IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 11- Issue 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Simulation of Route Optimization with load balancing Using AntNet System
Country : India
Authors : Ashish Kumar Sharma*, Baijnath Kaushik, A.K. Kohli, Navdeep Kaur
: 10.9790/0661-1140107      logo

Abstract: This paper is based on analysis of the performance of load balancing and route optimization in computerized networks. The complete system model shows the scenario of Packet distribution between nodes, and if congestion occurs due to traffic then Packet to be failed. The model used the AntNet system for simulate the network. The simulation runs on the ant's behavior for the load balancing of the network. The ants travel across the network between alternative chosen pairs of nodes; as they travel they deposit pheromones from their source node, collect the information of the route and the traffic congestion encountered on their journey. They select their path at each next node according the distribution of pheromones at each node. Packets between nodes are routed of the pheromone distributions at each next node. The performance of the network is proportional to packets which are failed. This model also shows the adaptivity of the system; the nodes are removed from the network, system finds the alternative chosen paths without system degradation and controls the performance of routing.

Keywords- AntNet Algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Routing, Load Balancing, Dynamic, Adaptive, Simulation, Communication Networks.

[1] G. Di Caro, M. Dorigo: AntNet: A Mobile Agents Approach to Adaptive Routing. Technical Report, IRIDIA, 1997.
[2] G. Di Caro, M. Dorigo: An adaptive multi-agent routing algorithm inspired by ants behavior. IRIDIA, Belgium, 1998.

[3] Benjamin Baran, Ruben Sosa: AntNet routing algorithm for data networks based on Mobile Agents. Inteligencia Artificial, 2001.

[4] G. Di Caro: Ant Colony Optimization and its Application to Adaptive Routing in Telecommunication Networks, IRIDIA, 2004

[5] G. Di Caro, M. Dorigo: AntNet: Distributed Stigmergetic Control for Communication Networks, Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 9, Vol. 9, PP. 317-365, IRIDIA, 1998. [6] Benjamin Baran, Ruben Sosa: A New approach for AntNet Routing, Presented at the Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Computer Communications Networks, Las Vegas, NV, 2000.

[7] Ruud Schoonderwoerd, Owen Holland, Janet Bruten, Leon Rothkrantz: Ant-based load balancing in telecommunications networks, HP lab Bristol, U.K., Tech. Rep. HPL, 1997.

[8] E. Bonabeau, Florian Henaux, Sylvain Guerin, Dominique snyers, Pascale Kuntz, Guy Theraulaz: Routing in telecommunication networks with smart ant-like agents, Santa Fe Institute, 1999.

[9] V. Verstraete, M. Strobbe, E. Breusegem, Jan Coppens, Mario, Pickavet, and Piet Demeester: AntNet: ACO routing algorithm in practice, Ghent University, Belgium, 2002.

[10] M. Dorigo, G. Di Caro and L. M. Gambardella: Ant Algorithms for Discrete Optimization. Artificial Life, MIT Press, 1999

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Deniable Encryption Key
Country : India
Authors : P.Lokesh Kumar Reddy, B.Rama Bhupal Reddy, S.Rama Krishna
: 10.9790/0661-1140812      logo

Abstract: Deniable encryption is an important that allows a user (a sender and/or a receiver) to escape a coercion attempted by a coercive adversary. Such an adversary approaches the coerced user after transmission forcing him to reveal all his random inputs used during encryption or decryption. Since traditional encryption schemes commit the user to his random inputs, the user is forced to reveal the true values of all his random inputs (including the encrypted/decrypted messages and the encryption/decryption keys) which are verifiable by this coercer using the intercepted cipher text. In this scenario, a coercer may force the user to perform actions against his wish. An appealing property in the mediated RSA, PKI was introduced that, the user has no information, neither about his full private (decryption) key, nor the factorization of the RSA public modulus, which represents an excellent step toward achieving in forcibility in public key encryption, since, a coercer cannot ask the user to reveal such unknown information. In this pa- per we present a scheme for receiver-deniable public-key encryption, by which, the receiver is able to lie about the decrypted message to a coercer and hence, escape a coercion. On one hand, the receiver is able to decrypt for the correct message, on the other hand, all the information held by the receiver, when opened to a coercer, do not allow this coercer to verify the encrypted message and consequently, approaching this user becomes useless from the very beginning.

Keywords: Deniable encryption, mediated PKI, oblivious transfer, public-key encryption, RSA

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[10] (

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : E-Healthcare Billing and Record Management Information System using Android with Cloud
Country : India
Authors : Vanitha T N, Narasimha Murthy M S, Chaitra B
: 10.9790/0661-1141319      logo

Abstract: In today's civilized society, the people are betrayed with proper healthcare facilities. In order to minimize the cost and complexity involved in processing traditional billing system, Electronic health records (EHR) and electronic billing systems have been proposed as mechanisms to help curb the rising costs of healthcare and also helps to detect the fraudulent practices in healthcare system. The introduction of Cloud computing concept in electronic healthcare systems is the solution for better utilization of healthcare facilities. It uses open-source cloud computing technologies as the mechanism to build an affordable, secure, and scalable platform that supports billing as well as EHR operations. We call this platform as "MedBook" which is a cloud solution that provides patients, healthcare providers, and healthcare payers a platform for exchange of information about EHR, billing activities, and benefits inquiries. MedBook serves as an integration point between the various participants in the healthcare delivery system. This paper presents the architecture and implementation status of this system. The developed system has been evaluated using the Jelastic cloud service. MedBook is a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) application built on top of open source cloud technologies and running on an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) platform. The client applications are mobile apps run from Google's Android enabled devices.

Keywords - Cloud Computing, EHR, Mobile apps, Open source Cloud, REST-based API, SaaS

[1] A.S. Boranbayev, and S.N. Boranbayev, "Development and Optimization of Information Systems for Health Insurance Billing", 2010 IEEE 7th International Conference on Information Technology: New Generation, pp- 606 - 613, dated: 12-14 April 2010, Las Vegas, NV.
[2] AM.Rodriguez"Open911: Experiences with the Mobile Plus Cloud Paradigm", in Proc.2011 IEEE Cloud Computing Conference, dated: 4-9 July 2011, Washington, DC,USA.
[3] Manuel Rodriguez-Martinez, Harold Valdivia, Jose Rivera, Jaime Seguel, Melvin Greer, "MedBook: A Cloud-based Healthcare Billing and Record Management System", 2012 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Cloud Computing, pp- 899 – 905, dated: 24-29 June 2012 , DOI 10.1109/CLOUD.2012.133.

[4] Joe Brockmeier, community evangelist for Cloud Stack Citrix" What is an Open source cloud?" released on March 28,2013.URL: [5] "Android Overview" Open Handset Alliance, retrieved on: 15-02-2012.URL:

[6] P. Mell and T. Grance, "Draft NIST working definition of cloud computing - v15," National Institutes of Standard and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, dated: 19th, August-2009.

[7] Tharam Dillon, Chen Wu and Elizabeth hang,"Cloud computing; Issues and Challenges", AINA, pp.27-33, dated: 20-23, April- 2010, 24th IEEE International Conference, Perth, WA.
[8] A white paper from Juniper Networks Inc on "Securing Multitenancy and cloud Computing", Juniper Networks Inc 2012.pp.1-5,URL:

[9] Ben Ramsey "Designing RESTful Web applications" released on September 13, 2007.

[10] Alvin Ybanez "Best Android apps for personalizing and customizing your phone" release on 2012-07-13. Retrieved on 09-11-2012. URL:

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design and Implement of Wireless Virtual Classroom
Country : Iraq
Authors : Auday Jamal Fawzi
: 10.9790/0661-1142026      logo

Abstract: In this research a synchronous virtual classroom are designed. The proposed application is in the field of distance education and wireless technology. A wireless platform is developed to design two programs using Ad-Hoc technique that performs the task of virtual classroom for teachers and students to establish a classroom dynamically irrespective of location. By taking lessons in a multimedia learning environment, it is expected that students will improve their learning performance with perhaps less attendance in a physical classroom and they gain the flexibility of being able to learn at their own convenience

Keywords: Client/Server Computing, Distance Learning, Virtual Classroom, Wireless Network.

[1] Apostolos, P., Demosthenes, S., Dimitris, P., & Anastasios, M.(2003). The Design and Implementation of a Networked Virtual Classroom: A case study in the area of Fluids Physics.Journal of Information Technology Impact, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 143-157.

[2] Drashti S., Shraddha S., & Deepika J. (2013). Virtual Class Management. International Journal of Computer and Electronics Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 143-147.

[3] Nantha K. S., & Maheswari K. (2011). The Virtual Classroom: A Catalyst for Institutional Transformation. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, Special issue 8, pp. 1388-1412. [4] Erika P., Giovanni T., Massimo M., & Alessandro B. (2006). LoL Classroom: A Virtual University Classroom Based on Enhanced Chats. ICL2006 Conference in Austria, 27-29 September.

[5] Starr, R. H. (1995). The Virtual Classroom: Learning Without Limits via Computer Networks (2nd ed.). NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

[6] Wendy, G. C. & Cindy,H. (2009). Designing for the Virtual Classroom (Issue: 0911). USA: American Society for Training and Development Press.

[7] Mike E., David B., Balaka G., Dan N., & Phil S. (2003). Using IBM Lotus Virtual Classroom: A Best Practices Guide to e-Learning (2nd ed.). USA: IBM Corporation. [

8] Kent, L. N. (1997). An Introduction to Electronic Education and Hyper Courseware. Retrieved June 25, 1997, from [9] Steve R. (2011). Wireless Networking Technology: From Principles to Successful Implementation (2nd ed.). UK: Elsevier.

[10] Subir K. S., T. G. Basavaraju & C. Puttamadappa (2013), Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications (2nd ed.). USA: CRC Press.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Analysis of Rician Fading Channels using Nonlinear
Modulation Methods with Memory Schemes in Simulink
Country : India
Authors : Sunil Kumar.P, Dr.M.G.Sumithra, Ms.M.Sarumathi
: 10.9790/0661-1142736      logo

Abstract: When a signal travels from transmitter to receiver over multiple reflective paths then the phenomenon is called as multipath propagation. In a wireless mobile communication system, the multipath propagation can cause the degradation in the received signal strength and this process is called as fading. When a strong stationary path such as a line of sight path is introduced into the Rayleigh fading environment, the fading becomes Rice-distributed fading. Ricean fading is utilized for characterizing satellite communications and in some urban environments. In this paper, the performance analysis of Ricean Fading Channels using Non-linear modulation methods with memory Schemes is implemented and the Bit Error Rate is analyzed using Simulink tool.

Keywords - Fading, Ricean, Non-linear, Memory, Simulink

[1] A.Goldsmith, Wireless Communication (Cambridge, UK:Cambridge University Press,2005)
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[4] G.L.Stuber, Principles of Mobile Communication, 2nd edn (Boston, MA:Kluwer, 2001).
[5] M.Nakagami, The m-distribution: a general formula of intensity distribution of rapid fading. In W.C.Hoffman, ed., Statistical Methods in Radio Wave Propagation (Oxford:Pergamon Press, 1960), pp.3-36.
[6] M.K.Simon and M.-S.Alouini, Digital Communications over Fading Channels, 2nd edn (New York: Wiley, 2005).
[7] H.Suzuki, A statistical model for urban radio propagation, IEEE Trans. Commun., 25:7 (1977), 673-680.
[8] J.Chuang, The effects of time delay spread on portable radio communications channels with digital modulation. IEEE J.Sel.Areas.Commun., 5:5(1987), 879-889.
[9] W.C.Jakes, Jr. (ed.), Microwave Mobile Communications (New York: Wiley, 1974).
[10] B.H.Fleury, First- and second-order characterization of direction dispersion and space selectivity in the radio channel. IEEE Trans. Inf.Theory, 46:6 (2000), 2027-2044.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Implementation of Matching Tree Technique for Online Record Linkage
Country : India
Authors : B.Rakesh, M.Madhavi ,CH.Venkata Ratnam, C.Ravindra Murthy
: 10.9790/0661-1143743      logo

Abstract: The task of finding records refering to the same entity across heterogeneous data sources is known as record linkage .the necessity to consolidate the information located in different data sources has been widely documented in recent years. For the purpose of completing this goal, several types of problems ,must be solved by an organization .when same real world substance is used by different identifiers in different sources entity heterogeneity problem will arise. For solving the entity heterogeneity problem statistical record linkage technique could be used. However, the use of such techniques for online record linkage could pose a tremendous communication bottleneck in a distributed environment (where entity heterogeneity problem often encountered). In order to resolve this issue, we develop a matching tree, similar to a decision tree, and use it to propose techniques that reduce the communication overhead significantly, while providing matching decisions that are guaranteed to be the same as those obtained using the conventional linkage technique. These techniques have been implemented, and experiments with real-world and synthetic databases show significant reduction in communication overhead.

[1] J.A. Baldwin, "Linked Record Health Data Systems," The Statistician, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 325-338, 1972.

[2] C. Batini, M. Lenzerini, and S.B. Navathe, "A Comparative Analysis of Methodologies for Database Schema Integration,"ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 323-364, 1986.

[3] R. Baxter, P. Christen, and T. Churches, "A Comparison of Fast Blocking Methods for Record Linkage," Proc. ACM Workshop Data Cleaning, Record Linkage and Object Consolidation, pp. 25-27, Aug.2003.

[4] T.R. Belin and D.B. Rubin, "A Method for Calibrating False-Match Rates in Record Linkage," J. Am. Statistical Assoc., vol. 90, no. 430,pp. 694-707, 1995.

[5] P. Bernstein, "Applying Model Management to Classical Meta Data Problems," Proc. Conf. Innovative Database Research (CIDR),pp. 209-220, Jan. 2003.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Crypt Sequence DNA
Country : India
Authors : Mrs.S.Sujatha MCA, MPhil.,(Ph.D.),Bhadra Prabhakaran
: 10.9790/0661-1144447      logo

Abstract: The DNA sequence plays a major role in identifying each individual and making them unique. So we try incorporating DNA to encrypt the data in exclusively identifying individual encryption format. This method would highlight very basic and easy algorithms to form exclusive cipher text for each data or file. Each of the DNA component would be allocated a fixed algorithm such that the encryption would be based on the components sequence without altering the algorithms fixed.

Keywords -Cipher text, Component sequence DNA, DNA Component and Encrypt

1)Bio encryption can store almost a million gigabytes of data inside bacteria-IO9 Journal Vol 2 by Alasdair Wilkins on Nov 26 2010 2)Binary DNA Nanostructures for Data Encryption- PLOS ONE Published: September 11, 2012 by Ken Halvorsen, Wesley P. Wong 3)DNA-Based Data Encryption and Hiding Using Play fair and Insertion Techniques- Journal of Communications and Computer Engineering Vol2, 3 (2012) by A Atito

4)DNA-based Cryptography -DNA Based Computers- June 1999 by Ashish Gehani, Thomas H. LaBean and John H. Reif

7) An encryption scheme using DNA technology Guangzhao Cui Coll. of Electr. Inf. Eng., Zhengzhou Univ. of Light Ind., Oct. 1 2008,

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel Algorithm for Mining Fuzzy High Utility Itemset from Fuzzy Transaction Database
Country : India
Authors : Mrs. Monisha M., Mrs. Mala A. , Dr. F. Ramesh Dhanaseelan
: 10.9790/0661-1144853      logo

Abstract: Utility mining discovers the most profitable item in transaction database which is of great importance in the upgrade of revenue. There are various algorithms for mining the high utility itemset such as CTU-PRO, Two phase and also UMMI algorithm. These algorithms mine the high utility itemset in an efficient way, but they do not reflect the fuzzy degree of purchased quantity which is essential for making decision in various applications like sales analysis and stock control. Itemsets with profit slightly less than the threshold is also discarded. To overcome these problems, fuzzy set theory is applied to the utility mining problem and a novel algorithm namely fuzzy high utility item-mine (FHUI-Mine) is introduced to mine the fuzzy high utility itemset. The quantity information from transaction database is fuzzified in order to reflect the fuzzy degree of purchased quantity. FHUI-Mine also provides a fuzzy threshold range that may include the itemsets whose support is slightly less than the designated threshold. More over this algorithm also provides the utility information due to fuzzification of threshold. To prove the feasibility of FHUI-Mine, it was compared with the well known UMMI algorithm through experimental evaluation. The results show that FHUI-Mine delivers higher mining capability as it can not only mine all high utility itemset but also discover additional itemsets that are potentially high utility ones.

Keywords: Data Mining, Fuzzy Mining, Fuzzy set, Fuzzification, Utility Mining,

[1] AlokChoudhary, Ying Liu, Wei-keng Liao, (2005), 'A Fast High Utility Itemsets Mining Algorithm', UBDM'05 Chicago, USA
[2] Bay VO, Huy N guyen, Bac Le (2009) 'Mining High Utility Itemset from Vertical Distributed Database', IEEE Xplore.
[3] Ming-Yen Lin, Tzer-Fu Tu, Sue-chen Hsueh, 'High utility pattern mining using the maximal itemset property and lexicographic tree structures, Science Direct, journal of information sciences 215(2012)1-14.
[4] Tzung-Pei Hong, Kuei-Ying Lin, Shyue-Liang Wang, 'Fuzzy data mining for interesting generalized association rules', Elsevier on fuzzy sets and system 138(2003) 255-269.
[5] R. Agrawal, T. Imielinskl, A. Swami, 'Mining Association rules between sets of items in large databases', Proceedings of the 1993 ACM SIGMOD International Conference in Management of Data, Washington, DC, 1993, pp. 207–216.
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[7] Alva Erwin,Raj p. Gopalan, N.R.Achunthan (2007), 'A Bottom-Up Projection Based Algorithm For mining High Utility Itemset', Workshop on Integrating AI and Data Mining (AIDM), Australia,Vol.84.
[8] Chia-Ming Wang, Shyh-Huei Chen; Yin-Fu Huang, 'A fuzzy approach for mining high utility quantitative itemsets', Fuzzy Systems, 2009. FUZZ-IEEE 2009.
[9] T.P. Hong, C.Y. Lee, Induction of fuzzy rules and membership functions from training examples, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 84 (1996) 33–47.
[10] Sandeep Kumar Singh, Mr.Ganesh Wayal, Mr.Niresh sharma, 'A Review: Data Mining with Fuzzy Association Rule Mining', International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 1 Issue 5, July – 2012.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluating Air Pollution Parameters Using Zigbee (IEEE 802.15.4)
Country : India
Authors : Darshana N. Tambe, Nekita A. Chavhan
: 10.9790/0661-1146569      logo

Abstract: Air pollution receives one of the prime concerns in India, primarily due to rapid economic growth, industrialization and urbanization with associated increase in energy demands. Lacks of implementation of environmental regulations are contributing to the bad air quality of most of the Indian cities. Air pollutants produced in any air shed are not completely confined, but at time passing all the geographical boundaries, hence donot remain only a problem of urban centers, but spread and affect remote rural areas supporting large productive agricultural land. In environmental parameters the air pollution is measure by taking one or few samples in a day that means there is no information present about the real time air pollution data. This is the main disadvantages of such system. Most of the countries in the world work on the real time bases to monitor the air quality. In this paper we describe use of ZigBee, sensor nodes, GPS to construct distributed system for urban air pollution monitoring and control. ZigBee module and pollution server is interfaced with GPS system to display real-time pollutants levels and there location on a 24h/7 days basis. In this system there are four transmitter (Node1, Node2, Node3, Node4) are present which transmit the different levels of pollutant substance such as CO2, SO2, and NO2 to the receiver node in real time. The system was successfully tested in the G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, India.

Keywords: ZigBee Sensor Node, Air Pollution, GPS, Environmental Pollution, Real Tim, CO2, SO2, NO2.

[2] Khunarak, C., Lutz, M., Kerdcharoen, T., "Wi-Fi Electronic Nose For Indoor Air Monitoring" IEEE Conference, pp. 1-4, (May 2012)

[3] Chung-Chih Lin , Ren-Guey Lee , Shi-Ping Liu , " Wireless Sensing System For Prediction Indoor Air Quality", HSIC, IEEE Conference, pp. 1-3, (May 2012)

[4] Jong-Won Kwon, Yong-Man Park, Sang-Jun Koo, Hiesik Kim, "Design of Air Pollution Monitoring System Using ZigBee Networks for Ubiquitous-City", In Proceedings Of the 2007 International Conference on Convergence Information Technology, pp.1024-1031, (2007)

[5] Zhang Qian, Yang Xiang-Long, Zhou Yi-Ming, Wang Li-Ren, Guo Xi-Shan, " A Wireless Solution For Greenhouse MonitoringAnd Control System Based On Zigbee Technology", J. Zhejiang Univ Sci A, vol. 8, pp. 1584-1587, (2007)

[6] Kavi K. Khedo, Rajiv Perseedoss and Avinash Mungur, " A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System", International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Network (IJWMN), Vol. 2,No.2, (May 2010)

[7] A. R. Al-Ali,, Imran Zualkernan, and Fadi Aloul, "A Mobile GPRS-Sensors Array for Air Pollution Monitoring", IEEE Sensor Journal, Vol. 10, No. 10, (October 2011)

[8] Jong-Won Kwon*,Yong-Man Park, Sang-Jun Koo, Hiesik Kim, "Design of Air Pollution Monitoring System using ZigBeeNetworks for Ubiquitous-City", International Conference on Convergence Information Technology, (2007)

[9] Halit Eren, Ahmed Al-Ghamdi, Jinhua Luo, "Application of ZigBee for Pollution Monitoring Caused by Automobile Exhaust Gases", IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium New Orleans, LA, USA - February 17-19(2009)

[10] Han Zhi-gang, Cui Cai-hui, "The Application of Zigbee Based Wireless Sensor Network and GIS in the Air Pollution Monitoring", International Conference on Environmental Science and Information Application Technology, (2009)

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