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ABSTRACT: Sedges (Carex, Cyperaceae), among others, due to the similarity of the form of growth as well as morphological similarity to grasses fulfil many requirements expected from energetic raw materials. The main purpose of the performed experiments was: to analyse the chemical composition of over ground parts representing 9 sedge species, determine their heat of combustion and calorific value and, last but not least, to determine if and which of the examined sedge species can be treated as a potential source of energy. The investigation showed that only C. riparia was characterised by a low (17790 J/g) heat of combustion. The remaining species exhibited combustion heats ranging from 18 750 J/g to 19 740 J/g. The calorific value of all species – with the exception of C. riparia – was fairly similar and ranged from 17 310 kJ/kg to 18 010 kJ/kg. The highest calorific value (18 010 kJ/kg) was determined in C. acutiformis, while the lowest – in C. riparia (16 040 kJ/kg). The obtained research results confirmed that sedge swards can be treated as energetic raw material.
Keywords: Carex, energy value, chemical composition, combustion
 TV Egorova, The Sedges (Carex L.) of Russia and Adjacent States (within the limits of the former USSR). Saint Louis: Chemical-Pharmaceutical Academy; 1999.
 K. Virtanen and S. Valpola, Energy potential of Finnish peatlands. Geological Survey of Finland 49, 2011; 153-161.
 H. Borkowska and R. Molas, Two extremely different crops, Salix and Sida, as sources of renewable bioenergy. Biomass Bioenergy 36, 2012; 234-240.
 H. Borkowska, R. Molas and A. Kupczyk, Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita Rusby) cultivated on light soil: height of yield and biomass productivity. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 18:5, 2009; 63-568.  W. Harkot, M. Warda, J. Sawicki, T. Lipińska, T. Wyłupek, Z. Czarnecki and M. Kulik, Możliwości wykorzystania runi łąkowej do celów energetycznych. Łąkarstwo w Polsce 10, 2007; 59-67.
 M. Kovačova and B. Schreiber, Aboveground biomass, energy content and phenology of Veronica officinalis L. (Scrophulariaceae) population under different canopy density of beech stand. Ekológia (Bratislava), 22(2), 2003; 119-131.
 M. Kuklova, J. Kukla and B. Schieber, Individual and population parameters of Carex pilosa Scop. (Cyperaceae) in four forest sites in Western Carpathians (Slovakia). Polish Journal of Ecology 53, 2005; 427-34.
 S. Prosiński, Chemia drewna. Warszawa: PWRiL; 1984.
 J. Baeza and J. Freer, Chemical Characterization of Wood and Its Components. In: Hon DNS, Shiraishi N, editors. Wood and Cellulosic Chemistry; 2000, pp. 275.
 R.M. Rowell, J.S. Han and S.S. Bisen, Changes in fiber properties during the growing season. In: Rowell RM, Young RA, Rowell JK, editors. Paper and Composite from Agro-based Resources. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, New York, London, Tokyo; 1997, p. 23-37.
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ABSTRACT:The aim of this work was to investigate the population density and infestation percentage of Tuta absoluta on tomato crop Lycopersicum esculentum Mill under plastic houses conditions in two locations at Duhok province ( 36° 54' N, 43° 8' E )/ Kurdistan region/ northern of Iraq in 2012. The average number of mines/ leaflet and larvae/ leaf during the study season were 1.36 and 0.42 respectively. The results showed a significant differences in number of mines/leaflet and number of males/trap among the two locations. In spite of that the pest management strategies were weekly applied by farmers and based largely on chemical applications (Insecticide) which targeted to controlling T. absoluta and other lepidopteran pests (Noctuidae: Heliothinae), a high percentage of infestation was recorded in September as 100% and 72% for Summel and Zawita respectively. A maximum number of males/ trap/ week was 56.66 recorded on 10/9/2012 in Summel .
Keywords: Tuta absoluta, population dynamics, Tomato, Kurdistan region-Iraq.
. EPPO. 2010. List of biological control agents widely used in the EPPO region. http:// archives.eppo.org/ EPPOStandards/ biocontrol_web/bio_list.htm.
. Desneux N, Wajnberg E, Wyckhuys KAG, Burgio G, Arpaia S, Narva´ez-Vasquez CA, Gonza´lez-Cabrera J, Catala´n Ruescas D, Tabone E, Frandon J, Pizzol J, Poncet C, Cabello T & Urbaneja A (2010) . Biological invasion of European tomato crops by Tuta absoluta: ecology, geographic expansion and prospects for biological control. Journal of Pest Science, 83, 1–19. . Abdul Razzak AS, Al-Yasiri II, Fadhil HQ (2010) First record of tomato borer (tomato moth) Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on tomato crop in Iraq, 2010. Arab and Near East Plant Protection Newsletter no. 51, p 31.
. Ramirez, L, Ramirez, N., Fuentes, L.S., Jiminez, J. and Hernandez-Fernandez, J. 2010. Estandarización de un bioensayo y evaluación preliminar de tres formulaciones comerciales de Bacillus thuringiensis sobre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Rev. Colomb. Biotecnol., 12(1), 12-21.
. Leite, G.L.D., Picanço, M., Guedes, R.N.C. and Zanuncio, J.C. 2001. Role of plant age in the resistance of Lycopersicum hirsutum f. glabratum to the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae). Sci. Hort., 89, 103-113.
. Oliveira, A.C.R.D., Veloso, V.D.R.S., Barros, R.G., Fernandes, P.M. and Souza, E.R.B.D. 2008. Captura de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae) com armadilha luminosa na cultura do tomateiro tutrado. Pesqui. Agropecu. Trop., 38(3), 153-157.
. Pereyra, P.C. and Sanchez, N. (2006). Effect of two Solanaceous plants on developmental and population parameters of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Neotropical Entomology 35: 671-676.
. Garcia, M.F. and Espul, J.C. 1982. Bioecologia de la polilla del tomae (Scrobipalpula absoluta) en Mendoza, Republica Argentina. Rev. Invest. Agropecuarias INTA, 17, 135-146.
. Abbes, K. and Chermiti B. 2011. Comparison of two Marks of Sex Pheromone Dispensers Commercialized in Tunisia for their Efficiency to Monitor and to Control by Mass-Trapping Tuta absoluta under Greenhouses. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection Vol. 6, No. 2, 2011.
. Allache F and Demnati F 2012. Population Changes of Tuta absoluta (Mey.) (Lepidoptera, Gelichiidae): A New Introduced Tomato Crop Pest at Biskra in Algeria. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 8, No.3 2012.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The Scope and Potentials of Fodder Trees and Shrubs in Agroforestry|
|Authors||:||Jamala, G. Y.*, Tarimbuka, I. L, D. Moris , Mahai, S.|
ABSTRACT: Fodder shrubs and trees (browse) play a significant role both in farming systems, where they are protected as fallow species, and in livestock production. The importance of browse increases with increasing aridity and is generally most essential in the dry seasons, when most other feed resources depreciate in quality and quantity. Generally, trees occupy a significant niche in the farming systems and overall way of life in animal production. Fodder trees and shrubs in Nigerian rangelands are classified into two groups: leguminous and non-leguminous. The leguminous trees and shrubs are often higher in crude protein and other nutrients and play a vital role as dietary supplements of low quality grasses in dry seasons. Livestock depend largely on browse for their dietary protein. Browse intake increases total dry matter intake, increases crude protein intake, and improves the digestibility of low-quality forages. The effect of browse feeding on livestock is shown in increased survivability (i.e., lower mortalities, especially over the dry season) and increased productivity. The processing and conservation of fodder trees and shrubs is increasingly being recognized and explored, while the cultivation is minimal and insignificant. The role and importance of fodder trees and shrubs for livestock production, their nutritional quality and factors which limit their use in livestock production are reviewed. The need for increased cultivation and integration of fodder trees (especially leguminous fodder trees and shrubs) into local farming systems through agroforestry is imperative in order to promote livestock production and also the support of rural livelihoods. It is also important to increased research support for the efficient cultivation, management, processing and use of fodder shrubs and trees for improved livestock production in Nigeria. Keywords: Agroforestry, Livestock, Fodder trees, Leguminous, Farming system
. Aganga A A and Tswenyane S O (2003). Feeding value and anti-nutritive factors of forage tree legumes. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2: 170-177.
. Alves R R N, Barboza R R D and Souto W M S (2010). Plants used animal health care in South and Latin America. In: Katerere D. & Luseba D. (Eds). Ethnoveterinary Botanical Medicine: Herbal Medicine for Animal Health, Life Science Division, CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.
. Aregheore, E.M. and Yahaya, M.S. (2001). Nutritive value of some browses as supplement for goats. Malaysian Journal of Animal Science, 7(1):29-36.
. Aregheore, E.M. (1996). Natural grassland and ruminant interactions in the dry season in Delta State, Nigeria. World Review of animal Production. 31(1-2):74-79.
. Babayemi, O.J., Bamikole, M.A. (2006). Supplementary value of Tephrosia bracteolate, Leucaena leucocephala, and Gliricidia sepium hay for West African Dwarf goats kept onRange. Journal Central European Agriculture, 7(2): 323-328
. Balogun, R.O. and Otchere, E.O. (1995). Effect of Leucaena leucocephala in the diet on feed intake, growth and feed efficiency of Yankasa rams. Tropical Grasslands, 29:150-154.
. Bamikole, M.A., Ikhatua, U.J., Arigbede, O.M., Babayemi, O.J. and Etela, I. (2004). An evalauation of the acceptability as forage of some nutritive and antinutritive components and of the dry matter degradation profiles of five species of Ficus. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 36:157-167.
. Bamikole, M.A., Babayemi, O.J. Arigbede, O.M. and Ikhatua, U.J. (2003). Nutritive value of Ficus religiosa in West African dwarf goats. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 105 (1-4):71- 79.
. Biggelaar DC. (1996). Farmer experimentation and innovation. A case study of knowledge generation process in Agroforestry systems in Rwanda. Community Forestry Case Study Series No. 12. FAO. Rome
. Bizimenyera S E, Swan G E, Chikoto H and Eloff J N (2005). Rationale for using Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae) extracts in veterinary medicine. Journal of South African Veterinary Association 76: 54-58.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Biochemical Changes in post harvested Allium cepa (Onion) and Capsicum annuum (Capsicum) under the influence of pathogens|
|Authors||:||Alka Srivastava, Sanjay Kumar|
ABSTRACT: Vegetables play an important role in human balanced diet and maintaining of good health. These are also called as "Protective supplementary foods" because of its nutritive value.Study were conducted on changes in important biochemical content of the post harvested infected economically important vegetables like onion and capsicum. Result indicateslosses in reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, vitamin c, alpha-amylase, protein, phenol, antioxidant activity and pigments like chlorophyll, xanthophylls, carotene in these vegetables but enhance phenol activityin onion. Thenutrient valueof vegetablesdecreasesor increases due to infection of Botrytisfungus (in onion) and colletotrycumfungus (in capsicum).It can be concluded from the present investigation that fungus infection responsible fordecrease or increase nutrient value of vegetables because they use them for their successful growth and establishment.
Key Words: Antioxidant activity, Botrytis, Capsicum,Colletotrycum, Onion, Phenol
 L. Kitinoja, Making the Link: Extension of Postharvest Technology, InA.A. Kader (Ed.), Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, 3, (Oakland,University of California, publication 3311, 2002)481-509.
 R. C. Rayand V. Ravi, Postharvest spoilage of sweet potato in tropics and control measures, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr.,45, 2005, 623-644.
 C. Dennis,Postharvest Pathology of Fruits and Vegetables(London, Acad. Press,1983).
 M. C. Mba and C. O.Akueshi, African Journal of Natural Science, 4, 2001, 94-97.  Nwaukwu, Ijeoma and Ikechi – Nwogu, Biochemical Changes Induced By the Effect of Six Pathogenic Fungi on DialiumGuineense: Black Velvet, IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 2(4), 2012, 20-24.
 S. G. Sawant and D. U. Gawai, Effect of fungal infection on nutritional value of papaya fruits, Current Botany, 2,2011, 43-44.
 B. C. Johnson, Methods of vitamin Determination (Burgess Publishing Co. Minnea Polis., 1948) 98.
 M. Dubois, K. A. Gilles,J. K. Hamilton,P. A. Rebers and F. Smith,Anal. Chem., 26, 1956, 350.
 G. L. Miller, Anal.Chem., 31,1972, 426.
 P. Bernfield,Method of Enzymology (New York, Academic Press,1955) 149.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Seed fortification studies in barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) cv. CO1|
|Authors||:||K. Sujatha, K. Selvarani, V.Vijayalakshmi, C.Vanniarajan*, K. Sivasubramaniam|
ABSTRACT: Studies on barnyard millet (kuduraivali) seed fortification with different macro and micronutrients such as KH2PO4 (1%), ZnSO4 (0.1 %), FeSO4 (0.2 %), Na2SO4 (0.1 %) and KCl (1%); growth regulators viz., GA3 (100 ppm), IAA (100 ppm) and Thiourea (1%) along with water soaked and untreated seeds (control) revealed the enhanced performance of 100 ppm IAA over other chemicals by recording 18 per cent higher germination than control. The hike in germination was also supported by the enhancement in the evaluated vigour parameters viz., speed of germination, seedling length, dry matter production and vigour index followed by KH2PO4 (1%) treated seeds. The untreated seeds recorded the least values for all parameters,
Key words: Seed fortification, Macro and Micronutrients, Growth Regulators, Kuduraivali seeds
. Abdul-Baki A A and Anderson J D. 1973. Vigour determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci., 13: 630 - 633.
. Geetha B, Sucheta S and Gill B S. 2011. Pre sowing seed treatments and qualityinvigouration in soybean (Glycine max). Seed Res.,Vol 39 (1): 81 - 84.
. Khan A A. 1997. The physiology and Biochemistry of Seed Dormancy and Germination. ElsevierScientific Publications Co. Amsterdam. 477 pp.
. Marschner H. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 2nd Ed. Academic Press, London, UK.
. Mehrotra D N, Saxena H K, ROY A N and Sivanath R. 1968. Effect of growth egulators on fruting and yield of black gram. Exptl. Agric. 1: 320 - 341.
. Mengel K, Kirkby E A, Kosegarten H and Appel T. 2001. Principles of Plant Nutrition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
. Panse V G and Sukhatme P V. 1985.Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers. ICAR publication, New Delhi.
. Ponnuswamy A S and Vijayalakshmi V. 2011. Effect of Seed Fortification with Bio-inoculants, Nutrients and Growth Regulators on Seed Germination and Seedling vigour of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), Brinjal (Solanum melongena) and Chilli (Capsicum annum).Madras Agric. J., 98 (7-9): 251-252.
. Raja K, Manjunath Prasad C T and Ponnuswamy A S. 2011. influence of micronutrients on pollen viability and germination, seed yield and quality of male parent (C20R) of rice hybrid CORH 2. Seed Res.,Vol 39 (1): 95 - 98.
. Renuga Devi J and Jacqueline Selvaraj A. 1994. Effect of presowing treatment on germination and vigour in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) cv. COl. Seed Res., 22: 64 - 65.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of newer insecticides against pod fly, Melanagromyza obtusa (Malloch) on long duration pigeon pea|
|Authors||:||Srujana Y., Ram keval|
ABSTRACT:The tur pod fly, Melanagromyza obtusa was found to be predominant during the year of experimentation and it causes significant economic losses in the grain yield of long duration pigeon pea BAHAR. During the year of experimentation, the three application of Thimethoxam 25 WG @ 75 g a.i. /ha., Fipronil 25 EC @ 8 g a.i. /ha., Thiacloprid 240 SC @ 75 g a.i. /ha., Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 20 g a.i. /ha., Acetamiprid 20 SP @ 20 g a.i. /ha., Dimethoate @ 30 g a.i. /ha., were done. First applied at 50% flowering stage, second applied 15 days after first spraying and last 15 days after second spraying gave the best protection against pod fly. The per cent pod damage by pod fly was minimum is Thimethoxam 25 WG @ 75 g a.i. /ha treated plot, during the year of investigation. Next to this is Fipronil 25 EC @ 8 g a.i. /ha. Thimethoxam 25 WG @ 75 g a.i. /ha treated plot gave the lowest per cent grain damage followed by Fipronil 25 EC @ 8 g a.i. /ha.
Keywords : Bahar, pod fly
 R. A. E. Muller, P. Rao, and S. Rao, Pigeonpea: markets and outlook In: The pigeonpea in Y.L. Nene et al.(Ed), (Wallingford united kingdom C.A.B. International and International Crop Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, 1990) 457-479.
 J.N. Sachan, C. P. Yadava, R. Ahmad, and G. Katti, 1994. Insect pest Management in pulse crops, In G.S. Dhaliwal and Rarnesh Arora (edds.), Trends in Agricultural insect pest management, ( New Delhi-Commonwealth Publishers) 308-344.
 S. S. Lateef, and W. Reed. Survey of insect pest damage in farmer's field in India, International pigeonpeaNewsletter (1), 1981, 29-30.
 S. S. Lal, C. P. Yadava, and C. A. R. Dias, Major pest problems of pigeonpea in Uttar Pradesh India. International Pigeonpea Newsletter (1), 1981, 30-31.
 E. Pasqualini, S. Civolani, and A. Pollini, Imidacloprid and thimetoxam control the apple aphids, Informatore Agrario. 66 (9), 2010, 67-72.
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ABSTRACT: The study which aimed at evaluating the effect of organic manure on the growth and yield of maize was conducted at the research and teaching farm of Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu in Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The experimental design used was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three treatments each of which was replicated three times, given a total of nine plots measuring 3mx3m. The parameters measured were number of leaves, stem girth, plant height and frequency of cob and weight of cob after harvest. The analysis shows that there were significant difference (p<0.05) among the treatments applied on the parameters measured. It was discovered that treatment 1(Poultry dropping) gave the greatest difference among the treatments. Therefore, based on the findings, poultry dropping is recommended to farmers for optimum growth and yield of maize production.
Key words: Organic manure, Growth and Yield.
. Abam, P. O., I. N. Onyekwere and K. I Nwosu (2006). Properties and Management of OG Oj soils Cross River State, Nigeria for increased cassava yield, Proceedings of the 40th conference of Agriculture Society of Nigeria, pp346- 349.
. Agbogidi, O. M, and Okonmah, C. U. (2012), "Growth and Yield of Maize as Influenced by Organic Manure type in a Niger Delta Environment". International Journals of Agriculture and Rural Development (IJARD) vol. 15 (1) 2012 Owerri, pp 818 – 824.
. Anon (2002),"Agriculture issue on compost controversy". Acres U.S.A, June, p 20.
. Asiegbu and Uzo (1984). Evaluation principle in Fertilizer pp 50.
. Chiefez, B., Hatcher, P., Hadar, Y. and Chen, Y. (1996). Chemical and Biological Characterization of Organic and Municipal solid waste. Environmental Quality 25:776-785.
. FCAI, (2003), "Year Bulletin, Meteorology and Weather". Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State Nigeria.
. FMANR (1990). Literature on soil fertility investigation in Nigeria. A bulletin produced by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Lagos p40
. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1995), Production Year book vol. 50 Rome, Italy.
. Gee, G. W. and Bauder, J. W. (1986). Maize Research and Production in Nigeria Institute of Agriculture. Moor Plantation. Ibadan, Nigeria.
. Gordon, N. B. and Whitney (1993), Nitrogen Management in Furrow Irrigated Ridge Tilled Corn. Journal of Production Agriculture. Vol. 6, pp 213 - 217.
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ABSTRACT: Water is not only the most vital requirement of all living organisms but also provides habitat to a significant production of the earth's biodiversity, representing particularly all groups of plants and animals, ranging from the primitive microorganism to large mammals which pass some or all stages in their life cycle in water. Farm ponds have great potential to improve agricultural water security through the capture, storage, and provision of water for irrigation. Farm ponds can supply a water source for frost protection, recharge of groundwater, and provide a wide range of additional economic and environmental benefits. Keeping in view the importance of water availability, Balram Tal Yojana is being implemented in Madhya Pradesh with a view to hold back maximum quantity of rainwater in agricultural fields, augmenting ground water table and increasing irrigation facility. The aim of this project is to study the impact of the Balram Tal Yojana on beneficiaries in Dewas district of Madhya Pradesh with the sample of 150 respondents of Tonk Khurd block in Dewas district, has been selected purposively for the study because it has highest number of beneficiaries under Balram Tal Yojana in the district. It was apparent from the study that there is clear difference in the overall level of benefits obtain by beneficiaries in respect of crop production components at the time before and after the project. On the whole the data reveled that Balram Tal Yojana had positive impact on improving the crop production components of beneficiaries because after the Yojana the number of beneficiaries had low and medium components found to reduce at the rate of (12.00%) and (2.00%) after the project. On the other hand, the number of beneficiaries had high level of component increased at the rate of (14.00%).
. Brij Gopal; M.Sengupat; R.Dalwani and S.K.Srivastava (2010). Conservation and Managements of lakes-An Indian perspective. Report Submitted to National River Conservation Directorate, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi.
. Rao,V.Madhava, R.R.Hermon, P.Kesava Rao and T.Phanindra Kumar (2012). Impact Assessment of Watershed in Desert Region. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. 39:327-331.
. Rathore,R.S. and P.N.Kalla (2009). Impact of National Watershed Development Programme (NWDP) on agricultural production in tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Editorial report Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, (India).
. Santini,G. and L.Peiser (2012). Decentralized Rainwater Harvesting in Madhya Pradesh. Agriculture Water Management Business proposal Document.
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ABSTRACT: A 1 week old male Boer cross breed goat weighing 3 kg was managed intensively in a cemented enclosure. The case was presented to the Ambulatory Unit of the Large Animal Ward, University Veterinary Hospital (UVH), University Putra Malaysia. The kid was fed with colostrum. The patient was presented with swollen knee joint on both forelimbs, series of intermittent seizures, paddling, opisthotonus and torticollis. There was also loss of menace response and pupillary light reflex which indicates loss of sight of both eyes. The kid died and post mortem was conducted with the findings of severe congestion of the brain and spinal cord, mild congestion of the lung, kidney, liver and gastrointestinal tract. There were swelling of the knee joint of both forelimbs and suppurative synovial fluids. Histology revealed there were severe generalised congestion of the lung, brain and spinal cord. There were thickening of the intra-alveolar septa with some inflammatory cells and evidence of spongiosis in the central nervous system.
Keywords: Kid, Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE), post-mortem, diagnosis, histology,
. Robinson, W.F. & Ellis, T.M. (1986). Caprine Arthritis-encephalitis virus infection: from recognition to eradication. Aust. Vet. J. 63, 237-241.
. Cork, L.C., Hadlow, W.J., Crawford, T.B., Gorham, J.R. & Piper, R.C. (1974). Infectious leukoencephalomyelitis of young goats. J. Infect. Dis., 129, 134-141.
. Banks, K.L., Adams, D.S., McGuire, T.C. & Carlson J. (1983). Experimantal infection of sheep by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and goats by progressive pneumonia virus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 44, 293-297.
. Zink, M.C., Yager, J.A. & Myers, J.D. (1990). Pathogenesis of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: cellular localization of viral transcripts in tissue of infected goats. Am. J. Pathol., 136, 843-854.
. Iowa State University (2007). Caprine arthritis-encephalitis, Small ruminant lentivirus infection.
. The Merck Veterinary Manual [online]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2012. Caprine arthrtitis and encephalitis.
. Noordin, M.M., Ragavan, K., Shahirudin, S., Azam-Khan, G.K., Zeenathul, A., Arshad, A.A. & Kamarudin, A.I. (2010). Emerging diseases of goats in Malaysia. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci., 33(1), 123-126.
. World Organization for Animal Health [OIE]. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines [online]. Paris: OIE; 2008. Caprine arthritis/encephalitis and meadi-visna. Available at: http://www.oie.int /eng/normes/mmanual/A_00071.htm.
. Adams, D.S., Klevjer-Anderson, P., Carlson, J.L., McGuire, T.C. & Graham, J.R. (1983). Transmission and control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Am. J. Vet. Res., 44, 1670-1675.
. Kahn, C.M., Line, S. editors. The Merck Veterinary Manual [online]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2003. Caprine arthrtitis and encephalitis. Available at: http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/55000.htm
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Socio-Economic Implications of Charcoal Production and Marketing in Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Jamala, G. Y, Abraham, P, Joel, L, Asongo A|
ABSTRACT: Charcoal has been an important domestic product for many years and, and has wide market acceptance. Charcoal constitutes the primary urban fuel in most of Africa and some developed countries and is a major source of income. The production, transport and combustion of charcoal constitute a critical energy and economic cycle in the economies of many developing nations. The objective of this paper is to discuss charcoal production and marketing in relation to place (distribution) and price in Nigeria. Charcoal marketing and cost-benefit analysis depends on a study of commercial possibilities as indicated by source and cost of raw material, availability and cost of labor, price, distribution and the market for the charcoal produced. Some known charcoal deports are found in places like Oyo, Isheyin, Saki Igbo-Ora, Ogbomoso- all in the western part of the country. We also have depots in Jebba, Omu Aran, Egbe, Kabba in the Central States. Charcoal is found in abundance also in Minna, Jos and Kaduna. Charcoal marketing and distribution is a sequence of business activities that involves the producer, supplier, wholesaler or retailer, and the consumer. Charcoal for export is graded and packaged to meet the international standard specification of hardwood charcoal. A large market exists in EU, USA and ASIA with prices ranging from £170 to £190 per ton depending on mode of packaging. A container load which contains about 23 tons of bulk charcoal cost between N450, 000 to N500,000 to process and be made ready for export. Charcoal production is one of the primary causes of deforestation leading to land degradation in areas involved in the business. The business is associated with the felling of both mature and nearly-mature trees. Deforestation is a serious problem leading to global warming, therefore, the business World must wake up to, especially to mitigate the effect of global climatic change.
Key words: Charcoal, Hardwood, Pyrolysis, Marketing, Production, Distribution
. Adeniyi A. (1995). Charcoal Production in Delta State. Kahney Books, Asaba Pp. 8 and 9.
. African Review of Business and Technology (2006). "Bio-fuels", Bureau of Public Enterprises (BPE), "Nigerian Power Sector Reform Document", BPE
. Ajadi, K. O., Alabi, F. M. and Adebisi, J.A. (2012). Subsistence living and global climate change: implications of bio-charcoal Production for farmers in rural areas of Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 5 No.1 2012 Ajadi, K.O. (2004). Infrastructure provision for poverty alleviation in rural Nigeria: A case of Ifedapo region in Oyo State of Nigeria. The Environscope. Vol.1No 1 p. 58.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Morphometric Dimentions of the Genitalia of Savanna Brown Goats between Day 24 and 30 Postpartum.|
|Authors||:||Mohammed Kawu, Lawrence Eduvie, Clarence Lakpini, Joseph Ayo|
ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to determine changes in ovarian and uterine dimensions in Savanna Brown (SB) goats between days 24 and 30 postpartum (pp). The mean (± sem) weight of the right ovary (ROV) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at day 28 pp. The diameter of the largest follicle in the ROV was greater (P < 0.05) at day 28 pp. The weight of follicular fluid (FF) from all follicles in both ovaries was heavier (P< 0.05) at day 28 pp. The number of follicles > 0.3 cm in diameter in the ROV was higher (P< 0.05) at day 30 pp than day 26 pp. Mean weight of FF from the left ovary (LOV) was heavier (P< 0.05) than from the ROV during the period of study. The inter-caruncular distance in both the right (Rh) and left (Lh) uterine horns was longer (P< 0.05) at day 30 pp. The left oviduct was longer (P <0.05) than the right oviduct at day 30 pp. It is concluded that pp ovarian follicle activity was higher in the ROV than LOV and inter-carunucular distance and left oviductal length were significantly longer between days 28 and 30 pp.
Keywords: Dimentions, genitalia, goats, morphometry, postpartum.
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ABSTRACT: This study was carried out in the Agricultural College/ Salahalden University during the period between 1st March, 2010 to 1st August, 2010, to investigate the effect of planting dates (1st Mar, 1st Apr, 1st May), and IBA concentrations (0, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000) mg.l-1 on rooting ability of stem cuttings of Fraser's photinia (Photinia x fraseri). Results show that the best rooting percentage 60.93% and roots number are for cutting propagated in 1st Apr, while the best superior increase in shoot growth number, leave number, and shoot dry weight was in 1st May. 6000 and 8000 mg.l-1 IBA causes significantly increase in rooting percentage 67.11, 68.33% comported with the less (control) 39.00%. Also roots number increased significantly with IBA increase from 2000 to 4000, 6000, 8000 mg.l-1 with increasing percentage 23.81, 33.33, 47.62, and 50.00% when compared with control; the highest significantly increase in mean length of longest roots reach 485.43% for 8000 mg.l-1 than control. Although 2000 and 4000 mg.l-1 IBA causes significantly increase in shoots growth number, all IBA concentration show significantly increase in leave number and root dry weight, while the 4000, 6000 mg.l-1 concentration had significantly effect on shoot dry weight. The interaction between planting dates and IBA concentrations case significantly variance in all rooting parameters and the highest rooting percentage reach72.00% for cutting treated with 4000, 6000, 8000 mg.l-1 and planted in 1st Apr , and the highest shoots growth number and leave number 4.67, 13.33 from cutting treated with 2000, mg.l-1 and planted in 1st May.
Keywords: planting dates, IBA concentration, Fraser's photinia,
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of soil media on the rooting of Myrtus communes and Berberis thunbergii semi –hardwood cuttings|
|Authors||:||Sawsan Mohammed –saeed Ali Kanimarani|
|Downloads : Times|
ABSTRACT: Two different compots (soil conditioner Latvia compost and local composts) in different proportions with river sand were used for rooting of two ornamental shrubs) Berberis thunbergii and Myrtus communes semi –hardwood cuttings, which were taken in 16-3-2011. Sand medium shows the most effective treatment in both plants. However the interaction of Myrtus communes cuttings and the control of soil conditioner Latvia compost gave the highest rooting percentage (50%). The highest number of roots (9.00) was counted from the interaction of Berberis thunbergii with (4:2) proportions of soil conditioner compost and sand. However the longest root, number of shoots and the highest number of leaves (13.80 cm), 5.16 and 25.44 respectively) were recorded from Berberis thunbergii cuttings in the sand medium. Longest shoot (1.60cm) was obtained from Myrtus communes cuttings when cultivated in soil conditioner compost. The largest number of leaves (25.44) was counted from Berberis thunbergii cuttings when cultivated in the control of local compost, with no significant differences with the control of soil conditioner compost for the same species.
Key word: Berberis thunbergii, Myrtus communes, semi –hardwood cuttings, Latvia and local compost.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change among Crop Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Mohammed, D., Kwaghe, P. V., Bukar, U. , Umar, J|
|Downloads : Times|
ABSTRACT: This study examined the economics of adaptation to climate change among crop farmers in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting nine communities from three local government areas of zone one of Adamawa Agricultural Development Programme (AADP). Data were collected from 250 selected respondents through the use of questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 83.83% of the respondents were aware of climate change through extension agents (44.19%), friends and neighbours (34.83%) and contact farmers (34.83%). Major adaptation strategies practiced by respondents in the study area were mixed/multiple cropping (34.71%), early planting (16.27%) and use of crop variety tolerant to new climate regime (15.62%). The result of the study also revealed that 77.35% of the respondents practiced multiple adaptation strategies of two, three and four. Costs/ha of crop enterprises based on one, two, three and four adaptation practices were N32,607, N34,400. N30,250 and N32,550 while their corresponding gross margin/ha were N37,283, N43,800, N50,950 and N52,650 respectively. The result depict that the higher the extent of adaptation practiced by respondents, the more the profit of crop enterprises. Mixed/multiple cropping had the highest returns/ha (N43,450) among the adaptation strategies practiced solely. This was followed by the use of crop variety tolerant to new climate regime (N38,800) and the use of cover crop/mulching (N36,100). It is recommended that farmers should be encouraged to practice multiple adaptation strategies as they yield more return per hectare.
Keywords: Economics, Adaptation. Crop farmers, Adamawa State, Nigeria
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