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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Identification of Communcation Needs of Extension Agents in Ondo State Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||Okoedo-Okojie D. U., E. W. Edobor|
ABSTRACT:The study identified the communication needs of extensions agents in Ondo State, Nigeria. Specifically the study examined personal characteristics of extension agents, their perceived communication needs, frequency of training and factors that contract these needs. Data were obtained from 80 respondents randomly selected in a 2-stage sampling technique and were analysed using frequency counts, means, percentages and PPMC. Results show that majority (52.5%) and (58.8%) of the respondents were between 41 and 50years, and females respectively with mean working experience of 10 years. Respondents training was most frequent on internet websites (M=3.64) which was also their most perceived communication need (M=2.81). Inadequate funds for proper communication (M=4.33) was a major constraint. Regular in-service training of extension agents on extension teaching methods/process and conflict management was recommended.
Keywords: Identification, communication needs, extension agents.
. Ayayi, A.R (2001); Evaluation of extension Agents Jacob Case study of Enugu State Agriculture Development project, Nigeria journal of International Agriculture Extension Education. Vol.8, Number 3, pp 21-28.
. Bertolini, R. (2006). Measuring access and use of ICTs on household level: Concept and Empirical Aspects. The centre for Development Research, Bonn Germany P.11r. bertolini@uni-bonn,de.
. Bhatt, O.J. (1992) A study of socio-personal variables and job satisfaction of LTC Employees, Sauras htre University, Raijkot, p.34
. CTA (2003). ICTS-Transforming Agricultural Extension? An e-discussion. Proceedings of ACT's 6th consultative expert meeting ICTs-transforming agricultural extension? Engelhard R. (Ed.) Wageningen, 23-25 September 2003. Pp.2,6.
. Fatunbi, I.T. (1994) Training Needs of village Extension Workers Under unified agricultural Extension Services in Osun State Agricultural Development of program. A research project development of Agricultural Extension, University of Nigeria Nsukka, pp.6-7.
. FMARD (1976) Multi State Agricultural Development Projects (MS ADP-1) Staff Appraisal Report (SAR) World Bank Federal Agriculture Coordinating Unit (FACU)
. Johnson, D.W and Johnson F.P.(1991) Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 4th Edition, p105
. Lukhele, P.K. (1994) Issues and problems currently facing the agricultural sector in Swaziland with Emphasis on agricultural extension. Mimeo.
. Shaner, W.W. and Philip, P.F. (1992): Farming Systems Research and Development: Guideline for Developing Countries, Westviwe Press, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A.
. Swanson, B.E. (ed) (1984): Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual (Second Edition). F.A.O. Rome, Italy.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Optimizing Opportunities for Sustainable Development through Organic Agriculture in Nigeria|
|Authors||:||A. J. Augustine, G. E. Jokthan, I. C. Zarafi , G. M. Bivan|
ABSTRACT: Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system that avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and genetically modified organisms, minimizing pollution of air, soil and water, and optimizing the health and productivity of interdependent communities of plants, animals and people. To meet these objectives, farmers need to implement a series of practices that minimizes nutrient and energy flows, minimizes risk, enhanced crop diversity and biological pest control through the best use of natural and local resources. While organic agriculture is no longer a new phenomenon within the developed countries which is now commercially practiced in 120 countries on 31 million ha of certified crop land and pasture and 62 million ha of certified wild lands and a market value of 40 billion US dollars in 2006, it is considered new and interesting option for sustainable agriculture in developing countries because it offers a unique combination of low external inputs and technology, environmental conservation and input/output efficiency. In Nigeria, organized organic agriculture is still young despite the great natural potentials that are endowed in virtually all the agro-ecological regions of the country. A well designed policy on organic agriculture can address three crucial aspect of sustainable agricultural development: environmental health through sustainable use of natural resources within and outside the agro-ecosystem; rural development through employment and community empowerment; and income generation through diversification, value addition, marketing and trade. This paper intends to highlights the potentials or opportunities that exist in Nigeria that can be exploited and optimized for sustainable development through organic agriculture. Constraints and way forward are also highlighted for organic agriculture development in Nigeria.
Key words: Nigeria, organic agriculture, potentials, rural development and sustainable development
. O. A. Olugbenga, Organic agriculture and fair trade in West Africa, in Lim, L. C., Sue, E. and Nadia El-Hage, S. (eds.), Climate Change And food system resilience in Sub Saharan Africa.( F.A.O., 2011) 324-345.
. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement, Network building for lobbying in Africa. Compiled by Souleymane Bassoum, René Tokannou and Nguji Mutura. (IFOAM, Bonn 2004).
. Food and Agricultural Organisation, Water profile of Nigeria, in Jim Kundell (ed.) Encyclopedia of earth. (www.eoearth.org/article/water profile of Nigeria 2008).
. H. Willer, and L. Kilcher, (eds.), The world of organic agriculture – Statistics and emerging trends 2012. Research Institute Organic Agriculture (FiBL),Frick and International Federation of Organic Agriculture (IFOAM Bonn, 2012).
. H. Willer, and L. Kilcher, (eds.), The world of organic agriculture – Statistics and emerging trends 2009. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick and International Federation of Organic Agriculture (IFOAM Bonn, 2009).
. Z. Christine, and K. Lukas, Organic agriculture and food availability. (OFS Italy, 2007).
. S., Nadia El-Hage, Organic agriculture and food security. (OFS Italy, 2007).
. C., J. Badgley, E. Moghtader, E. Quintero, M. J. Zakem, K. Chappell, A. Aviles-Vaquez, Samulon, and I. Perfecto, Organic agriculture and the global food supply. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 22, 2007, 86-108.
. D. Blaise, Yield, bool distribution and fibre quality of hybrid cotton as influenced by organic and modern methods of distribution. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 1992, 2006, 248-256.
. J. Pretty, Lessons from certified and non-certified organic projects in developing countries, in El-Hage Scialabba N, Hattam C (eds), Organic agriculture, environment and food security. (FAO Rome, 2002) 139 – 162.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Extension Workers' Perceived Effectiveness of Linkages Mechanism with Researchers And Farmers In Edo State, Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||Okoedo-okojie D. U., G. E. Okon|
ABSTRACT: The study examined extension workers' perception of linkage mechanisms with researchers and farmers in Edo state, Nigeria. A total of seventy (70) respondents were used for the study, which comprised of 28 extension agents and 42 fadama facilitators in contact with researchers and farmers. Data were generated with the use of structured questionnaire and analysed using means. Results showed that result demonstration, agricultural show, joint campaign and field trip where the effective linkage mechanism (M=3.77) and (M=3.36) between extension agents and researchers and extension agents and farmers respectively.Also that method demonstration (M=4.40) was most effective method of transferring technology to farmers and that the linkages with researchers (M=26.29) is more effective compared to farmers (M=23.36). The study recommends intensified use of personal letters as linkage mechanism both with researchers and farmers and the encouragement of farmers in joint use of mobile vans and tape recorders.
 Adetunji,T.AOladeji, J.O.andOlowu, T.A (2002):Citation pattern of Agricultural Extension Research in Nigeria Journals. Journal of Agricultural Extension 6,25-33.
. Agbamu, J.U. (1998): A study on agricultural research-extension linkages: with focus on Nigeria and Japan, Ph.D thesis, Tokyo University of Agriculture.
. Agbamu, J.U. (2000). Agricultural Research-Extension Linkage System: An International Perspective. Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Network paper No. 106a pp. 17
. American Society of Agricultural Biological Engineer (ASABE) (2005). The Last Mile Problem In The Information Highway: Improving The Reach of Farmers In Developing Countries: Proceedings of The World Congress of Computers In Agricultural and Natural Resources (13-15, March 2002, Iguacu Falls, Brazil) 701p0301. P.779-785 email@example.com.
. Androulidakis, S.I., Siados, G.C., and Crunkilton, J.R. (1995). Perceptions of Agricultural Extension Agents of Their Effectiveness to Reach Farmers in a Selected Area of Macedonia, Agricultural Extension Education, 2 (1), 2-9.
. Olowu, T.A. and Windapo, O. (1995). Managing Research Extension End-Users Interface: Lessons from Nigeria. In Afolayan, S.O and Akinbode, J.A (eds). Issues and priorities for Nigerians Agricultural Extension in the 21st Century.Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of the Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria, AMTI, Ilorin.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The Effects Of Some Agricultural Development Programme (Adp) Inputs To Rural Farmers Productivity And Income.|
|Authors||:||Amadi, D. C. A, Saka M. G, Jatau D. F.|
ABSTRACT: The Agricultural Development Program (ADPs) is one of the institutions set up by the Federal Government of Nigerian to undertake specific rural development activities in rural areas whose preponderance population are farmers. (Ariyo 1991, Olusegun 1991,Irag 1986, Chambers1993, Ekpo and Olanyi 1995). One of the critical determinants of rural development is change in productivity and income. This paper therefore examined the effects of some ADP inputs on rural farmers' productivity and income in Adamawa state of Nigeria as an attempt to validate ADP's contribution to rural development. Data on crop yield, farm income, and facilities provided by the ADP such as roads, irrigation facilities, farm inputs and loan facility were collected from a total of 435 farmers in 2006 2009, and 2012. The data generated were analyzed using regression analysis (MINITAB). Results show that both crop yield and farm income were positively influenced by irrigation facilities and loan amount, while good rural roads facilitated easy access of agricultural produce to markets. The implication is that agricultural productivity and income could be greatly improved in Nigeria if irrigational facility is generally provided as well general empowerment of rural farmers under the denominator of good rural road network.
Keywords: Productivity, ADP inputs, farm income.
 Akosim C, Tella I.O & Jatau DF (1999) Vegetation and Forest Resources. In Adebeyo A.A and Tukur A.L (eds) Adamawa State in Maps Yola – Nigeria, paraclete publishers.
 Alimi T. (2005) Resources use efficiency in food crop production in Oyo State of Nigeria. In Journal of Agriculture and environment. Vol. 1 No. 1 June 2005 pp 1-7
 Amadi, D.C.A., Nwagboso, N.K., Kwaga, B.T. and Akosim C. (2011) Human Coping Strategies to Desertification in Yobe State, Nigeria. Animal Research International 8(3) 1439-1444. 2011
 Amao J.O, Adebayo O.O and Ayanwuyi E (2003). Analysis of Factors Affecting Income Generation Among Farmers' Group in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. In International journal of economic and development issues. Vol. 3 No. 1 of 2003. Ikot – Ekpere, Nigeria Development Universal Consortia
 Ariyo J.A. (1991) Rural Development Institutions: An overview of the factors which influence their Effectiveness. In Ariyo J.A (ed) Some perspective on environmental Management and Resource Development in Nigeria. Dept of Geography ABU Occasional paper ISSN 8065-4698.
 Cleaver K.M. (1993) A Strategy to Develop Agriculture in sub sahara Africa and a focus for the World Bank. Washington D.C. The World Bank
 Kolawole V.A (1989) underdevelopment of Nigerian irrigation system: design faults or system mismanagement? In International journal of water Resources Development Vol. 5 No. 2 pp 22-28.
 Ladipo, .O & Leigh A.O. (1979) An Economic Analysis of Government Resources use Efficiency at the farm level: the case of milk production at Agege and Ibadan. ODU- journal of west African studies, university of life press Nigeria No. 19 pp 157-160
 Lyam, A.A.L (1990) Performance Evaluation of rural Development projects in Benue State, Unpublished PhD. Thesis, Dept of Geography, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. Nigeria
 Ogunfowora, O Essang S.M & Olayide S.O. (1975). Resource Productivity in traditional Agriculture: A case study of four Agricultural Division in Kwara State of Nigeria. journal of rural Econ. Development Vol. 9 No. 2. pp 119-120
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Spatial Distribution of Ancylostomiasis in Soil of Slums of Northren Lahore|
|Authors||:||Shahida Azhar Ali, Tanveer Akhtar, Khalid Mahmood, Wajid Ali Safi|
ABSTRACT: A study was launched in slums of Lahore, Punjab from Nov 2006 to Oct 2008. Thematic disease map showed 3.22 % prevalence of ancylostomiasis in contaminated soil samples collected from slums of Lahore. Area wise the highest prevalence of Ancylosotoma caninum's eggs shed by dogs in contaminated soil samples of slums was observed 5 % in Missri Shah followed by 4.67 % in Bhutto Colony 3.83 % in Siddiqia Colony, 2.83 % in Khairdin Park, 2 % in Sheikhupura Road and lowest 1 % in Scheme No 2espectively. The highest month wise prevalence 10.67 % was observed in October that gradually declined 0.67% in March. The overall prevalence ratio of ancylostomiasis was (3.22 %). Thematic Disease map showed spatial prevalence.
Keyword: Slums, Pakistan, Prevalence, ancylostomiasis, Ancylostoma caninum.
 Ashraf, K., S., Rafique, H.A. Hashmi, A. Maqbool, and Z.I. Chaudhary (2008). Ancylostomiasis and its therapeutic control in dogs. J. Vet. Anim. Sci.1: 40-44.
 Avcioglu, H. and A. Burgu (2008). Seasonal prevalence of Toxocara ova in soil samples from public parks in Ankara, Turkey. Vect. Born. Zoonot. Dis.,8(3): 345-350.
 Bhatti, F.B., I. Hussain, and M .Z. Ali (2009). Adult B lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma with hypodiploidy (-9) and a novel chromosomal translocation t(7;12)(q22;p13) presenting with severe eosinophilia – case report and review of literature. J. Hematol. Oncol. 2: 26.
 Bojar, H. and T. Kłapeć (2012). Contamination of soil with eggs of geohelminths in recreational areas in the Lublin region of Poland. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 19(2): 267-270.
 Cringoli, G., L. Rinaldi, M.P. Maurelli, M.E. Morgoglione, V. Musella, and J. Utzinger (2011). Ancylostoma caninum: calibration and comparison of diagnostic accuracy of flotation in tube, McMaster and FLOTAC in faecal samples of dogs. Exp. Parasitol. 128(1): 32-7.
 Edosomwan, E.U. and C.R. Chinweuba (2012). A survey on helminth parasites of dogs in Benin city, Edo State, Nigeria. J. Vet. Med. Animal H. 4(4): 56-60.
 Gorsevski, P.V., K.R. Donevska, C.D. Mitrovski, and J. P. Frizado (2012). Integrating multi-criteria evaluation techniques with geographic information systems for landfill site selection: A case study using ordered weighted average. Waste Management, 32: 287–296.
 Guiqin, W., Q.L.L. Guoxue, and C. Lijun (2009). Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: A case study in Beijing, China. J. Env. Man. 90: 2414–2421.
 Held, M.R., R.D. Bungiro, L.M. Harrison, I. Hamza, and M. Cappello (2006). Dietary iron content mediates hookworm pathogenesis in vivo. Infect. Immune. 74(1): 289-295.
 Isabel, G.M., G.N. Lizeth, and C.J., Carlos (2005). Prevalence of intestinal helminths in dogs from Quindío Province. Biomédica. 25(3):346-352.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Spatial Distribution of Toxocariaisis in Dogs|
|Authors||:||Shahida Azhar Ali, Tanveer Akhtar, Wajid Safi|
ABSTRACT: Toxocariasis is a zoonosis caused by larval stage of Toxocara canis (T.canis) an intestinal roundworm of dog; definitive host shed 1.4 million eggs / day in environment. In the present study the overall prevalence (%) of T.canis in pet pups in slums of Lahore was 30.39 %. The highest prevalence 34.3 % was observed in faecal samples of pet pups of Sheikhpura Road followed by 32.33 % in Siddiquia Colony, 30.67 % in Scheme No 2, 28.67 % in Bhutto Colony and the lowest 26.7 % in Khairdin Park. The prevalence was found to be 15.3%, 17.3%, 13.0%, 18.3%, 25.3% and 16.0% in six urban areas including Allama Iqbal Town, Wapda Town, ValenciaTown, Cantt, Gulberg and Samanabad respectively. The occurrence of the parasites was similar (p < 0.05) in all six urban localities. A significant prevalence 44 % was observed in July. The pups were more parasitized (p < 0.001) with Toxocara compared to adult dogs. Similarly, the prevalence was more (p < 0.05) in female dogs compared to male dogs. Female (48.9 %) were more infected as compared to males (18.7 %) respectively. One way ANOVA ( Z-test ) was applied to calculate the prevalence. Morphological identification of eggs was based on direct smear technique and Flotation Method.
Key words: Prevalence, Toxocariasis, Environment, Contaminated soil, Deworming
 Aydenizoz-Ozkayhan, M., Yagci, B.B., and Erat, S., 2008. The investigation of Toxocara canis eggs in coats of different dogs breeds as a potential transmission route in human toxocariasis. Vet. Parasitol., 152: 94-100.
 Barutzki, D.and Schaper, R., 2003. Endoparasites in dogs and cats in Germany 1999-2002. Parasitol. Res.,90:S148-s150.
 Bridger, K.E. and Whitney, H., 2009. Gastrointestinal parasites in dogs from the Island of St. Pierre off the south coast of Newfound land. Vet. Parasitol.,162: 167-170.
 Fok, E., Szatmari, V., Busak, K. and Rozgonyi, F., 2001. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs in some urban and rural areas of Hungary. Vet. Q., 23: 96-98.
 Gorsevski, P.V., Donevska, K.R., Mitrovski, C.D. and Frizado, J. P., 2012. Integrating multi-criteria evaluation techniques with geographic information systems for landfill site selection: A case study using ordered weighted average. Waste Management, 32: 287–296.
 Greve, J. H., 1971. Age resistance in to Toxocara canis in ascarid free dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res.,32: 1185-1192.
 Guiqin, W., Guoxue, Q.L.L. and Lijun, C., 2009. Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: A case study in Beijing, China. J. Env. Man., 90: 2414–2421.
 Habluetzel, A., Traldi, G., Ruggieri, S., Attili, A.R., Scuppa, P., Marchetti, R., Menghini, G. and Esposito, F., 2003.An estimation of Toxocara canis prevalence in dogs, environmental egg contamination and risk of human infection in the Marche region of Italy. J. Vet. Parasitol.,113: 243-252.
 Hendrix, C. N., and Robinson, E., 2006. Diagnostic Parasitology for Veterinary Technicians. 6th Ed., Mosby Inc, Elsevier, USA. 252-253.
 Lloyd, S., 1993. Toxocara canis: the dog. Toxocara and Toxocariasis Clinical Epidemiologycal and Molecular Perspectives London. J.W Lewis R.M.Maizels Ed. Institute of Biology. Pp.11-19.
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ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out in Thi-qar province – Batha city with two Seasons, 1st experiment was during Fall season (2011) and 2nd experiment was during Spring Season (2012) using R.C.B.Desgn. with three replications. The main objective of experiment was to find the effect of dates and levels of Potassium on oil quality and yield of Sunflower. Six levels of K were used (K0= Control, K1= 120 kgK.ha-1(Soil),K2= 6000 mgk.L-1foliar,K3=30kgk.ha-1soil+3000mgk.L-1foliar,K4=30kgk.ha-1soil+6000mgk.L-1foliar,K5=30kgk.ha1soil +9000 mgk.L-1foliar) and three dates (T1= 8 leaves, T2= 14 leaves, T3= 20 leaves). The results showed that increasing of Potassium levels significantly caused increasing in (seed number, 1000 seed weight and yield plant) Fall and Spring seasons. The highest seed yield was 28,7% and it obtained by third date of 2nd season. Also the percent of oil and oil yield of 1st and 2nd season were increased respectively. The interaction had significant effect on yield traits (seed number and seed 1000 weight) of 2nd season. There was no effect for fertilization and dates in oleic acid for both seasons, while the linoleic acid was influenced by 1st date of 1st and 2nd season respectively
Key words- Sunflower seed yield. Potassium application. Application date. Application quantity. Oil quality.
 Murphy , W.M. 1978. Effects of planting date on seed oil and forage yield of irrigated sunflower.
 Syed, A. S., M. Shahid, A. Jan and S. Noor-ud-din 2000. Effect of various Levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (NPK) on growth, Yield and yield components of Sunflower. Pakistan Jornal of Biological Sciences. 2000, Vol. 3, (2) pp:338-339.
 Abdel-Motagally F. M. F. and E. A. Osman 2010. Effect of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilization combination on productivity of two Sunflower cultivars under east of El-ewinatecondition. American - Eurasian Journal Agric. & Environ. Sci.8 (4). 2010, pp. 397- 401
 Chaudhry, A. U. , and M. Mushtaq. 1999. Optimization of potassium in Sunflower. Pakistan Jornal of Biological Sciences. 2 (3), pp. 887-888.
 Alzobay, M.A. S. and J. H. Hamza. 2003. Effect levels of phosphorous and potash fertilizer on growth and yield sunflower. Morphological and Quality Traits.Iraqi journal of Agricultural Sciences.Pp 111-120,Volume 6 (34).
 Abodhahy,Y.M. and M.A. Alyones.1988. Plant Nutrition guide. Ministry of higher education and scientific research. Baghdad university.
 Page, A. L. and et.al. 1982. Methods of soil analysis . Part (2) Agronomy No. 9. Madison . USA : s.n., 1982.
 Alaloosy,Y.A.M. 2002. Effect of interaction between application of K , N and P fertilizer on growth and yield of sunflower. Iraqi journal of Agricultural Sciences,Vol. 3(33).
 Lahmood, A.M. 1999. Effect of different dates of foliar fertilization on increasing percent of fertilization and yield seeds of two cultivars of sunflower. Technical college/Almusaib.Al-qadesyah journal.2006,Vol. 11(1), Pp 1-13.
 Salama, A. (1987). Yield and oil quality of sunflowers as affected by fertilizers and growth regulators. (36), pp. 191-202.
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ABSTRACT: Tithonia diversifolia (wild sunflower) leaf meal (TDLM) was prepared and fed to 24 Large White growing pigs in 3 varying inclusion levels (10%, 20% and 30%) as protein supplements in a completely randomized designed experiment. Haematological and histopathological examinations were carried out. White blood cells (WBC) count of pigs on 30% TDLM diet had the highest (p<0.05) WBC value of 18083mm3. The urea and creatinine values increased across the increasing inclusion of TDLM may be suggestive of nephotoxic bioactivity of the TDLM. Total cholesterol content was highest at 5.94μmol/l for pigs on 30% TDLM inclusion and decreased as the TDLM inclusion declined. There were noticeable degeneration, bleeding and inflammation of the stomach inner linings and external appearance of the large intestine. It can be concluded that safe nutritional regimes existed below and at levels not exceeding 20% TDLM inclusion in diets of growing pigs when used as protein supplement. Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) could be a suitable health diet to combact some fatty acid metabolic diseases at 10% inclusion in the diet of pigs. The histopathology revealing severe epithelial erosion and haemorrages could be instructive of the toxicological effects of TDLM at high inclusion levels above 20%.
Keywords: Histopathology, haematology, serum chemistry, Tithonia diversifolia
. G.M. Babatunde, A.O. Fajimi, and A.O. Oyejide, Rubber seed oil versus palm oil in broiler chicken diets. Effects on performance, nutrient digestibility, haematology and carcass characteristics, Animal Feed Science Technology, 35, 1992, 133-146.
. R.K. Murray, P.A. Grannes, P.A. Mayer, and V.W. Rodwell, Harper's biochemistry. 20th edition. (Mcgraw-Hill, 2000). 594-602
. J.E. Okonkwo, K.C. Iyadi, and C.O. Effiong, 2004. Effect of chronic administration of haematological parameters of rats. Nigeria Journal of Physiology Science, 19, 2004, 10-13.
. M.T. Yakubu, M.A. Akanji, and A.T. Oladiji, Haematological evaluation in male albino rats following chronic administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia agretis stem, Pharmacognosis Magazine, 3(1),2007, 34-38.
. A.O. Fasuyi, and A.D. Nonyerem, Biochemical, nutritional and haematological implications of Telfaira occidentalis leaf meal as protein supplement in broiler starter diets, African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(8),2007, 1055-1063.
. V.C. Speer, Partitioning nitrogen and amino acid for pregnancy and lactation in swine, A Review Journal of Animal science, 68,1990, 553-561.
. G.O. Farinu, Chemical composition of some plant products of the savannah forest zone of Nigeria, Food Chemistry 22, 1986, 315-320.
. P.P. Dutta, P. R. Bharatacharyya, I.C. Rabha, O.N. Bordolon, N.C. Barna, P.K. Chowdurry, P.R. Sharma, and J.N. Barna, Feeding deterrents for philosamiaricini (Samia cynthia, Subrp. Ricins) from Tithonia diversifolia, Phytoparasitica, 14, 1986, 77-80.
. T.B. Olayeni, G.O. Farinu, V.A. Togun, O.S. Adedeji, and A.O. Aderinola, Performance and Haematological Characteristics of Weaner Pigs Fed Wild Sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl A Grey) Leaf Meal, Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 5(6), 2006, 499-502.
. A.A. Odunsi, G.O. Farinu, and J.O. Akinola, Influence of dietary wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl.A.Gray) leaf meal on layers performance and egg quality, Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 23, 1996, 28-32.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Mechanisation of Soya Bean Harvesting For Small and Medium Scale Farmers in Zimbabwe|
|Authors||:||Special Musoni, Raymond M. Nazare, Leonard Mukosera|
ABSTRACT: The new land holdings and cropping enterprises after the Fast track land Reform Programme (FTLRP) in 2000 have created challenges with respect to the forms of field mechanization inputs needed by the new farmers to undertake timely and cost effective production and harvesting processes without proper mechanisation. Harvesting is a time critical operation for soya bean farmers in that if undertaken late, shattering results leading to high quantitative field losses. The paper presents current soya bean harvesting practices and their respective economic and operational challenges. The use of animal or single axle tractor as a power source to pull a ground driven cutter bar for cutting soyabean, manual gathering and using threshers showed that soya bean harvesting can be mechanised cost effectively for low yield (0.8t/ha) farmers. The system is 50 times faster than manual methods of harvesting. The system improves farmers' access to the services basic technologies are existing and are currently commercially available on the market. A maximum capital of US$4200 is required to set up the complete system compared to $US 334 000 initial investment required for a combine harvester. The harvesting costs can be maintained at less than 13% of the market value of the crop. The paper presents ownership options which optimize capacity utilization leading to cost effective solutions for soya bean harvesting amongst Zimbabwe's emerging soya bean farmers.
Keywords: soyabean, Fast track land Reform Programme, harvesting, mechanisation
. FAO, 2007. Labour saving technologies and practices: Manual and motorised threshers, can also be accessed at http://teca.fao.org/es/read/7313
. Binswanger H. 1988. Technological Priorities for Farming in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank Research Observer. Volume 3, Number 1, (January).
. Brice J and Golob P. 1998. Grain Storage and Techniques-Evolution and Trends in developing countries. On-farm post-harvest management of food grains.
. Caruthers I and Rodriguez M. Tools for Agriculture- A Guide to Appropriate Equipment for Smallholder farmers. International Technology Publications, London, 1992.
. CSO (Central Statistical Office), (2001). Agriculture and Livestock Survey in Small-scale Commercial Farming Areas. Government of Zimbabwe. Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe.
. Elich G. (2005). Zimbabwe's fight for Justice. Centre for Research on Globalization. Green equipment manuals-TriGreen Equipment, John Deere. www.trigreenequipment.com
. IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture), 1998. Annual Report for 1997, Ibadan, Nigeria.
. Mabe V, 2002. How does a combine harvester work?
. Mushangare J. Olivine Industries, Cnr Birmingham and Plymouth Rd, Southerton, P.O.BOX 797, Harare, Zimbabwe.
. Ministry of Agriculture, Global Crop Production Analysis, AGRITEX National Crop Report, 2010.ocariasis Clinical
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ABSTRACT: Four adult Friesian cross cows were experiencing intermittent diarrhea and chronic weight loss in a dairy farm in Dengkil, Negeri Sembilan. They were managed semi-intensively with pelleted diet and kept with a herd of 80 dairy cattles. One of the cattle, Kuning, experienced drop in milk yield from 10L/day to 2L/day. Physical examination revealed a poor body condition score of 2/5 in all 4 cattles, although they have good appetite. The differential diagnoses were Johne's disease, fascioliasis, chronic salmonellosis and coccidiosis. Laboratory diagnosis of Ziehl- Neelsen stained faecal smears from all 4 cattles revealed presence of acid fast bacteria. Haematology and serum biochemistry results of all 4 cattles shown lymphocytosis and hyperglobulinemia. Based on the compatible clinical signs, haematology and serum biochemistry results, presence of acid fast bacteria, diagnosis of suspected Johne's disease is made. A herd screening revealed 9 out of 30 cattles had acid fast stained bacteria in the faeces.
Keywords: Johne's disease, dairy cattle, acid fast bacteria
 Paratuberculosis Chapter 2.1.11, OIE Terrestial Manual 2008, page 277.
 Harris, N. B., and R. G. Barletta, 2001, Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis in Veterinary Medicine. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14: 489 – 512.
 Sweeney R.W., Collins M.T., Koets A.P., McGuirk S.M., and Roussel A.J., Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) in Cattle and Other Susceptible Species, ACVIM Consensus Statement, 2012, J Vet Intern Med;26:1239–1250.
 Franklyn Garry, DVM, MS, ACVIM, Control of Paratuberculosis in Dairy Herds, 2011, Vet Clin Food Anim 27, 599–607, doi:10.1016/j.cvfa.2011.07.006.
 Collins M.T., Johne's disease, An Issue of Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice, 2011, Elsevier Health Sciences.
 Gilmour N.J.L., Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis. In: Handbuch der Bakteriellen Infektionen bei Tieren, Blobel H. & Schliesser T., 1954,eds. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, Germany, 281–313.  Collins, M.T., Diagnosis of Paratuberculosis, in the Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, R.W. Sweeney, Editor. Vol. 12(2). 1996, W. B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia. p. 357-71.
 Sweeney RW, Whitlock RH, McAdams S, et al. Longitudinal study of ELISA seroreactivity to Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis in infected cattle and culture-negative herd mates. J Vet Diagn Invest 2006; 18: 2–6.
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ABSTRACT: A 7 month-old, male Katjang cross goat weighing 35kg with body condition score of 3/5 was presented to Large Animal Ward, University Veterinary Hospital (UVH). The goat had pale mucous membrane and diarrhoea. The goat had moderate normocytic, normochromic anaemia with packed cell volume (PCV) of 0.14 (0.22-0.32) and low normal plasma protein, neutrophilia with left shift and monocytosis, including hyponatraemia, hypocalcaemia and hypoalbuminaemia with increased muscle enzyme (CK). Thin blood film stained with Geimsa showed evidence of blood parasites and mycoplasma sp. 0.1 % of RBC was infected and with high strongyle infestation (13900 epg) using modified McMaster technique. Blood transfusion was done as a result of decreased PCV value to 0.13 on the second day of hospitalization. Parasitic gastro-enteritis (PGE) concurrent with eperythrozoonosis infection was diagnosed in the goat.
Keywords: Parasitic gastro-enteritis, eperythrozoonosis, anaemia, blood transfusion, PCV
 Neimark, H., Hoff, B. and Ganter, M. 2004. Mycoplasma ovis comb. Nov. (formerly Eperythrozoon ovis), an epierythrocytic agent of haemolytic anaemia in sheep and goats. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 365–371.
 Tagawa, M., Matsumoto, K. and Inokuma, H. 2008. Molecular detection of Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' in cattle in Hokkaido, Japan. Vet. Microbiol. 132: 177–180.
 Hoelzle, L.E., Adelt, D., Hoelzle, K., Heinritzi, K., Wittenbrink, M.M., 2003. Development of a diagnostic PCR assay based on novel DNA sequences for the detection of Mycoplasma Suis (Eperythrozoon Suis) in porcine blood. Vet. Microbiol. 93, 185–196.
 Brun-Hansen, H., Gronstol, H., Waldeland, H. & Hoff, B. (1997). Eperythrozoon ovis infection in a commercial flock of sheep. Zentbl Veterinarmed B 44, 295–299.
 Eysker, M and Ploeger, H. W. (2000). Value of present diagnostic methods for gastrointestinal nematode infections in ruminants. Parasitology, 120(07), 109-119.
 Smith, Mary C., David Sherman. (2009). Goat Medicine. 2th ed., Wiley-Blackwell., USA.
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ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different pH levels (4.5, 4.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5 and 8.0) on radial growth, and formation of sclerotia, weight of sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii on PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) medium and fresh weight and dry weight of S. rolfsii on PDB (Potato Dextrose Broth) medium. Radial growth, fresh weight and dry weight, at different pH levels differed significantly at 1% level of significance but number of sclerotia formation and their weight did not differ. Optimum pH for radial growth, fresh weight and dry weight were found 5.0 to 6.0, 4.5 to 6.5 and 4.5 to 6.5, respectively.
Key word: pH, Sclerotium rolfsii, Betel Vine Corresponding author: Sabiha Sultana, Assistant professor, Agrotechnology discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh-9208V
 Ahmed, H.U. 1986. Recommendation on the method of disease management of crops in Bangladesh. Plant Pathology Division, Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur. Pp 47-107
 Aycock, R. 1966. Stem rot and other diseases caused by Sclerotium rolfsii North Carolina Agril. Experiment Technical Buletin. Pp. 174-202
 Chowdhury, S. 1946. Effect of manuring on the sclerotial wilt of pan (Piper betle L.). Indian Journal of Agricultural Science. 16: 290-293.
 Devi, R.K.t., H. Rahman, N.I. Singh and H. Rahman. 1999. Effect of soil pH, moisture and age of rice seedlings on the incidence of seedling blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. Plant Disease Research. 14(2): 126-129.
 Dhingra, O.D. and J,B. Sinclair. 1985. Basic Plant Pathology Methods. CRC Press, Inc, Boca Raton, Florida. Pp 132-163.
 Lilly, V.G., and H.L. Barnett. 1951. Physiology of the fugi. McGrow Hill Book Co., New York p 251  Linderman, R.G and R.G. Gilbert.1973. Behaviors of sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii produce in soil or culture regarding germination stimulation by volatiles, fungistasis, and sodium hypochlorite treatment. Phytopathology. 63: 500-504.
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 Prithiviraj, B., B.K. Sarma, J.S. Srivastava, and U.P. Singh. 2000. Effect of Ca2+, Mg2+, light, temperature, and pH on the athelial stage formation in Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. Zeitschirft fur Pflanzenkrankheiten and Pflanzenkrankheiten. 107(3): 274-278.
 Pujna, Z.K. and Grogan. 1985. The biology, ecology and the control of Sclerotium rolfsii. Ann. Rev. Phytopath. 23: 57-127.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Application of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Its Ecological Effect on Growth and Yield of Winter Maize (Zea Mays L.)|
|Authors||:||Dr. Rima Taipodia, Dulley Yubbey|
ABSTRACT: A study was conducted on "Application of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria & its Ecological effect on growth and yield of winter maize (Zea mays L.)"for two successive winter seasons at Bamin Michi village, Lower Subansiri District Arunachal Pradesh. In split plot design, the experiment was conducted and replicated three times. To the main plots, the three PSB treatments viz., control (T1), seed inoculation with PSB (T2) and PSB inoculation along with 5t FYM ha-1 were allotted. Due to PSB inoculation along with FYM, the values of all growth parameters (plant height, green leaves, leaf area, LAI and dry matter production plant-1) recorded higher and remained lower under control. However, on number of days to 50% silking, maturity and barren plants plot-1 , the effect of PSB inoculation alone, PSB added with 5t FYM ha-1 and the control found at par to each other though these characters remained higher and lower with PSB added with FYM and the control correspondingly. With the inoculation of PSB added with FYM the values of almost all the yield attributes as well as grain and stover yields were recorded maximum. With the PSB inoculation along with 5t FYM ha-1 , maximum content of NPK content in grain and stover, as well as their uptake by grain, stover and total uptake by crop were recorded maximum. With inoculation of PSB along with 5t FYM ha-1, the available NPKcontent in soil at crop harvest also remained maximum. In respect of protein and carbohydrates in grain, inoculation on PSB along with 5t FYM ha-1 (T3) found superior
Key Words: Hybrid maize; Planting methods; Nutrient management
. Chaudhary, A.R. 1983. Maize in Pakistan, Punjab Agri. Res. Coordination Board, Univ. Agric., Faisalabad.
. Tiwari, K.N. (2001). Phosphorus need of Indian soils and crops. Bett. Crops Int.
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. Rai, M. (1998). Wheat and maize in research agenda for crop sciences in country. Indian Fmg. 48(1): 8-15.
. Panse, V.G. and Sukhatme, P.V. (1985). Statistical methods for agricultural workers. ICAR Publication, New Delhi-
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ABSTRACT: The present experiment was conducted at the Molecular Horticulture Lab. of Agrotechnology Discipline, Khulna University to develop products by processing different parts of jackfruits and to evaluate the nutritional quality of the processed products. The highest total soluble solids were observed from jelly (65.00 %). The highest pH was also found in jelly (5.047). Green pickle contains highest amount of vitamin-C (3.4433 mg/100 g) and carotinoids (22.78 mg/100 g). Sweet pickle contains the highest amount of moisture (50.95%). After six months of storage, quality of the processed products regarding color, taste, flavour and texture were similar to that of freshly processed products. But after 8-9 months of storage the quality of jam, jelly and squash started to deteriorate and the quality of pickles (i.e., green pickle and sweet-pickle) remain unchanged even after 12 months of storage.
Key words: Jam, Jelly, Pickle, squash, Jackfruit
. M. Hassanullah, Bangladesh INSPIRED Action Plans for the Technical Study, 2013, http://euinspired.org.bd/docs/grant_scheme/INSPIRED%20%20Jackfruit%20Report%20%20Jan%20%2713.pdf
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