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Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in women. Certain reproductive and epidemiologic factors are associated with this disease. This study aims at documenting some epidemiological and reproductive characteristics of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Study Design: A retrospective study. Place and Duration of Study: All women who had had histological diagnosis of breast cancer at the Niger Delta University teaching hospital, Okolobiri between January 2010 and December, 2012 were retrospectively studied. Method: Relevant information was obtained from patients' case notes and admissions and discharge register. Information obtained was recorded on a proforma.
Keywords: breast cancer, age, parity, menarche.
. Anderson BO, Shyyan R, Eniu A, Smith RA, Yip CH, Bese NS, Chow LW, Masood S, Ramsey SD, Carlson RW: 2006. Breast cancer in limited-resource countries: An overview of the Breast Health Initiative 2005 Guidelines. Breast J, 12 (Suppl 1):S3-15.
. Jamal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Murray T, Xu J, Smigal C, Thun MJ: Cancer statistics 2006. CA: A Cancer J Clin 2005; 56(2): 106-130.
. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer stistics. 2002. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005; 55: 74-108.
. Adebamowo CA, Ajayi OO. Breast cancer in Nigeria. West Afr J Med. 2000; 19: 179-191.
. American Cancer Society: Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2005 – 2006. American Cancer Society Inc. Atlanta 2005.
. Mayberry RM, Stoddard- Wright C. Breast cancer risk factors among black and white women: Similarities and differences. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1993; 136 (12): 1445-1456.
. Anyanwu SN. Breast cancer in Eastern Nigeria: A ten year review. W Afr J Med. 2000; 19(2): 120-125.
. Okobia MN, Osime U. Clinicopathological study of carcinoma of the breast in Benin City. AJRH. 2001; 5(2): 56-62.
. Ihekwaba FN. Breast cancer in Nigerian women. Br J Surg. 1992; 79: 771-775.
. Jedy- Agba E, Curado MP, Ogunbiyi O, Oga E, Fabowale Igbinoba F, Osubor G, Otu T, Kumai H, Koechlin A, Osinubi P, Dakum P, Blattner W, Adebamowo CA. Cancer Epidemiol. 2012; 36(5): e271-278.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Morphological analysis of the lingula in dry mandibles of individuals in North India|
|Authors||:||Smrity Gupta, Krishna Pandey|
Abstract: The relationship of lingula to the inferior alveolar nerve is of clinical significance to dental surgeons in oral and maxillofacial surgical procedure.This study aims to investigate the shape of the lingula in relation to surrounding structures for sagittal ramus osteotomy, for this purpose 102 dried North Indian mandibles were studied and compared with other races. In our study we found that the incidence of triangular lingula was 50% followed by truncated type lingula (33.82%) then nodular type lingula (11.76%) and least frequent incidence of assimilated type lingula (2.9%) was found in the population of North India.
Keywords: assimilated,inferior alveolar nerve,lingula,triangular, truncated.
 Tuli A, Choudhry R, Choudhry S, Raheja S And Agarwal S Variation in shape of the lingula in the adult human mandible. Journal of Anatomy, 2000, vol. 197, n. 2, p. 313-317.
 Devi R, Arna N, Manjunath K Y, Balasubramanyam Incidence of morphological variants of mandibular lingual. Indian J Dent Res., 2003, Oct-Dec;14(4):210-3.  Kositbowornchai S, Siritapetawee M, Damrongrungruang T, Khongkankong W, Chatrchaiwiwatana S, Khamanarong K, Chanthaooplee T Shape of the lingula and its localization by panoramic radiograph versus dry mandibular measurement. Surg Radiol Anat., 2007, Dec;29(8):689-94.
 Lopes, PTC., Pereira, GAM. and Santos, AMPV. Morphological analysis of the lingula in dry mandibles of individuals in Southern Brazil J. Morphol. Sci., 2010, vol. 27, no. 3-4, p. 136-138.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Changing Trends in Caesarean Section: Rate & Indications|
|Authors||:||Dr. Swapan Das, Dr. Debasish Char, Dr. Sanjay Sarkar, Dr. Tushar Kanti Saha|
Abstract: The objective of this study is to compare the changes in rate and indication of Caesarean section during 2005 and 2012 after a gap of 7 years. Study Design: Comparative Study. Material and Methods: In this comparative study, 2 years data i.e. of 2005 and 2012 was collected from Hospital record. 2 years data were compared fort Caesarean section rate and trends of indication of Caesarean section. Results: The results showed that in year 2005 the rate of Caesarean section was 13.94% and in year 2012 it increased to 25.68%. In both years the main indication of Caesarean section was previous Caesarean section followed by dystocia and foetal distress. Conclusion: It is suggested to have obstetric audit by inter departmental meetings to assess the intrinsic role of Caesarean section in influencing the standard management guidelines.
Keywords: Caesarean section, Changing trends, Indication, Audit.
 Thomas J, Paranjothy S; Royal College of Obstetrician and gynecologist: Clinical effectiveness support unit. The Nation Sentinel caesarean section Audit report London. RCOG press, 2001.
 Hamilton BE, Ventura SJ, Martin JA; Sulton PD. Preliminary births for 2004: Infant and maternal health. Health E - Stats. Released Nov 15, 2005.
 Thomas J, Paranjothy S; Royal College of Obstetrician and gynecologist: Clinical effectiveness support unit. The Nation Sentinel caesarean section Audit report London RCOG press, 2001.
 Belizan JM, Althabe F; Barros FC; et al. Rates and implications of caesarean section in Latin America: ecological study. BMJ 1999; 319: 1397-402.
 Rutkow IM: Obstetric and gynecologic operation in the United States, .1979 to 1984. Obstt. Gynecol 1986;76:755-9
 Martin JA: Hamilton BE: Ventura SJ, et al: births: Final data for 2001. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2002; 51:1-102.
 Treffers PE, Pel M: The rising trends for caesarean birth. BMJ 1993; 307: 1017-1018
 Royal College of Obstetrician and gynaecologist. The national sentinel caesarean section audit report RCOG clinical effectiveness support unit London, RCOG press, 2001.
 Murray SF, Serani Pradenas F: Caesarean birth trends in Chile, 1986 to 1994. Birth 1997;24:258-263.
 Haider G, Zehra N, Munir AA, Haider A. Frequeny and indication of caesarean section in a tertiary care hospital. Pak J Med Sci 2009:25(5)791-796.
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Abstract: We report a 65 year old female who presented with Left iliac fossa mass for three months with pain for ten days. Ultrasound and CT scans have revealed a lymphoma involving the descending colon. Colonoscopy was normal. At mini laparotomy, the mass was found to be arising from jejunum, with impending obstruction. A Jejunal resection was carried out. Following stable first three post-operative days, the patient developed septicemia. Review CT scan revealed, non-perfused, gangrenous bowel. At relook laparotomy, there was extensive small bowel gangrene along the drainage territories of Superior mesenteric vein. Patient succumbed to septic shock on fourth post-operative day.
Keywords: Jejunal Lymphoma, Superior Mesenteric Vein (SMV) Thrombosis, Gangrene small bowel, Computerized Tomography (CT). Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis (MVT).
 Elliot JW. The operative relief of gangrene of intestine due to occlusion of the mesenteric vessels. Ann Surg 1895; 21: 9–23.
 Warren S, Eberhard TP. Mesenteric venous thrombosis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1935; 61: 102–121.
 Brandt LJ, Feuerstadt P. Intestinal ischemia. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ (eds). Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 9th edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2010.
 Kumar S, Sarr M, Kamath PS. Mesenteric venous thrombosis. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1683–1688.
 Ian G Harnik, Lawrence J Brandt. Mesenteric venous thrombosis. Vasc Med 2010 15: 407.
 McCune WS, Keshishian JM, Frankhauser RL. Mesenteric thrombosis following blunt abdominal trauma. Ann Surg 1952; 135: 606–614.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Unusual Presentation of Maxillary First Molar with Two Root Canals|
|Authors||:||Dr. Anupama Ramachandran, Dr. Dexton Antony Johns, Dr. S .Vidyanath,
Dr. Abdu Semeer Palottil
Abstract: Sound knowledge of the root canal morphology and pulp chamber anatomy is a prerequisite for successful root canal treatment. The morphology of the root and canals of the maxillary first molar can be complex and variable. The morphology of the permanent maxillary first molar has been reviewed extensively; however, the presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. This case report presents a patient with a maxillary first molar with two roots and two root canals.
Keywords: two root canals, abnormalities; Maxillary Bone; Root Canal Therapy.
 Pecora JD, Woelfel JB, Sousa Neto MD, Issa EP. Morphologic study of the maxillary molars. Part II: Internal anatomy. Braz Dent J. 1992; 3:53-7.
 Walton R, Torabinejad M. Principles and practice of endodontics. 2th Edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.; 1996.
 Chhabra N, Singbal KP, Chhabra TM. Type I canal configuration in a single rooted maxillary first molar diagnosed with an aid of cone beam computed tomographic technique: A rare case report. J Conserv Dent 2013;16:385-7.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Leukemia Cutis in a patient with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia|
|Authors||:||Dr. K. Valarmathi, Dr. A. Jamila, Dr. Mary lily S., Dr. Subachithra T.,
Dr. Deepa R.
Abstract: Leukemia cutis is defined as the infiltration of neoplastic leukocytes or their precursors into the epidermis, the dermis, or the subcutis which results in clinically identifiable cutaneous lesions. Here we describe a case of Chronic myeloid leukemia who presented with a subcutaneous skin nodule over the abdomen for which Fine needle aspiration cytology was done and was reported as leukemia cutis.
Keywords: Chronic myeloid leukemia, Fine needle aspiration cytology, Leukemia cutis.
. Ansell J, Bhawan J, Pechet L. Leukemia Cutis in Blastic Transformation of Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia: TdT Positive Blasts and Response to Vincristine and Prednisone. J Cut Path. 2006;7:302-9
. Cho-Vega JH, Medeiros LJ, Prieto VG. Leukemia cutis. Am J Clin Pathol. 2008;129:130–42.
. Kaddu S, Zenahlik P, Beham-Schmid C. Specific cutaneous infiltrates in patients with myelogenous leukemia: a clinicopathologic study of 26 patients with assessment of diagnostic criteria. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;40:966–78.
. Baer MR, Barcos M, Farrell H. Acute myelogenous leukemia with leukemia cutis. Eighteen cases seen between 1969 and 1986. Cancer. 1989;63:2192–200.
. Poventud MG, Fradera J, Pérez S. Aleukemic leukemia cutis preceding acute monocytic leukemia: a case report. P R Health Sci J. 2008;27:256–8.
. Ratnam KV, Khor CJ, Su WP. Leukemia cutis. Dermatol Clin. 1994;12:419–31.
. Newman MD, Milgraum S. Leukemia cutis masquerading as vitiligo. Cutis. 2008;81:163–5.
. Papadavid E, Panayiotides I, Katoulis A. Stasis dermatitislike leukaemic infiltration in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;33:298–300.
. Burns CA, Scott GA, Miller CC. Leukemia cutis at the site of trauma in a patient with Burkitt leukemia. Cutis. 2005;75:54–6.
. Cohen PR, Kurzrock R. Chronic myelogenous leukemia and sweet syndrome. Am J Hemat.2006;32:134–7.
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Abstract: Suckling time to aid gland evacuation of oxytocin and ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed was evaluated in lactating rats. The 12 lactating rats were allocated at random to 2 treatment groups to determine the rate of suckling with the aid of oxytocin and ethyl acetate fraction Hibiscus sabdariffa l. The 2 treatments were 6 different suckling times of 3-96 minutes arranged in geometric progression. Each of the suckling time in the 2 treatments was applied with the aid of subcutaneous injection of 0.1 iu oxytocin immediately prior to suckling and 50mg/kg ethyl acetate fraction Hibiscus sabdariffa l. respectively. Treatments were carried out on days 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 of lactation. The amount of milk sucked by the litters in the various suckling times showed that, the oxytocin enabled the pups to remove the milk more rapidly than the ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. Oxytocin a lactogenic hormone causes myoepithelial contraction for milk letdown through ejection reflex during lactation, while ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. has a relaxing effect.
Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa l.; lactation; ethyl acetate; milk; dam; pups.
. Ann, H. and J.L. Linzell, 2003. A simple technique for measuring the rate of milk secretion in the rat. Comparative Biochemistry and physiology part A:Physiology. 43(2):259-70.
. Bako, I.G., Mabrouk, M.A. and Abubakar, A. (2009a). Antioxidant effects of ethanolic seed extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn (malvaceae) alleviate the toxicity induced by chronic administration of sodium nitrate on some haematological parameters in wistar rats. Advance Journal of food Science and Technology, ISSN: 2042-4876, 1(1):39-42.
. Bako, I.G., Mabrouk, M.A., Maje, I.M., Buraimoh, A.A. and Abubakar, M.S. (2010). Hypotensive effects of aqueous seed extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn (Malvaceae) on normotensive cat. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Science, ISSN: 2041-2908, 2(1):5-8.
. Bako, I.G., Mohammad, S.T., Dawud, F.A., Mohammad, I.M. and Liman, A.A. (2009b). Hypotensive effects of ethanolic seed extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn (Malvaceae) on normotensive cats. International Journal of Pure and Applied Science, ISSN 1597-6291, 3(3):22-28.
. Betty, R.K. and A.C. Jonathan, 2003. Essential medical statistics. Second edition. Blackwell science USA. 15-409.
. Chen, C.C., J.D., Hsu, H.C., Wang, M.Y., Yang, E.S., Kao, Y.O., Ho, and C.J. Wang, (2003). Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J. Agric. Food chem. 51(18): 5472-5477.
. Dalziel, T.M. 1973. The useful plants of west tropical Africa. Third edition: Watmought Ltd idle Bradford and London. 526-530.
. Gaya, I.B., Mohammad, O.M.A., Suleiman, A.M., Maje, M.I. and Adekunle, A.B. (2009). Toxicological and lactogenic studies on the seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn (malvaceae) extract on serum prolactin levels of albino wistar rats, Internet journal of Endocrinology. ISSN:1540-2592:5(2).
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Abstract: To investigate if pre-block intravenous sedation using Midazolam minimizes pain, reduces pain recall, and attenuates hemodynamic responses to peribulbar block.A prospective study with intravenous sedation Midazolam 0.02 mg/kg body weight prior to peribulbar block were evaluated for hemodynamic responses and patient comfort in cataract surgery. Intravenous sedation with Midazolam in cataract surgery prior to peribulbar block reduced pain recall and haemodynamic responses to peribulbar block and improved patient satisfaction.
Keywords: Peribulbar block; intravenous Midazolam; cataract surgery; hemodynamic responses; pain, discomfort, pain recall.
. Pharmacology and Physiology in Anaesthetic practice 4th edition. Robert K. Stoelting, Simon C Hiller.
. David H.W.Wong and Pamela M.Merrick: Intravenous sedation prior to peribulbar anaesthesia for cataract surgery in elderly
patients. CAN J ANAESTH 1996.43:11/1115-20.
. Pac-Soo CK, Deacock S, Lockwood G, Carr C and Whitwam JG. Patient controlled sedation for cataract surgery using
peribulbarblock.BJA 1996; 77:370- 374.
. Alhashemi JA. Dexmedetomidinevs midazolam for monitored anesthesia care during cataract surgery BJA Volume 96, 2006 issue
. Fiona McHardy E, Joanne Fortier, Frances Chung and Scott Marshall L.A. comparison of Midazolam, Alfentanil and Propofol for
sedation in out-patient intra-ocular surgery. CAN J ANAESTH 2000/47:3/pp211-214
. Celiker V, Basgul E, Sabin A, UzunS, Bahadir B and Aypar U. comparison of Midazolam ,Propofol and Fentanyl combinations
for sedation and hemodynamic parameters in cataract extraction. Saudi Med j. 2007 aug;28(8):1198-203.
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Abstract: Osteochondroma or exostoses is most common Primary benign bone tumor and comprising of more than one-third of Primary benign bone tumors. They usually arise from metaphysis of long bone. They are mostly asymptomatic depending on their size and location. This article presents a noble case of Osteochondroma originating from the lesser trochanter of femur leading to development of mechanical blockade and sciatic neuropathy. Associated symptoms and radiographic findings were consistent with femoro-acetabular impingement and sciatic nerve compression. A 26 year old female presented to our Orthopaedic clinic with complain of pain in left groin and tingling of left lower extremity for last one year. Radiographic finding was consistent with femoro-acetabular impingement caused by large proximal femoral Osteochondroma. Surgical en-bloc resection was performed and post-operatively symptoms resolved dramatically. Histopathological report confirmed the diagnosis of Osteochondroma .So we should aware of rare entities such as proximal femoral Osteochondroma during diagnosis and treatment of femoro-acetabular impingement syndrome and sciatic neuropathy along with other more common aetiology.
 Peterson HA. Multiple hereditary osteochondromata. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989; (239):222-230
 Edelman RR, Hesselink JR, Zlatkin MB. Vol. 3. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2006. Clinical magnetic resonance imaging. pp. 2320–27
 Rains HA and Mann CV (1990) Tumours of bones and joints; in Bailey and love's short practice of surgery 20th edition, HK Lewis pp 372-379.
 Müller E. Uber (1914). Hereditare multiple cartilaginare exostosen und exchondrosen. Beitr Pathol Anat.; 57:232.
 Mansoor A, Beals RK. (2007) Multiple exostosis: a short study of abnormalities near the growth plate. J Pediatr Orthop B. Vol. 16(5):363-5.
 Porter DE, Simpson AH (1999) The neoplastic pathogenesis of solitary and multiple osteochondromas. J Pathol. Vol ;188(2):119-25.
 Nogier A, De Pinieux G, Hottya G, Anract P (2006). Case reports: enlargement of a calcaneal osteochondroma after skeletal maturity. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 447:260-6.
 Matsumoto Y, Matsuda S, Matono K, et al.(2007) Intra-articular osteochondroma of the knee joint in a patient with hereditary multiple osteochondromatosis. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. Vol;98(12):425-30
 .Florez B, Mцnckeberg J, Castillo G, et al (2008). Solitary osteochondroma long-term follow-up. J Pediatr OrthopB. Vol;17(2):91-4.
 Paik NJ, Han TR, Lim SJ. Multiple peripheral nerve compressions related to malignantly transformed hereditary multiple exostoses. Muscle Nerve. 2000; 23(8):1290-1294.
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Abstract:Neuropathic arthropathy of the shoulder is a rare disorder that has been described in fewer than sixty patients in the world literature1,3,4,7,10,12,14,17,18,20,27. In 1833, Mitchell presented clinical evidence of connection between so-called translatable rheumatism affecting the peripheral joints and disease of the spine but made no mention of dysfunction of the sensory or motor nerves (apart from the case of one patient who had an incomplete spinal-cord injury in association with an injury of the cervical spine). Thirty-five years after Mitchell's report, Charcot brought attention to the entity that now bears his name3. Neuropathic arthropathy, also known as Charcot joint, is a destructive arthropathy resulting from loss or diminution of proprioception, pain and temperature perception. 12, 13, 14 Patients with diabetes mellitus, syringomyelia and syphilis are particularly prone to this disease.15 Diabetic patients tend to have involvement of foot and ankle, while knee is the common site in syphilis. Patients with syringomyelia commonly suffer with shoulder and elbow involvement. 16 till date only three cases of bilateral Charcot's arthropathy of shoulder were reported. Herein, we report a case that is felt to be of interest because of bilateral involvement with unusually late presentation).
 Brailsford, J. E: Serial radiographic appearances of a neuropathic shoulder-joint. British J. Surg., 22:424-427, 1935.
 Charcot, J.-M.: Sur quelques arthropathies qui paraissent dependre d'une lesion du cerveau ou de la moelle epiniere. Arch, physiol. norm, pathol, 1:161-178, 1868.
 Drvaric, D. M.; Rooks, M. D.; Bishop, A.; and Jacobs, L. H.: Neuropathic arthropathy of the shoulder. A case report. Orthopedics, 11:301-304, 1988.
 Goodman, M. A., and Swartz, W.: Infection in a Charcot joint. A case report. J. Bone and Joint Surg., 67-A: 642-643, April 1985.
 Heylen, Y.: Neuropathic arthropathy of the shoulder secondary to syringomyelia. J. Beige Radiol, 76:232-233, 1993.
 Knur, E.: Two cases of Charcot's shoulder arthropathy. Acta Orthop. Scandinavica, 58:581-583, 1987.
 Meyer, G. A.; Stein, J.; and Poppel, M. H.: Rapid osseous changes in syringomyelia. Radiology, 69:415-418, 1957.
 Parikh, J. R.; Houpt, J. B.; Jacobs, S.; and Fernandes, R. J.: Charcot's arthropathy of the shoulder following intraarticular corticosteroid injections. / Rheumatol, 20: 885-887, 1993.
 Pendergrass, E. P.; Gammon, G. D.; and Powell, J. H.: Rapid development of bone changes in patient with syringomyelia as observed Roentgenologically. Radiology, 45:138-146, 1945.
 To that form caused by peripheral nerve disease or injury. J. Am. Med. Assn., 82: 27-29,1924.
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Abstract: Osteochondroma or exostosisis most common primary benign bone tumor and comprising of more than one thirdof primary bone tumor. Osteocondromaoriginate mainly from the metaphysic of long bone with morethan 35% ofcasesaffecting thebone around theknee and seldom foundin flat bones likescapulathat may causeabnormal scapulothoracic movement leading to pain, snapping scapula and pseudowinging of scapula. Thisarticle present a novelcase of osteochondroma on ventral aspect of scapula in a 12 yearsoldin an otherwisehealthy malecausing pseudowinging and snapping ofscapula and occasional pain in affected area. X-ray demonstrated a cauliflower likeexophytic mass on ventralaspectof rightscapula. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showedan abnormalbony mass arising from scapula. Surgical en blockresection wasperformed and patient symptoms resolved dramatically. The histopathological diagnosis was osteochondroma. So in a patient with winging and snapping of scapula one should be aware of rare diagnosis osteochondroma along with other more common aetiology.
Keywords: Osteocondroma, scapula, snappingscapula, pseudowinging.
 Edelman RR, Hesselink JR, Zlatkin MB. Vol. 3. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2006. Clinical magnetic resonance imaging. pp. 2320–27.
 Hassankhani EG. Solitary lower lumbar osteochondroma (spinous process of L3 involvement): a case report. Cases J. 2009;2:9359
 Aalderink K, Wolf B. Scapular osteochondroma treated with arighthroscopic excision using prone positioning. Am J Orighthop2010; 39(2): E11-E14.
 Lazar MA, Kwon YW, Rokito AS. Snapping scapula syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg 2009;91A (9): 2251-2262.
 Okada K, Terada K, Sashi R et al. Largebursa formation associated with osteochondroma of the scapula: a case reporight and review of the literature. Jpn J ClinOncol 1999; 29(7): 256-260.
 Bloch AM, Nevo Y, Ben-Sira L, Harel S, Shahar E. Winging of the scapula in a child
 Danielson LG, el-Haddad I. Winged scapuladue to osteochondroma. Reporightof 3 children.ActaOrighthop Scand. 1989; 60:728-729.
 Fiddian NJ, King RJ. The winged scapula.ClinOrighthop. 1984; 185:228-236.
 Carlson HL, Haig AJ, Stewaright DC. Snapping scapula syndrome: Threecase reporights and analysis of the literature. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. May. 1997;78:506-511
 Milch H. Parightialscapulectomy for snapping of the scapula. J Bone Joint. Surg Am. 1950; 32:561-566.
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Abstract: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are one ofrare causes of chronic diarrhea. The disorders are characterizedby inflammation rich in eosinophilic infiltration in the gastrointestinal(GI) tract without evidence of known causes foreosinophilia such as parasitic infection, drug reaction, or malignancy . It was originally described by Kaijserin 1937.EGID can involve one or multiple segments of the GI tractfrom the esophagus to the rectum (mainly in the antrum of the stomach and small intestine) and can also occupy various sitesthrough the depth of the wall . Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints to more specific symptoms such as protein-losing enteropathy, malabsorption, luminal obstruction and eosinophilic ascites. Thus it is an easily missed condition that needs more awareness from the gastroenterologists and general internists. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman with chronic diarroheea and ascites presenting as acute pancreatitis, a rare documented presentation of Esonophillic gastroenteritis.
Keywords: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, Esonophilic ascites, Chronic diarrhea.
 Yan BM, Shaffer EA. Primary eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Gut 2009;58:721-32.
 Klein NC, Hargrove RL, Sleisenger MH, Jeffries GH. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1970;49: 299-319.
 Khan S, Orenstein SR. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: epidemiology, diagnosis and management. Paediatr Drugs 2002;4: 563-70.
 M. J. Chen, C. H. Chu, S. C. Lin, S. C. Shih, and T. E.Wang, "Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: clinical experience with15 patients," World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 9, no. 12,pp. 2813–2816, 2003.
 Dong Ryul Lee: A Case of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Presenting with Chronic Diarrhea and Abdominal Pain Korean J Fam Med. 2011;32:257-262
 M. P. S´anchez-Fayos, R. Miranda, L. Renedo, J. C. Porres, andC. H. Gu´ıo, "Eosinophilia and ascites as an expression of a subserous form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis," Revista Clinica Espanola, vol. 191, no. 1, pp. 30–34, 1992.
 Straumann A, Simon HU. physiological and pathophysiological roles of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract. Allergy 2004; 59:15-25.
 Feldman M, Scharschmidt B, Sleisenger M. Sleisenger and Fordtran's gastrointestinal and liver disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2006
 N. J. Talley, R. G. Shorter, S. F. Phillips, and A. R. Zinsmeister,"Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a clinicopathological study ofpatients with disease of the mucosa, muscle layer, andsubserosal tissues," Gut, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 54–58, 1990.
 Fleischer DM, Atkins D. Evaluation of the patient withsuspected eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease. ImmunolAllergy Clin North Am 2009;29:53-63.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Primary Pyomyositis: A rare cause of Painful leg in a diabetics?|
|Authors||:||Tanveer H. Banday, Sadaf Bashir bhat, Shah Naveed, Irfan Wani, Danchand, Sabreen bashir bhat|
Abstract:Pyomyositis an acute/subacute, destructive, and suppurative bacterial infection of skeletal muscle. Pyomyositis is not secondary to a contiguous infection from other areas, such as the skin, bone, or soft tissue. Common intropical climates, pyomyositis accounts for four percent of all surgical admissions in some tropical countries. Most patients with this process have underlying immune compromised like(diabetes ,HIVetc) ,but may also affects healthy young individuals [1,2]. Most patients present with tender indurated muscle swelling that ultimately progresses to involve the overlying tissue. Muscles of the pelvic area and lower extremities are most commonly affected. An abscess of the thigh, quadriceps, and iliopsoas muscles are relatively common, but both the upperand lower body may be affected . A delay in diagnosis may result in compartmentsyndrome, sepsis, and death. The long-term sequelae of pyomyositis includeosteomyelitis of adjacent bones, myonecrosis ,muscle scarring, prolonged hospitalization and significant functional impairment .
Keywords: pyomyositis, diabeties , leg pain.
. Yoneda M, Oda K: Type 2 diabetes complicated by multiple pyomyositis. InternMed 42:174–177, 2003
. Rodgers WB, Yodlowski ML, Mintzer CM: Pyomyositis in patients who have the human immunodeficiency virus: case report and review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg Am 75:588–592, 1993
. Christin L, Sarosi GA: Pyomyositis in North America: case reports and review.Clin Infect Dis 15:668–677, 1992
. Bickels J, Ben-Sira L, Kessler A, Wientroub S: Primary pyomyositis. J Bone JointSurg Am 84:A2277–A2286, 20026
. Walling DM, Kaelin WG Jr: Pyomyositis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Rev InfectDis 13:797–802, 1991
. Pozzilli P, Leslie RD: Infections and diabetes: mechanisms and prospects for prevention. Diabet Med 11:935–941, 1994
. Patel SR, Olenginski TP, Perruquet JL, Harrington TM: Pyomyositis: clinical features and predisposing conditions. J Rheumatol24:1734–1738, 1997
. 8. Chiedozi LC: Pyomyositis: review of 205 cases in 112 patients. Am J Surg137:255– 259, 1979
. 9. Fan HC, Lo WT, Chu ML, Wang CC: Clinical characteristics of Staphylococcal pyomyositis. J MicrobiolImmunol Infect 35:121–124, 2002 Diabetic pyomyositis 1744.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Tomotherapy (Slice Therapy)|
|Authors||:||Maha Esmeal Ahmed, Mwahib Sid Ahmed Mohammed Osman Aldosh|
Abstract: Homotheraphy "slice therapy" is the proposal for the delivery of radiation therapy with intensity- modulated strips of radiation. The proposed method employs alinear accelerator, which would be mounted on aring gantry like a helical tomotherapy (CT scanner). The patient would move through the bore of the gantry simultaneously with gantry rotation. The intensity modulation would be performed by temporally modulated multiple independent leaves that open and close across the slit opening. This method would result in the delivery of highly conformal radiation and overall treatment times should be comparable with contemporary treatment delivery times. The dose reconstruction capabilities provide an ability to determine the dose actually delivered to the patient. The ring gantry would make it convenient to mount anarrow multisegmental megavoltage detector system for beam verification and aCTscanner on the treatment unit. A treatment unit could become a powerful tool for treatment planning, conformal treatment and verification using tomographic images. In this review a full description of the development of this novel technique is given , properties, advantages and applicability of this device are evaluated and the fundamental design specifications are justified. There is no previous studies for that purpose in Saudi Arabia so, researchers recommend that king Khalid hospital in Najran to implement Tomotheraphy unit in the near future for improving imaging and treatment planning.
Keywords: Tom therapy units advantages planning conformal verification treatment.
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Abstract: Diffuse endothelial dysfunction in sepsis leads to an increase in systemic capillary permeability, the renal component manifesting as micro albuminuria. The degree of microalbuminuria correlates with the severity of acute insult, the quantification of which may serve to predict sepsis and mortality in critically ill patients. Objectives: 1. To evaluate the degree of microalbuminuria and correlate with severity of sepsis. 2. To evaluate levels of TNFαand severity of sepsis. 3. To correlate degree of microalbuminuria with levels of TNF α in patients with sepsis and its outcome. Methodology: The present study is prospective non interventional study. Patients admitted to medicine ward and ICU staying more than 24 hrs at S.C.B medical college, Cuttack are included in the study, during period of Sept'2011 – Sept'2012. 1. Urine samples were collected within 6 hrs of admission and again at 24 hrs. 2. Urinary microalbumin assay by microalbumin kit (pyrogallol red immunobiometric method) 3.Urinary creatinine estimation by creatinine kit (mod jaffe's kinetic method) 4. Urinary Albumin Creatinine Ratio (ACR) 30-300 mg/gm is microalbuminuria. 5. TNF α is estimated in patients with sepsis by ELISA (bioplex). Results: Patients (n=75) were classified into sepsis,severe sepsis,septic shock and MODS according to American College of chest physician society of critical care consensus. ACR in sepsis group was significantly higher than control group (P=0.0001). Among sepsis cases ACR has a positive correlation with APACHE ІІ score and also distinguishes between survivors and nonsurvivors (p=0.001). ACR could easily distinguish patients of MODS from sepsis (p=0.03) and septic shock from sepsis(p=0.007). Values of TNFα can distinguish survivors from nonsurvivors (p=0.04) and TNFα also distinguishes patients of sepsis from septic shock (p=0.002). Conclusion: Microalbuminuria has a good diagnostic and prognostic significance in sepsis as compared to APACHE ІІ score and TNFα.
Keywords: Sepsis, Microalbuminuria, TNFα.
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 S Basu, M Bhattacharya, T K Chatterjee, S Choudhuri, S Todi, AMajumdar.Microalbuminuria a novel biomarker of sepsis. Indian j crit care med 2010; vol 14 issue 1.
 Aird William C. The role of endothelium in severe sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Blood 2003;101:3765-77.
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Abstract: To determine the frequency of hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis following organophosphate poisoning. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study conducted at the Medicine Department, B.S. Medical College, West Bengal during the period of six months from 16th June 2012 to 15th June 20013. All patients of both sexes and ages above 12 years admitted with a positive history of organophosphate poisoning (OP) were included in the study. A special Proforma was designed to enter all the collected data containing the basic information about the patient, history of recent event and the past history, physical examination and the relevant investigations like complete blood count, serum amylase and lipase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),ultrasound abdomen CT abdomen(where needed). Result: Among 96 patients, hyperamylasemia was found in 30 (31.25%) patients. Acute pancreatitis was seen in 6 (6.25%) patients. Conclusion: Hyperamylasemia is more frequently seen in organophosphate poisoning while six patients proved to have acute pancreatitis as a complication.
Keywords: Organophosphate Poisoning, Acute Pancreatitis, Hyperamylasemia.
 Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and acute pancreatitis – CHEN et al. 43 (3 http://gut.bmj.com/content/43/3/305.full
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 Ahmed A, Begum I, Aquil N, Atif S, Hussain T, Vohra EA. Hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis following organophosphate poisoning. Pak J Med Sci 2009;25 (6):957-961.
 Singh S, Bhardwaj U, Verma SK, Bhalla A, Gill K..Hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis following anticholinesterase poisoning. Hum ExpToxicol 2007 Jun;26(6):467-71
 Sahin I, Onbasi K, Sahin H, Karakaya C, Ustun Y, Noyan T. The prevalence of pancreatitis in organophosphate poisonings. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2002 Apr;21(4):175-7
 Wui-Chiang Lee, Chen-Chang Yang, Jou-Fang Deng, Ming-Ling Wu, JiinGer, Han-Chieh Lin, Full-Young Chang and Shou-Dong Lee. The Clinical Significance of Hyperamylasemia in Organophosphate Poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1998, Vol. 36, No.7 , Pages 673-681
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Loneliness in the housewives in rising metro culture|
|Authors||:||Dr. Veena Yesikar, Dr. Sanjay Dixit, Dr. Sunil Kant Guleri, Dr. Geeta Shivram|
Abstract: The Dutch researcher Jenny de Jong-Gierveld defined loneliness as "a situation experienced by the individual as one where there is an unpleasant or inadmissible lack of (quality of) certain relationships. This includes situations in which a number of existing relationships is smaller than considered desirable or admissible or situations where the intimacy one wishes for has not been realized. Thus, loneliness is seen to involve the manner in which a person experiences and evaluates his or her isolation and lack of communication with other people.‟ .
 De Jong Gierveld. July 1987. Developing and Testing a Model of Loneliness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 53 (1).
 Cacioppo and Patrick (2008) Loneliness (as in note 5).
 Archana Singh and Nishi Misra.loneliness, depression and sociability in old age .Ind Psychiatry J. 2009 Jan-Jun; 18(1): 51–55.
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 "India Stats : Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011". Press Information Bureau. 2011-10-31. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
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 P. Joshi, L. Garon, And S. Lechasseur (1984) self-esteem and loneliness among unemployed women. Psychological Reports: Volume 54, Issue , pp. 903-906.
 Madhu Mathur. Depression and Life Style in Indian Ageing Women. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, January 2009, Vol. 35, No.1, 73-77.
 Russell D, Peplau L. A, Cutrona C. E. The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent & discriminant validity evidence. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. 1980;39:472–480.
 Age Concern (July 2009) Social exclusion in later life http://www.ageconcern.org.uk/AgeConcern/Documents/118_0609_ Social_Exclusion_report.pdf.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Tonometry: an overview|
Abstract: The intra-ocular pressure is a fundamental parameter of ocular health and disease. The intra-ocular pressure (IOP) is determined by the balance between the amount of aqueous humor- that the eye makes and the ease with which it leaves the eye. Not only IOP is important in diagnosis and management of glaucomatous conditions but, its assessment is imperative in the post-operative management of corneal, lenticular and vitreo-retinal diseases. Measurement of IOP is hence of vital importance in ophthalmic examination. The quantitative assessment of intraocular pressure is known as tonometry; and the instruments used for tonometry are known as tonometer. Each technique has inherent advantages and disadvantages, none is ideal. Here, we describe different types of tonometers used currently to measure IOP.
 Bhan A, Browning A.C., Shah S. et al. Effect of corneal thickness on intraocular pressure measurements with the pneumotonometer, Goldmann applanation tonometer, and tonopen. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002; 43(5): 1389-92.
 Stamper R. A History of Intraocular Pressure and its Measurement. Optom Vis Sci 2011; 88(1): E16-28.
 Mackay RS, Marg E: Fast, automatic electronic tonometer based on an exact theory. Acta Ophthalmol 1959;37: 495-507.
 Orssengo G, Pye DC: Determination of the true intraocular pressure and modulus of elasticity of the human corena in vivo. Bull math Biol 1999;61:551-572.
 Denis P, Nordmann JP, Bertin V, Gayraud JM et al. Evaluation of the tonopen 2 and the XPert noncontact tonometers in cataract surgery. Ophthalmologica 1993;207:155-61
 Eisenberg DL, Sherman BG, McKeown CA, Schuman JS. Tonometry in adults and children. A manometric evaluation of pneumatonometry, applanation, and TonoPen in vitro and in vivo. Ophthalmology. 1998 ; 105:1173-81.
 Kao SF, Lichter PR, Bergstrom TJ, Rowe S. Clinical comparison of the oculab tonopen to the goldmann applanation tonometer. Ophthalmol 1987;91:1541-44
 Frenkel RP, Hong J, Shin DH. comparison of the tonopen to the Goldmann applanation tonometer. Arch Ophthalmol 1988; 106:750-53.
 Geyer O, Mayron Y,Loewenstien A,et al.Tonopen tonometry in normal and post keratopalsty eyes. Br J Ophthalmol 1992; 76:538- 40.
 Lester M, Mermoud A, Achache F, Roy S. New Tonopen XL: comparison with the Goldmann tonometer. Eye. 2001;15(Pt 1): 52-8.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Role of Herpes Virus in Periodontal Diseases|
|Authors||:||Dr. Sheenu Varghese|
Abstract: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with acomplex aetiopathogenesis . Oral Biofilm has a primary role in the development of periodontitis. Microbial biofilm constitutes a multiple array of bacteria, viruses, fungi well present within periodontal tissue. Oral biofilm present in periodontal pocket causes tissue destruction. The role of viruses proves a new paradigm in explaining the link pathway and periodontal destruction. This review explains the role of viruses in pathogenesis of periodontitis and its implication in disease progression and therapy.
 Paster BJ, Dewwhrist FE. Molecular microbial diagnosis. Periodontontol 2000 2009: 51: 38-44
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 Michalowicz BS, Ronderos M, Camara-silva R, Contreas A, Slots J. Human herpesvirus and porphyromonas gingivalis are associated with early onset periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000: 71 :981-988
 Skrepcinski FB, Tetrevs, Rams TE, Sutton B, Contreas A Slots J.; Periodontal disease in hopi native American teenagers .J Dent res 199: 76 :439.
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 Wu YM, Yan J, Ojcius DM, Chen LL. Correlation between infection with different genotypes of HCMV and EBV in subgingival samples and periodontal status of patients 2007:45 :3665-3670.
 Thomasini RL, Bonon SH, Durante P, Costa SC. Correlation of cytomegalovirus and human herpesvirus 7 with CD3+CD4+cells in chronic periodontitis, J Periodontal res2012; 47 ;114-20.