plant Allium sativum (Liliaceae) (0.067%)and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs)of Steinernima carpocapsae (Stienernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora(Heterorahbditidae ) (500 IJs/ml), were tested for their solely and/or combined toxic effects and for their effects on some biological aspects against the grasshopper, Heteracris littoralis (Orthoptera: acrididae) 1st instar nymphs under semi-field condition. The joint action of the mixture of the most effective extract (E. pulchrrima) and oil (Garlic oil) exhibit an antagonistic effect with co-toxicity index of (–24), despite the increase the proportion of death in the mixture for all the tested groups the type of interaction were antagonism, all the tested materials had variable mode of action which resulted in significantly antagonistic effects. Reviewing the obtained results, it can be concluded that the efficiency of the different tested bio-agents material mixture against the 1st instar nymphs of H. littoralis varied tremendously according to the type of compounds of the tested mixture. Euphorbia 80% methanol extract and Garlic oil may used separately or in combination as alternatives safe tools against H. littoralis grasshopper. Semi-field experiments cleared that nematodes in combination with the oil or extract increased the mortality percentage. The combination mixture of extract, oil and nematode significantly affected development, reproduction and life cycle of H. littoralis. Lethal effect varied with regard to the nematode species. Semi-field experiment of the plant extract, plant oil and their mixture revealed some changes on the biological aspects, an increase in the nymphal period, pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods. There is vigorous decrease in the female fecundity and egg fertility. The control of the insect by nematode and sub-lethal dose of plant extract or plant volatile oil as biological control may enhance their lethal effect on insect pest when applied simultaneously. Combination mixture of the tested bio-agent could be considered as possible means for use in programs of integrated pest management of H. littoralis grasshopper. Keywords: Grasshopper, Heteracris littoralis, Entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, Joint action, Biological aspects, Semi-field test. Plant extract, Essential oil, Euphorbia pulchrrima, Allium sativum.
. ABBOTT W.S. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology., 18: 265-267.
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. BAKKALI R., S. AVERBECK, D. AVERBECK, M .IDAOMAR. 2008. Biological effects of essential oils. A review. Food and chemical Toxicology, 46: 446 –475.
. CASIDA J.H. 1990. Pesticide mode of action, evidence for implications of a finite number of biochemical targets, in: J.E. Casida (Ed.), Pesticides and Alternatives, Innovative chemical and Biological Approaches to Pest Control, Elsevier, Amesterdam, pp. 11-22.
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. FEI Y.I., Z.O.U. CHUNHUA, H.U. QIOGBO, H.U. MEIYING. 2012. The joint action of Destruxin and botanical insecticides (Rotenone, Azadirachtin and Paeonolum) against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. Molecules, 17: 7533-7542.
. GARCIA M., O.J. DONADEL, C.E. ARDANAZ, E.C. TONN, M.E. SOSA. 2005. Toxic and repellent effects of Baccharis salicifolia essential oil on Tribolium castaneum, Pest Managament. Science, 61: 612-618.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Assessment of grain loss due to insect pest during storage for small-scale farmers of Kebbi|
|Authors||:||Iliyasu Mohammed Utono|
ABSTRACT: Grain storage losses due to insect pests have been a serious problem threatens the livelihood of small-scale farmers. Sampling and inspection of grain stores provide important information that is useful in identifying and managing insects problems associated with grain storage. A survey of sampling farmers' grain stores was conducted in three geo-political regions (Central, North and South) of Kebbi state to gain a better understanding of the insect pest species and the impending associated problems they cause in farmers grain stores, and to help farmers with new approach (VDS) for assessing grain damage by themselves and compare the precision of the new approach with conventional approach in assessing grain weight loss. The findings of this research indicate that the VDS method is comparable (r2 = 0.76; t=14.19, df=147, p<0.001) with conventional method of assessing weight loss and can be used as a rapid method of assessing the degree of damage to grain and proportional loss for sorghum, millet and threshed maize. The most commonly found insect was T. castaneum, followed by R. dominica. Sorghum significantly (χ2 = 230.62, df = 12, p < 0.003).had the highest mean number of insect species, and the highest number of insects of each species, mainly T. castaneum (10.1±0.83) than found in millet (4.0±0.78), and maize (7.9±0.78). Threshed sorghum stored in storerooms in the south significantly suffered most weigh loss than all other types of grain stored in both granaries and storerooms in all regions. This study highlights the groups most in need of help with insect control.
Key words: Insects, Region, Threshed grain, Weight loss, Visual damage scale
 Gwinner, J., Harnisch, R. and Műck, O. Manual on the prevention of post-harvest grain losses, post-harvest project, Pickhuben 4, D-2000 Hambung, 1990.
 Mendalis, E., Abdeta, C., Tesfaye, A., Shumeta, Z. and Jifar, H. Farmer's perceptions and management practices of insect pest on stored sorghum in Ethiopia. Crop Protection 26, 2007 1817-1825.
 Anonymous.. Post-harvest food losses in developing countries. Board on Science and Technology for International development Commission on International Relations, National Resources Council. National Academy of Science Washington DC. 1978, 206pp.
 Compton, J.A.F. and Sherington, J. Rapid assessment methods for stored maize cobs: weight losses due to insect pests. Journal of stored products Research 35, 1999. 77-87.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||A survey of systems of grain storage and management of insect pests in stored grain in Kebbi state|
|Authors||:||Iliyasu Mohammed Utono, Gabriella Gibson, Claire coote|
ABSTRACT: Grain storage losses due to insect pests threaten the livelihood of small-scale farmers in Kebbi state. The farmers various methods of grain protection are in adequate in providing good protection from pest damage, however, when improved might provide a better protection. A survey of 240 famers was conducted in three regions (Central, North and South) of Kebbi state to increase understanding of various methods employ by farmers to protect their important grain from damage by insect pests. Of all the grain, sorghum was stored in greater quantity (4,000 kilos/household, p<0.001) than other grains and a majority in south Kebbi stored sorghum threshed (p<0.001), even though this form is more vulnerable to infestation. The methods of storage practice by the respondents varied between the regions which affect the types of insects found. Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica were found as the major pest mentioned by almost all respondents in all the regions. Over 40% of the respondents from both north and central, and 20% from the South regions used synthetic pesticide as control measures. Over 30% of respondents from the South and 12% and 17% from the North and Central regions respectively use pesticidal plants, where Ocimum basilicum was the most frequently mentioned. That farmers use pesticidal plants indicates the prospect for improving pesticidal plants. This study highlights opportunity for improving and enhancing the value of pesticidal plant for use as grain protectants for small-scale farmers
Key words: Insects, Grain storage, Pesticidal plants, Survey
 COA (Committee on Agriculture). 2009. Improvement of Agriculture sectors in Kebbi State: interim Report, August, 2009, Kebbi state, Nigeria.  KARDA (Kebbi Agriculture and Rural Development Authority). 2004. Agricultural potentials of Kebbi State. KARDA along Kalgo road, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria.
 R Development Core Team. 2009. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org.
 Anonymous. 2004. Nigerian demographic and health survey. National Population Commission of Nigeria. Abuja, 11-19.
 Abdullah, M.R. Undated. Women in Agriculture. The role of African women in Agriculture. National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Service, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
 Okojie, K. 1991. Achieving self-reliance in food production in Nigeria: Maximizing the contribution of rural women. Journal of Social Development in Africa 6 (2), 33-52.
 Chimoya, I.A., and Abdullahi, G., 2011. Species compositions and relative abundance of insect pests associated with some stored cereals grains in selected markets of Maiduguri metropolitan. Journal of American Science 7, 355-358.
 Anuforom, A.C. 2010. Demonstration and assessment of climate change in Nigeria and development of adaptation strategies in the key socio- economic sectors: meteorological approach. A paper presented at the national stakeholders workshop on "Developing national adaption strategy and plan of action for Nigeria" 22nd March 2010, Abuja, Nigeria.
 Dobie, P., Haines, C.P., Hodges, R.J., Prevett, P.F. and Rees, D. P. 1991. Insects and Arachnids of tropical stored products: Their biology and identification (training manual). Natural Resources Institute, Chatham Maritime, UK, P.232.  Gwinner, J., Harnisch, R. and Műck, O. 1990. Manual on the prevention of post-harvest grain losses, post-harvest project, Pickhuben 4, D-2000 Hambung, 294pp.
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ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted during years 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons of Nigerian Guinea Savanna, in which eighty-one surface soils (0-20 cm depth) were collected before, in-between and after the cropping seasons. The soils were analysed for status of pH, OC, CEC, available Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn. Initial status of the soil pH, OC and CEC were 5.7 (moderately acidic), 4.62 g kg-1 and 1.6 cmol(+)/kg respectively, while those of Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn were 0.18, 0.1, 22.5 and 21.5 mg kg-1 respectively. The soils were deficient in all the studied properties except Fe and Mn which were in high concentrations in the soils. Applications of organic and inorganic amendments to the soils significantly improved soil properties through increment in the soil pH and organic carbon status. The effect of the inorganic amendment was immediate while that of the organic was on residual basis. By the end of the second season, status of Zn (0.75 mg kg-1) and Cu (0.28 mg kg-1) had significantly increased above the critical limit, from residual effect of application of 10 t ha-1 of fertiplus and compost plus respectively, while the excessively high concentrations of Fe and Mn in the soils were also amended. Keywords- Amendment, Enhancement, Evaluation, Micronutrients, Savanna.
 Rangel Z. (2003). Heavy metals as essentials nutrients. In: Prasad MNV, Hagemeyer J (eds) ; Heavy metal stress in plants : Molecules to Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 271-294.
 Lombin, G., 1983. Evaluating the micronutrient fertility of Nigeria semi-arid Savanna soils: Zinc Soils. Soil Sci., 136: 42-47.
 Kparmwang, T., Chude, V.O. and Esu, I.E. 1995. Hydrochloric acid (0.1M) and DPTA extractable and total iron manganese in basaltic soil profiles of the Nigerian savanna. Communications Soil Science Plant Analysis. 26 : 2783 -2796.
 Adeboye, M.K.A. (2003). Micronutrients Status of the soil of the Lower Gongola River Basin:Manganese and Copper. Spectrum Journal. 10 :57 – 64.
 Lombin, G. (1983a). Evaluating the micronutrient fertility of Nigerian Semi - Arid Savanna Soils: Zinc Soils. SoilScience.136, 42 – 47.  Lombin, G. 1983b. Evaluating the micronutrients fertility of Nigeria's semi-arid savanna soils. II Zinc. Soil Science 136: 42-47.
 Lombin, G. 1985a. Evaluating the micronutrient fertility of Nigeria semi-arid savanna soils. Boron and Molybdenum. Soil Science Plant Nutrition. 13:12-25.
 Mustapha S, Loks, N.A. (2005). Distribution of available zinc, copper, iron and manganese in the fadama soils from two distinct agroecological zones in Bauchi State, Nigeria. J. Environ. Sci., 9(2): 22-28.
 Abedi T, Alemzadeh A, KazemeIni SA (2010) Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on grain yield and protein banding pattern of wheat. Australian Journal of Crop Science 4: 384-389.
 Kazemeini SA, Hamzehzarghani H, Edalat M (2010). The impact of nitrogen and organic matter on winter canola seed yield and yield components. Aust J Crop Sci 4: 335- 342.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Estimates of genetic parameters of growth traits in Madras Red sheep|
|Authors||:||R. Ganesan, P. Dhanavanthan, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy,
ABSTRACT: Sheep rearing is an important livelihood for a large number of small and marginal farmers in India as sheep make significant contribution to income generation, supply of animal source of food and serve as financial security to the resource-poor rural households. Growth is an economic trait of interest in domestic animals. The present study was aimed at evaluating growth performance and estimating the genetic parameters for growth traits of Madras Red sheep, a native breed of Tamilnadu state in India, under organized farm conditions. Monthly body weight measurements of 1424 sheep from birth to 2 years of age born during the years 1996 to 2010 were utilized for the analysis. Using least squares analysis, the effects of non-genetic factors namely, sex of lamb, season of birth (Main season(Oct.-Mar.) and off season(Apr.-Sep.)), dam weight at lambing (<25, 25-29.99, 30-34.99, ≥ 35 kg) and year of birth (1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010) on the observed birth weight and body weight at 3rd, 6th , 9th and 12th months and also on the average daily weight gain during 0-3, 3-6, 6-9 and 9-12 months were studied. The body weight at birth, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month showed significant difference between sex of lamb, dam weight at lambing and year of birth (P < 0.01). The body weight, except at birth and 9th month showed significant difference between the seasons (P < 0.01). Average daily weight gains showed significant difference between sex of lamb, season of birth and year of birth while it showed significant difference between dam weights at lambing only for the period 3-6 months. Heritability and genetic correlation estimated using paternal half-sib analysis for body weights at various ages and average daily weight gains for different growth periods indicated scope for improvement through selection.
Keywords: Average daily weight gain, body weight, genetic correlation, heritability, Madras Red, Sheep
 Balasubramanyam, D., Kumarasamy, P., 2011. Performance of Madras red sheep in Kancheepuram District. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 1 (2): 133-137
 Moore, A.J., 1985. A mathematical equation for animal growth from embryo to adult. Anim. Prod. 47, 201-207.
 Blasco, A., Gomes, E., 1993. A note on growth curves of rabbit lines selected on growth rate or litter size. Anim. Prod. 57, 332-334.  Bathaei, S.S., Leroy, P.L., 1996. Growth and mature weight of Mehraban Iranian fat-tailed sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 22, 155-162.  Topal, M., Ozdemir, M., Aksakal, V., Yildiz, N., Dogru, U., 2004. Determination of the best nonlinear function in order to estimate growth in Morkaraman and Awassi lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 55, 229-232
 Balasubramanyam, D., Jaishankar, S., Sivaselvam, S.N., 2010. Performance of Madras red sheep under farmer's flocks. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants. 16-2: 217-220
 Devendran, P., Cauveri, D., Murali, N., Ravimurugan, T., Gajendran, K., 2009. Growth efficiency of Madras red sheep under farmer's flocks. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants. 16-2: 210-212
 Becker W A., 1985. Manual of quantitative genetics. Program in Genetics, Washington State University, USA.
 Swinger, LA., Harvey, W.R., Everson, D.O. and Gregory, E.K., 1964. The variance of intra-class correlation involving groups with one observation. Biometrics 20:818-26
 SPSS Inc. Released 2009. PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc.
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ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the use of Rapid Reponse (Remote Sensing) Techniques and GIS in mapping out vegetation land cover of Delta and Edo in Niger Delta region of Nigeria between 1990 and 1999.This was done to determine the extent of changes which had occurred between that period of time. Landsat 4-5 of December 1990 and December 1999 were used.Layer stacking of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 were performed. Pre-processing was performed to remove the hazy nature. The imageries were assigned using Signature Editor. Supervised classification was performed using maximum likelihood operation to derive the vegetation land cover map. NDVI was used to detect areas of vegetation decline, and Density Slice technique was applied to detect vegetation change densities which were categorized on the bases of very-very high to very-very low density. The study showed that the vegetation cover of the area has significant change between 1990 -1999.
Key Words; Vegetation,Change detection,Remote Sensing,GIS
. Boakye, E. et al., (2008) Landsat Images for Assessment of the Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Barekese Catchment in Ghana: European Journal of Scientific Research. Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 269 – 278. [Online]. Available from: http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr_22_2_12.pdf Accessed 31 August 2009.
. Curran, P. J., (1985) Principal of Remote Sensing. London: Longman.
. Duadze, S.E.K., (2004) Land-use and land cover study of the Savannah ecosystem in the Upper West region (Ghana) using remote sensing: ZEF Bonn: University of Bonn, Germany FAO. [Online]. Available from: http//www.FAO.org Accessed 31st August 2009.
. DIGIROLAMO, P. A., (2006) A Comparison Of Change Detection Methods In An Urban Environment Using Landsat TM and ETM+ Satellite Imagery: A Multi-Temporal, Multi-Spectral Analysis of Gwinnett County, GA 1991-2000. [Online]. Available from: http://etd.gsu.edu/theses/available/etd-07242006-110800/unrestricted/Digirolamo_Paul_A_200608_MA.pdf Accessed 14th August 2009.
. Gayer, M., (2008) Advanced Methods for IDP and Refugee Camp Mapping with Very High Resolution Satellite Imagery. [Online] Available from: http://www.freidok.uni-freiburg.de/volltexte/6333/pdf/Magisterarbeit_Martin_Gayer.pdf Accessed 28th August 2009. . Groeneveld, D. P., (2008) Remotely-sensed groundwater evapotranspiration from alkali scrub affected by declining water table: Journal of Hydrology. Vol. 358, No. 2-3, pp. 294-303. [Online]. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V6C-4SRW18Y-
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ABSTRACT: Field experiment was conducted to determine if arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could reduce the excessive amount of chemical fertilizer used in cultivation of onion. Inoculated and un-inoculated onion plant were grown with varying levels of N and P fertilizer (00-00, 40-20, 60-30, 80-40, 100-50 and 120-60 kg ha-1 N and P respectively), K was constant at 50 kg ha-1 laid out in randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Mycorrhizal colonization (%), plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, fresh and dry shoot biomass (g), and N, P, and K concentrations in plant were determined. The results showed no significant difference in plant height and number of leaves per plant between inoculated and un-inoculated plants at 4 weeks after transplant (WAT) for all treatments. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in plant growth response were observed among treatments at 8 WAT. Plant growth characteristics and nutrients concentration in plant tissue of un-inoculated plants increases with increase in N and P fertilizer application. Inoculated plants with 60-30-50 kg ha-1 NPK produced plants with highest growth parameters (38.63 cm, 13.66, 27.80g and 3.74 g) for plant height, number of leaves, fresh shoot and dry biomass respectively as compared to un-inoculated plants with high dosages (120-60-50 kg ha-1 NPK) of fertilizer. Reduction in plant growth response and nutrients concentration of inoculated plants were observed with increase in fertilizer application from, 80-40, 100-50 and 120-60 kg ha-1 N and P. Root colonization by AMF occurred in all treatments including un-inoculated plants. Colonization potential of AMF decreases with increase in fertilizer application. Root colonization level of Un-inoculated plants ranges from 11.2% in control plants to 2.4% in plants treated with 120-60-50 kg ha-1 NPK. Applying fertilizer at 60-30-50 kg ha-1 NPK recorded the highest colonization level (39.7%) followed by (31.9%) in plants treated with (40-20-50 kg ha-1 NPK) and values were statistically different compared to all treatments. Mycorrhizal inoculation influenced early growth and concentrations of N, P and K at 60-30-50 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer application rate. From this study, it can be concluded that using AMF could reduced the amount of excessive chemical fertilizer needed to produce onion.
Key words: Plant growth, mycorrhiza, NPK fertilizer, onion plant, root colonization.
. Amans, E. B., Ahmed, M. K. and Yayock, J. Y. (1996). Effect of plant spacing and nitrogen rates on early growth and late-sown dry season onion (Allium cepa) in Sudan Savanna of Nigeria Growth, maturity and bulb yield. Ph.D Thesis. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
. Barzegar, M., Rajabi, A., Hassandokht, M. R. and Jabbari, A. (2008). Chemical composition of different cultivars of onion (Allium cepa L.) produces in Iran. Hort. Environ Biotechnol. 49(2):121-127.
. Cabello, M. N (1997). Hydrocarbon pollution: its effect on native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). FEMS Microbiol Ecol 22:233-236.
. Caimey, J. W.G., Meharg, A. A. (1999). Influence of anthropogenic pollution on mycorrhizal fungal communities. Environ Pollut 106:169-182.
. Corzo-Martinez, M., Corzo, N. and Villamiel, M. (2007). "Biological properties of onions and garlic" Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 609-625.
. DeMelo, P. E. (2003). The root system of onion and Allium fistulosumin in the context of organic farming a breeding approach. Ph. D thesis Wageningen University, the Netherlands pp. 136.
. Drost, D. and Koening, R. (2002). Improving productivity and N use efficiency with a polymer coated nitrogen source. Hort Science. 37(2),338-342.
. Fageria, N. K., Baligar, V. C and Clark, R. B. (2006). Root growth parameters and methods of measurement.Root architecture. Physiology of crop production. Food Products Press.
. FAOSTAT data (2006). http:/www.fao.org (Last updated February 2005)
. Franco-Ramirez, A., Ferrera-Cerrato, R., Varela-Fregoso, L., Perez-Mreno, J. and Alarcon, A. (2007). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in chronically petroleum-contaminated soils of Mexico and the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on spore germination. J Basic Microbiol 47:378-383.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Different Endometritis Treatments in Ewe: Comparative Study|
|Authors||:||Souhayla Oneeis Hussain, Sulake Fadhil Al-Zubaidi, Monther Asofi|
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to find the best method of treatment of endometritis in ewe. The study was conducted in goat station at Agurgof and other region in Baghdad from 2009-2013 and was performed on 28 awassi ewes aged (2-4 years old) that diagnosed clinically as cases of endometritis . The animals were divided randomly into four groups each group consisting of 7 ewes. The first group was treated with oestradiol benzoate 1mg intramuscularly (IM) and 2gm of oxytetracycline 20% as intrauterine therapy; the second group was received oestradiol benzoate 1mg IM and 20ml of lugolʼs iodine solution intrauterinarly (IU). The third group was given oestradiol benzoate 1mg IM and 1 tube of cefapirin IU, while the fourth group was treated with 2gm oxytetracycline 20% IM and oesradiol benzoate 1mg IM. The results showed that the number of ewes responded were (57.14, 100, 85.71 and 42.85) % respectively. The second and third groups showed the significant differences rather than first and fourth groups regarding to open days length. From these results, we concluded that oesradiol benzoate has vital role in the treatment of endometritis and its synergetic effect with lugolʼs iodine solution gives the best result.
Keywords: Ewe, Endometritis, Oestrogen, Oxytetracycline, Lugolʼs iodine, Cefapirin.
 Lafi S. Q. A. Q. Talafha & N. Giadinis & E. Kalaitzakis & K. ourliotis & N. Panousis. Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Awassi sheep flock in north-east of Jordan: An epidemiological study. Trop Anim Health Prod, 2009; 41:1755–1764.
 C. Palmieri, E. Schiavi, and L. Della Salda. Congenital and acquired pathology of ovary and tubular genital organs in ewes: A review. Therio, 2011; 75(3): 393–410.
 Keith Smith. Infertility in the Ewe and Doe (Female Goat). In: D. E. Noakes, T. J. Parkin-on and G. C. W. England, eds. Veterinary reproduction and obstetrics. 9th ed. China: Elsevier Limited, 2009; 557.
 Tomas, J., Ronald H. and Norbal K. (1996).Veterinary pathology, genital system. 6th. ed. 1173-1176.
 Scott PR et al. The use of combined xylazine and lidocaine epidural injection in ewes with vaginal or uterine prolapse, Therio, 1995; 43:1175.
 Rowe J.D. Reproductive management—Part III. Small ruminants for the mixed animal practitioner, Small Ruminants for the Mixed Animal Practitioner Western Veterinary Conference 1998; 147.
 N.R. Adams.A. Pathological and bacteriological abattoir survey of the reproductive tracts of merino ewes in Western Australia. Aust Vet J, 1975; 51(7): 351–354.
 Udhayavel S, Malmarugan S, Palanisamy K and Rajeswar J. Antibiogram pattern of bacteria causing endometritis in cows. Vet World 2013; 6(2): 100-102.
 Jūratė šiugždaitė, vilmantas juodžentis, saulius petkevičius. Bacterial contamination of the uterus in different lactation cows on endometritis. Vet Med Zoot, 2013; 61(83): 1392-2130.
 A.A. Ramadan, G.L. Johnson 3rd, G.S. Lewis. Regulation of uterine immune function during the estrous cycle and in response to infectious bacteria in sheep. J Anim Sci, 1997; 75(6): 1621–1632.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Genetic variability in cytoplasmic male sterile lines in rice (Oryza sativa L.)|
|Authors||:||Pritam Das, Chand Kumar Santra, Sankar Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup Mukherjee, Tapash Dasgupta|
ABSTRACT: Diversification of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines in hybrid rice technology contribute a pivotal role towards the development of superior hybrids. A study was conducted on fifteen elite CMS lines of diverse source of origin to estimate nature and magnitude of genetic divergence and correlation analysis of different agro-morphic traits. Out of fifteen CMS lines, six (6) CMS lines namely IR 58025A, IR 79156A, IR 80559A, IR 68897A, DRR 5A and Pusa 6A exhibited complete pollen sterility (100 %). Based on eight characters, the genotypes were grouped into five (5) clusters at 74% similarities coefficient. The genetic distances between the few CMS lines showed some correlation with geographic origin. In some case, the correlation between the genotypes not suggested the same trend which might be due to genetic drift. The CMS lines having the characters in the genetically distant cluster could, therefore, offer an important role in the development of hybrid rice varieties.
Key Words: Cytoplasmic male sterile lines, Genetic diversity, Hybrid rice.
 Krishnaiah K, Shobha RN (2000). New avenues for augmenting and sustaining rice exports from India. Intl. Rice Comm. Newsl. (FAO) 49:42-51.
 Biju Sidharthan, K. Thiyagarajan and S. Manonmani. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines for hybrid rice production. Journal of Applied sciences Research, 3(10) : 935-937, 2007.
 Virmani SS (1994). Heterosis and Hybrid rice breeding. International Rice Research Institute, Manilla, Phillipines.
 Yuan, L.P (1977) The execution and theory of developing hybrid rice. Zhonggue. Nongye Kexue (Chinese Agric Sci.) 1: 27-31 (in Chinese)
 Yuan, L.P; Virmani, S.S; Mao, C.X (1989) Hybrid rice - achievements and future outlook. In: Progress in irrigated rice research. IRRI, Manila, Philippines, pp 219-235
 Ahmed MI, Singh S, Virakthmath BC, Ramesh MS and Vijaykumar CHM. 1998. Studies on comparative stability of CMS lines. Int. Rice Res. Newsl. 23(1): 5
 Kaladhar K, Ramesha MS, Ramakrishna S, Ahmed MI, Viraktamath BC, Sarla N (2004). Clustering of maintainer and restorer lines of rice based on morphological and molecular diversity. Rice Genet. Newsl. 21:27-28.
 Rosamma, C.A and Vijayakumar, N.K (2005). Journal of Tropical Agriculture .43 (1-2): 75-77.
 S.S. Pardhe, V.V. Dalvi, B.L.Thaware and V.G. More. 2011. Evaluation of stable performance of cytoplasmic male sterile lines in rice. Oryza Vol. 48. No.1, 2011 (37-39)
 Nirmala Rajendran, Lipi Mukherjee, K. Kamalnath Reddy and H. E. Shashidhar. DNA fingerprinting and estimation of genetic diversity among hybrid rice parental lines (Oryza sativa L.) using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. 2012. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science Vol. 4(11). pp. 169-174.