IOSR Journal of Economics and Finance (IOSR-JEF)

Volume 2 - Issue 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Financial Analysis – A Study
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Donthi Ravinder, Muskula Anitha
: 10.9790/5933-0231022      logo

Abstract: Financial Analysis is the process of identifying the financial strength and weaknesses of the firm by properly establishing relationship between items of financial statements. A financial statement is an organized collection of data according to logical and conceptual framework. Consistent accounting procedure. Its purpose is to convey an understanding of some financial aspects of a business firm. It may show a position at a moment of time as time, as in the case of an income statement.
Financial performance refers to the act of performing financial activity. In broader sense, financial performance refers to the degree to which financial objectivities being or has been accomplished. It is the process of measuring the results of firm's policies and operations in monetary terms. It is used to measure firms over all financial health over a given period of time.

[1]. M.Y.Khan And John: Financial Management, Kalyan, 2008.
[2]. I.M Pandey: Financial Management, Vikas, 2009.
[3]. S.N.Maheswari: Financial management, Vikas, 2009.
[4]. Berk: Financial Management, Pearson, 2009.
[5]. Chandra Bose D: Fundamentals of Financial Management, PHI, 2009.
[6]. Vishwanath: Corporate Finance, 2/e, Vikas, 2010.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Evaluation of Quantitative Easing Policy in England and Necessary Conditions for It Achievement
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Danjuma, Naisla Hassan, Habakkuk Aboki, Sylvester, Umbugadu Aku
: 10.9790/5933-0232330      logo

Abstract: The credit crunch saw a number of innovations on monetary policy, the most notable of which was quantitative easing, whereby the central banks of a number countries purchase assets, mainly long term government bonds from private sectors. This research tends to explain how the bank of England implemented quantitative easing; it also gives justifications for recent innovation of the quantitative easing monetary policy. The monetary policies adopted by the Bank of England, European central bank and federal reserve of USA were all compare. Finally useful recommendations are provided to further help in the implementation of the quantitative easing policy in UK and any other economy.

Keywords: Quantitative easing, monetary policy, credit crunch, government bonds, interest rate.

[1]. Alan, G. 1997. Rules verses discretion: monetary policy. At 15 anniversary conference of the centre for economic policy research at Stanford University, Stanford California Sept. 5, 1997. (Online): Available at :< 0905.htm>
[2]. Bank of England 2012. Quantitative easing: injecting money into the economy. (Online): Available at: <>
[3]. Bank of England (A) Quantitative easing: putting more money into the economy to boost spending. (Online): Available at: <>
[4]. Bank of England (B). Monetary policy framework. (Online): Available at: <>
[5]. Economics Help 2009. Unemployment benefits and cost. (Online): Available at: <>
[6]. Economics help 2010. Reason for quantitative easing. (Online): Available at: <>
[7]. European central bank (nd). Monetary policy. (Online): Available at: <>
[8]. Federal Reserve 2012. What are the Federal Reserve's objectives in conducting monetary policy. (Online): Available at: <>
[9]. Fender J. 2012. Monetary policy, John Wiley & sons limited.
[10]. Financial Helper (nd) British millionaire's shrub shrivel by half on slump. (Online): Available at: <'s millionaire-club-shrivel-by-half-on-slump/>

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Automation Technology & its Economic Impact on Indian Economy (A case Study on Module base)
Country : India
Authors : Nand kishor Soni, Ajay Parashar
: 10.9790/5933-0233135      logo

Abstract: Automatic technology is auto manufacturing operations. Its economic impact on Indian Economy explains by Economic Methodology. There is a growing consensus among academicians, business leaders and government officers problem solve by new automation technology into manufacturing operations. Although the source of major innovations is being automation technology in world but Indian firms have been too slow in adopting these technologies. One of the major Factors underlying this problem is the lack of an economic analysis technique specifically aimed at estimating the benefits of automation technology. This paper offers an economic analysis technique based upon the premise of increased probability of capturing the market segments through economies of scope. The paper first demonstrates the inadequacy of current economic analysis techniques to assess the benefits of automation technology, and then proposes a new methodology which can be integrated to an expert system to assess the economic impact of various types of automation technology.

Keywords: TEPM, CEPIM, CPEM, PBEM, DCF Modules, Current economic technique analysis.

[1]. Cohen, S. and Zysman, J. (1987) 'Manufacturing Matters,* Basic Books. New York.
[2]. Dean, E. and K. Kunze (1988) *Recent changes in the growth of U.S. multifactor productivity'
[3]. Monthly Labor Review. May 2013.
[4]. D.J. Fisher and J.T. O'Connor. "Constructability for Piping Automation: Field Operations" ASCE, Vol. 117, No. 3, September 1991, pp. 468-485.
[5]. Hayes, R.H. Wheelwright, S.C. Clark, K. (1988) 'Dynamic Manufacturing,' the Free Press, New York.
[6]. J.J. Rho, D.J. Fisher, and M.W. O'Neill. A Systems Approach to the Integration of Automation Technology in Drilled Shaft Construction Presented to 72nd Transportation Research Board Meeting. Washington D.C., January 1993.
[7]. J.L. Riggs and T.M. West. Engineering Economics, Third Edition. McGraw- Hill, New York, 1986.
[8]. Kaplan, R.S. (1989) 'Cost accounting distorts product costs. Harvard Business Review, January - February 2009.
[9] Kaplan, R.S. (1986) 'Must CIM be justified by faith alone?' Harvard Business Review, March-April.

[10] Kutay, A. (1988a) 'The changing organization of production in flexible manufacturing systems', Paper presented at the American Planning Association Meetings, October 2013.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Agricultural Credit Access by Grain Growers in Uasin-Gishu County, Kenya
Country : Kenya
Authors : Yegoh Kenneth Kimeli Kosgey
: 10.9790/5933-0233652      logo

Abstract: Generally in Kenya, lack of finances is one of the critical problems hindering growth, production, productivity and generation of income of farm income. Indeed inaccessibility to agricultural credit by grain growers in Uasin-Gishu County, has contributed to the low and declining use of farm inputs resulting in a fall in agricultural productivity leading to low outputs and depressed farmers income. The study examined factors influencing accessibility to agricultural credit. The study was conducted in Uasin-Gishu County, Kenya, using a survey design. The research examined 130 grain farmers, interviewed 1 K-Rep officer and 2 officers from Agricultural Finance Corporation (AFC). Interviews, structured questionnaires, observation and document analysis, were used to collect quantitative data from the sampled households. Descriptive and binary logit model were used to analyze quantitative and qualitative data. The results revealed that 47 (36.8 per cent) of the sampled grain farmers accessed agricultural credit, whereas the remaining 83 (63.8 per cent) did not access credit. It was also found that agricultural credit access by female farmers is still very limited. Generally, farmers' age, education level, family size, household size, repayment period and applied loan were highly important in influencing access to agricultural credit. Therefore, a policy be adopted where extension officers from the ministry of Agriculture do an exhaustive database on socio-economic status of all grain farmers in the County.

Keywords: Accessibility, Binary Logit, Credit, Grain.

[1]. Adegeye, A.J and Ditto, J.S. (1985), Essentials of Agricultural Economics. Impact Publishers Economics Nigeria, Limited, Ibadan.
[2]. AFC, 2005. ``Agricultural Finance Corporation Strategic Plan, 2005-2010.
[3]. Atieno, R. (2001). Formal and Informal Institutions‟ Lending Policies and Access to Credit by Small-scale Enterprises in Kenya: An Empirical Assessment. African Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi.
[4]. Basant, R. (1977), "Technology Strategies of Large Enterprises in Indian Industry some Explorations‟‟. World development, Vol. 25 No. 10 Pp. 1683-1700.
[5]. Bigsten, A., Collier, P., Dercon, S., Fafchamps, M., Gauthier, B., Gunning, J.W., Oduro, A., Oostendrop, R., Patillo, C., Soderbom, M., Teal, F., and Zewfack, A., (2003). Credit Constraints in Manufacturing Enterprises in Africa. Journal of African Economics 12(1): 104-125.
[6]. Binswanger Hans, P. and Sillers, D.A. (1992) "Risk Aversion and Credit Constraints in Farmers‟ Decision-Making: A Reinterpretation‟, Journal of Development/ Studies 20(1): 21.
[7]. Buvinic, Mayra, and Marguerite Berger, (1990) "Sex Differences in Access to a Small
[8]. Enterprise Development Fund in Peru," World Development, Vol. 18, No.5, 1990, pp. 695-705.
[9]. Carter, M. R. (1988). The Impact of Credit on Peasant Productivity and Differentiation in Nicaragua. Journal of Development Economics, 103: 13-36.
[10]. Chambers, E.A. and Cox, D.R. (1967). Discrimination Between Alternative Binary Response Models. Biometrika, 54,573-578.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis of the Influence of Migrant Socioeconomic Factors to the Criminal Behavior at the Surabaya City
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Eko Nur Wahyudiono, M. Pudjihadjo, Khusnul Ashar, Susilo
: 10.9790/5933-0235360      logo

Abstract: The research aimed at knowing the socioeconomic conditions of criminals after migrated to Surabaya City , Indonesia, and analyze the socioeconomic factors to the emergence of criminal behavior. To know the social condition and the causing social factors of criminal behavior, then the research used qualitative approach that aims to dig the real meaning about the conditions and causing social factors of the criminal behavior. The research informants is the criminal migrants of 74 persons, at the custody of East Java Regional Police, City Police of Surabaya, and City Police of Tanjung Perak Port.

Keywords: migrant, criminality, socio economic.

[1]. Putnam, R. 1995. The Prosperous Community Social Capital and Public Life, American Prospec (13): 35-42 (In The World Bank. 1998 5-7).
[2]. Todaro, Michael P. 1976. Migration in Developing Countries, Publication of Hirchmann, Charles, 1958. Migrationverket,…/Hirschman (downloaded on 30 November 2013)
[3]. Sutherland, Edwin, 1981, White Collar Crime,, downloaded on 30 November 2013.
[4]. Atmasasmita, Romli (2005). Theory and Capita Selecta of Criminology", Revised Edition of Second Edition by PT Refika Aditama – Bandung.
[5]. Hagan, John, 1998. Power Control Theory, Knowledge., Downloaded on 30 November 2013
[6]. Rahardi, 2012. Meaning of Modernization, Downloaded on 30 November 2013.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Prospects of Angel Finance and Venture Capitalist Finance in Bangladesh
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Shabuz Mahmud
: 10.9790/5933-0236166      logo

Abstract: This study examines that the necessities of business angel investors and venture capitalists for the funding of start up businesses in our economy. Business Angel means an individual, acting alone or in a formal or informal group, who invests his or her own directly in an unquoted business and who after making the investment, takes an active involvement in the business, for example as an advisor or member of the board of directors. Angel investors, who are often wealthy individuals with experience building a business, provide early stage financing, called seed capital, for start-up ventures. Venture capitalists typically provide later stage financing, after the angels' investment. Many start-up businesses of Bangladesh need external financing to startup or growth stage of operations. If these new ventures anticipate quick and aggressive growth, they may turn to angel or venture capital investors for capital. Business Angels and VCs provide long term and committed share capital to help unquoted businesses grow and succeed. Angel and venture capitalist financing has provided seed capital for some famous U.S. businesses such as Bell Telephone, Ford Motor Company and Apple Computer. Entrepreneurial ventures dramatically affect Bangladesh economy and are the primary job creating engine of our economy. Where business has very limited access to funds and not bankable without security, the business angel and venture capitalist easily would ensure fund without security for highly potential business being a partner to make the business success.

Keywords: Venture Capitalist, Business Angel, Entrepreneur, Start-up Investment.

[1]. Baty, G.B. (1991). Entrepreneurship for the 1990s. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[2]. Benjamin, G.A. & Margulis, J. (2000). Angel Financing: How to Find and Invest in Private Equity. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
[3]. Bygrave, W.D. & Timmons, J.A. (1992). Venture Capital at the Crossroads. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
[4]. Freear, J. & Wetzel, W.E. (1991, April). The informal venture capital market in the year 2000. Paper presented at the Third Annual International Research Symposium on Small Business Research, Florida State University.
[5]. Kauffman Foundation. (2002). Business angel investing groups growing in North America. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from
[6]. MacMillan, I.C., Sigel, R., & SubbaNarashimha, P.N. (1985). Criteria used by venture capitalists to evaluate new venture proposals. Journal of Business Venturing, 1, 119-128.
[7]. MacMillan, I.C., Zemann, L., & SubbaNarashimha, P.N. (1987). Criteria distinguishing successful from unsuccessful ventures in the venture screening process. Journal of Business Venturing, 2, 123-137.
[8]. Mason, C.M. & Harrison, R.T. (1996). Why "business angels‟ say no: a case study of opportunities rejected by an informal investor syndicate. International Small Business Journal, 14(2), 35-51.
[9]. Mason, C.M. & Harrison, R.T. (2002). Is it worth it? The rates of return from informal venture capital investments. Journal of Business Venturing, 17, 211-236.
[10]. Roy, Dipok Kumar. (2012). Venture Capital for SMEs in Bangladesh- the Angel we Need!. The Bangladesh Accountant quarterly Journal of the institute of Chartered accountant of Bangladesh July-September 2012.

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