IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS)

October - 2014 Volume 19 - Issue 10

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 Version 6 Version 7 Version 8 Version 9

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The changing roles of churchwomen in Mizoram (1904-1994) A study of Mizoram Presbyterian Church Synod
Country : India
Authors : Mary Vanlalthanpuii
: 10.9790/0837-191070108     logo

Abstract: The British philanthropist Robert Arthington (1823-64) left a fortune that funded the evangelical work of the Baptist Missionary Society and the London Missionary Society. It was Arthington's bequest that led to missionary work among the Mizo people in 1901. During the British colonial period, which ended in 1947, Welsh Christian and Baptist missionaries evangelized among the Mizo people. Today almost 90 percent of Mizos belong to the Presbyterian Church, the Baptist church, or to one of the many indigenous Christian churches. It is impossible to comment on the contemporary position of Mizoram Presbyterian Church women without first reflecting on their indigenous activities and status. Past representations of Bible women and the challenges they encountered for the mission work under the strict rules of chieftains paint them as nothing more than the appendages of men. These representations, I believe, are distortions of their actual roles and positions. This case study challenges the notion that the key to empowerment is women's economic status. In this case, patriarchies– Western patriarchy combined with indigenous Mizo patriarchy – collaborated in according women a secondary status in the new religion

Keywords: Churchwomen, Culture, Welsh missionaries, Patriarchy

[1]. Aleaz, Bonita (2005): "Education, the economic structure and decision making‟, Emergent women,A Mizo Women‟s Perspective, Mittal publication, New Delhi, P. 124
[2]. Baru, Ram. (1999): "Missionaries in Medical care‟, Economic and Political Weekly Pub, Vol. 34, No. 9 (Feb. 27 - Mar. 5, 1999), pp. 521-524
[3]. Biakchhingi, C (2004): Bible women chanchin, "Mizoram Presbyterian Kohhran Hmeichhe CentenarySouvenir 1904-2004‟, Synod Press, Aizawl, pp. 6-9
[4]. Boylan, A M (1978): "The role of women in Sunday‟s school‟, Evangelical Womanhood inthe Nineteenth Century, Feminist Studies, Inc. Vol 4, No. 3 (Oct, 1978) pp. 62-80
[5]. Bonk, J (2010): Thinking Small: Towards a Missiology of Interruptions, McClure Lectures PittsburghTheological Seminary, McClure Lectures-Pittsburgh. (September 27-28, 2010), P. 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Implementation of Training Management Applied By the Pnpm Mandiri Perkotaan Facilitator to Self-Help Groups
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Achmad Rasyad
: 10.9790/0837-191070913     logo

Abstract: This study was aiming at explaining (1) the role of the facilitator in the implementation of the empowering training by PNPM MandiriPerkotaan, (2) the planning process applied by the PNPM MandiriPerkotaanfacilitator to the self-help groups, and (3) the training process held by the facilitator of PNPM MandiriPerkotaanto the self-help groups. This study took place in KecamatanKepanjen, Malang regency. The primary informant was the facilitator of kelurahan, while the supporting informant came from the committee ofBadanKeswadayaanMasyarakat (the self-help group institution), members ofthe self-help groups, and the local government. The finding of the study was the facilitator of PNPM MandiriPerkotaanplayed double roles. It meant that the facilitator did not only facilitate the needs of the study, but also they had to play the role of learning sources, teachers, and mediators. (2) The well-planned training would bring significant effect. (3) Training was not only aimed to deliver the training materials, but also the facilitator had to apply communicative technique to the trainees.

Keywords: Training Management, Facilitator, Self-help Groups

[1]. Desyani. 2013. The Analysis of Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri (PNPM Mandiri) in Kelurahan Sidodadi Samarinda Ulu. eJournal Sosiatri-Sosiologi, (Online), 1 (2): 23-35, (Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.), accessed on 2 January 2014.
[2]. Hanurahmawan, F. 2010. The Revitalization of Worker Training Management: Case Study at Balai Latihan Kerja Industri Makassar.Administrasi Publik, (Online), 1 (1) 78-94. ( download/135/26), accessed on 2 January 2014.
[3]. Hidayat, D.N. 2003. Paradigm and Research Methodology of Classical Social Empiric. Jakarta: Departemen Ilmu Komunikasi FISIP UI.
[4]. Miles, M.B. & Huberman, A.M. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
[5]. Mubarak, Z. 2010. The Evaluation of Society Empowering in Terms of Capacity Development Process in PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan in Sastrodirjan Village, Pekalongan Regency. Unpublished Thesis. Semarang: PPs Undip

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Spiritual Intelligence of Prospective Teachers In Relation To Their Biographical Factors
Country : India
Authors : Dr. S.S. Kushwaha
: 10.9790/0837-191071417     logo

Abstract: The present research was conducted on prospective teachers to analyze their Spiritual Intelligence in relation to Sex, Caste and SES. For the purpose a sample of 300 (150 male and 150 female) prospective teachers was selected from the B.Ed. Colleges affiliated to Bundelkhand University, Jhansi by using semi-probability sampling techniques. Spiritual Intelligence Scale constructed by Roquiya Zainuddin and Anjum Ahmed was used to collect the data. Results revealed that the there is no significant difference in the mean of spiritual intelligence scores of the male and female prospective teachers. The prospective teachers belong to GEN category scored high on Spiritual Intelligence Scale as compared to the OBC & SC prospective teachers. The levels of SES of prospective teachers do not cause significant variation in Spiritual intelligence

[1]. Belousa, I. (2005). Spirituality as a dimension of Education in Latvia. Cited in Dissertation Abstract International. Vol. 66, No. 4, p. 1311.
[2]. Emmons, Robert (1999). The psychology of ultimate concerns: Motivation and spirituality in personality. New York: Guilford.
[3]. Emmons, Robert (2000a). Is spirituality and intelligence? Motivation, cognition and the psychology of the ultimate concern. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10(1), 3-26.
[4]. Emmons, Robert (2000b). Spirituality and intelligence: Problems and prospects. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10(1), 57-64.
[5]. Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Investigation of Students' Attendance Patterns and Measures in Place to Curb the Menace in Secondary Njoro Sub-County, Kenya
Country : Kenya
Authors : Eliud Kipngeno Korir , Bahati Charo Margaret , Wesley Kipsang Bett , Dr. Ruth Thinguri
: 10.9790/0837-191071824     logo

Abstract: Students' school attendance is still a major challenge in Kenya secondary levels of education. Therefore, this research analyzed student's school attendance and measures put in place to curb the problem in secondary schools in Njoro sub-county in Kenya. This study was set to look into: student's school attendance; causes of student school non-attendance and students performance in order to establish ways of mitigating this trend. Moreover, findings of this study were to assist the following individuals: students, teachers and the school administration such that it will assist students to know effects of school non-attendance; it will also assist teachers to be able to formulate ideas on how to reduce student's absenteeism.The study used descriptive survey design targeting all public secondary schools in Njoro sub-county. The target population for the study comprised of 169 male and 89 female teachers. There were more than 30 public secondary schools. Simple random sampling was used to select 8 schools and 156 teachers. Data was collected using questionnaires for teachers. Data collected was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Analyzed data was presented by use of frequency distribution tables. The researcher established that schools do not vary the ways of improving student's school attendance, since there is strong negative correlation between absenteeism and academic performance.

Keywords: Attendance Pattern, Absenteeism

[1]. Epstein, J. L., & Sheldon, S. B. (2002). Present and accounted for: Improving student attendance through family and community involvement. Journal of Educational Research, 95, 308–318.High School Graduation Exam."Preventing School Failure, 47(3): 112-120
[2]. Korir, E. K., Charo, M. B., Ogochi, G. &Thinguri, R. (2014). Student school Attendance and Academic Performance in Njoro District, Kenya: Relational Analysis. Vol. 2 | No. 5 May | 2014 ISSN 2347-8225
[3]. Lotz, R. & Lee, L. (1999).Sociability, school experience and delinquency. Youth & Society 31(3): Pp 199-224. Research in Economic Education, 32(2): 99-109.
[4]. Nicholas, J. D. (2003) "Prediction Indicators for Students Failing the State of Indiana
[5]. Ogola, F. O. (2010). Free Education in Kenyas Public Primary schools; Addressing challenges. Retrieved on 21/08/2014. From http//

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Trade Promotion as a Means of Achieving Nigeria's Vision 20:2020
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Badmus Adejare S . Olabode Bashir O.
: 10.9790/0837-191072531     logo

Abstract: Nigerian economy had undergone series of developmental programmes right from independence till date. One of the recent programmes is the Vision 20:2020 which has been designed to catapult the Nigerian economy into one of the twenty best economies in the world come year 2020. As laudable as this programme's objectives are, this paper examines how the main objective of the programme could be achieved through the promotion of trade. In order to achieve this, this study has adopted the export-led- hypothesis, using the classical aggregate function. Regression analysis was used to determine whether the variation in economic growth represented with GDP in the past years was explained by a change in the volume of trade and the extent while the Augmented Dickey Fuller test was used to test the stationarity of the time series. The direction of causality of the variables was tested through the Granger causality test. The result revealed a significant positive relationship with economic growth while the Granger causality test revealed a unidirectional causal relationship from exports to GDP. This study confirms other similar ones carried out by other researchers on the relationship between trades and economic growth. Given this result, it was recommended that trade friendly policies should be formulated and strictly implemented for the achievement of Vision 20:2020.

Keywords: Economic Development Export, GDP, Import, Trade.

[1] Olokesusi, Femi. (2001). "Planning and the Achievement of Nigeria Vision 2020:20" a paper submitted to the Presidential Committee of the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners on the state of Urban and Regional Planning in Nigeria
[2] Marcellus I.O (2009): "Development Planning in Nigeria: Reflections on the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) 2003- 2007". Journal of Social Science vol. 3( 20).
[3] Abdulhamid Y. (2008). Nigeria: Vision 2020:20 and NPC Daily Trust, August 5 (online) available a
[4] National Planning Commission. (2009). " Nigeria's Vision 20:2020" Report of the Vision 20:2020 National Technical Working Group on Employment.
[5] Badmus A.S (2010): The Impact of Non-Oil Exports on Economic Growth in a Globalizing Economy: The Case of Nigeria. Being an Unpublished M.Sc Thesis submitted to the Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Science, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Prevalence of Depression among the Youths as an Aftermath of the Internal Insurgency Attacks in Maiduguri, Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : William Langa Mishara , Esther Anenge Gbaden
: 10.9790/0837-191073235     logo

Abstract: In recent years the issues of crisis and its consequences as perpetrated by insurgents have constituted major growing health problems in developing African countries. The city of Maiduguri, in the North eastern part of Nigeria, has suffered persistent insurgency attacks that have claimed thousands of lives. This empirical study investigates the prevalence of depression and its correlates among students of the University of Maiduguri. The survey was conducted about six months following the declaration of 'state of emergency' imposed on the three North eastern states of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe in May 2013. The students who remained in the city during and after the crisis were used. Data was collected by way of administering questionnaires to the respondents. About 70% of the subjects showed some degree of evidence of depression. Females and those who lost first degree relatives were more likely to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), being a precursor of depression. So it's the conclusion of this research that these high risk individuals would need special attention and particular support.

Key Words: Attacks, Crisis, Depression, Insurgency, Students, PTSD

[1]. Aksaray, G.G. Kortan & H. Erkaya. (2006).Gender differences in psychological effect of the August 1999 earthquake in Turkey.
[2]. Basoglu, D. Salaoglu, K . & Livanou, M. (2003) . A brief behavioral treatment of chronic post traumatic disorder in earth quake survivors: Psychological Medicine, 2003; 33,647-654.
[3]. De Silva, P. (1993). Posttraumatic stress disorders: Cross-cultural aspects. International Review of Psychiatry, 5(2-3) 217-229.
[4]. Gillespie, Duffy, Hackmann and Clark. (2002). Community based Cognitive Therapy treatment of post traumatic stress disorder following the Omagh bomb. Behavior Restructuring Therapy (2002). 40; 345-359.
[5]. Groome, D. & Soureti, A. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorders and anxiety symptoms in children exposed to the 1999 Greek Earthquake. British Journal of Psychology 95, 387-397.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Role of Public Libraries on Women Empowerment: A Study with Special Reference to District Library Malappuram
Country : India
Authors : Sasi P.K
: 10.9790/0837-191073642     logo

Abstract: The present study focused on the role public library on women empowerment. Population of the present study is woman users of District library Malappuram. Questionnaire was used for collecting data. 250 questionnaires were distributed and over 175 questionnaires were returned. Various information sources of the library are not sufficient to meet the needs of women users and the infrastructure and facilities of the library has to be improved. Majority of the women under study are not aware of the information technology applications. From the analysis, it concluded that library has to play a vital role for the improvement of women.

Keyword: Public Library, Women Empowerment. Malaapuram District

[1]. Ravikumar, S. K. (2006). Indian women. (1st ed., pp.32-46). Jaipur: Mangal deep publications.
[2]. Bhuvaneshwari Ravi, & Gayathri Vivek, (2014). Importance of partnership for development of public libraries in India. DESIDOC Journal of Library and Information Technology, 33(1), 12-20.
[3]. Kaliya, Perumal, & Baskaran,S,. (2010). Infoarmation seeking behaviour of rural folk in Tamil nadu : A case study of Peramakudi branch libray. Kelpro Bulletin, 4(2), 49-59.
[4]. UNESCO Manifesto. (2014). Retrieved January 17, 2014 from
[5]. Laila T Abraham. (2014). Role of public libraries in non-formal education in Kerala. Kelpro Bulletin, 14(2), 60-67.
[6]. Ibid.3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Relative Clauses in Magahi- A Descriptive Storyi
Country : India
Authors : Lata Atreya , Rajesh Kumar , Smriti Singh
: 10.9790/0837-191074351     logo

Abstract: The paper aims at describing relative clauses in Magahi. Magahi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in Bihar and Jharkhand. It is also spoken in some district of Bengal and Orissa. Magahi has SOV word-order along with scrambling. The canonical word-order of Magahi is S-IO-DO-V. Magahi exhibits postpositions. Verb and subject in Magahi exhibit agreement only for person feature and not for number or gender feature. There is agreement also for honorificity. In Magahi, there is also agreement for number and gender feature between noun and adjective. Relative clause is one of the major aspects to understand the syntax of a language. Relative clauses are sentences embedded to modify a noun. Subbarao (2012) writes "A relative clause is a clause that modifies a phrasal constituent, generally a noun phrase. We call the noun phrase so modified the head of the relative clause (Reimsdijk 2006: 338)." He adds "A relative clause is a subordinate clause in which the embedded predicate may be [+Finite] or [- Finite]."

[1]. Bhatia, Tej. 1993. Punjabi. London: Routeledge.
[2]. Bhatt, Rajesh. 2003. "Locality in correlatives". Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 210: 485-541. Netherland: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
[3]. Chandra, Shweta. 2013. "Relative clauses in Magahi". Nepalese Linguistics 28: 15-24.
[4]. Comrie, Bernard; and Smith, Norval. 1977. "Lingua Descriptive Series: Questionnaire". Lingua 42.1: 1-71. Special issue.
[5]. Pandharipande, Rajeshwari.V. 1997. Marathi. London: Routeledge.
[6]. Riemsdijk, Van, H. 2006. "Free relatives". In: Martin, Everaert and Riemsdijk Van, H (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Syntax, vol.II. Oxford: Blackwell. 338-382.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Necessity of Modification in the Existing Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Approach: Bangladesh Perspective
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Ahmad Mahbub-ul-Alam , Farzana Zaman , Mohammad Ehsanul Islam Khan , Jerin Rahman
: 10.9790/0837-191075256     logo

Abstract: In Bangladesh, English language learning and teaching have always been facing obstacles to bring out positive and effective results. To make a progressing change, recently our education system has adopted the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach in the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) terminating the years-long practice of the traditional Grammar Translation Method (GTM). But unfortunately, the CLT approach has also been proved to have disastrous effect in the outcome of ELT in Bangladesh. Considering all these issues, the present study attempts to find out whether there exists any necessity to make any change in the existing CLT approach, and if any, what might be the probable changes to be brought for the betterment of our ELT environment.

Keywords: English Language Teaching (ELT); English as a Native Language (ENL); English as a Second Language (ESL); English as a Foreign Language (EFL); Target Language (TL); Grammar Translation Method (GTM); Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

[1]. Hasan, K., 2004, A linguistic study of English language curriculum at the secondary level in Bangladesh - a communicative approach to curriculum development, Language in India: Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow, Volume 4:8.
[2]. Rahman, M. M., (2001), English teaching, learning in Bangladesh,
[3]. Richards. J. C., Rodgers. T. S., (2002), Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Ed 2nd. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
[4]. Alam, A. M., 2008, The CLT Approach in ELT: Its Effectiveness in the ESL and EFL Contexts - With Special Reference to the Context of Bangladesh, Manarat International University Studies, Vol.1, No.01, Page 131-142
[5]. Numan. D., (1989). Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Comparative Study of Frustration Level among Science and Non-Science Students
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Priya Soni Khare
: 10.9790/0837-191075761     logo

Abstract: Our today daily life based on the scientific environment. Science Plays an important role in our day to day life and living. Definitely Science has provided us multiple physical comforts but it has challenged our psychological calmness and composedness. The more the inventions for new medicines and new methods for psychotherapy are being made, the more varieties of frustrations are being evinced. Frustration is an important psychological, construct which is universally cosmopolitan variable among the mankind this especially plays vital role among the secondary and higher secondary science and non science students, who always struggle with critical and chaotic situations for the survival and to stand on the academic firmament. A magnitude of the factors are responsible for developing frustration among the students a mild degree of frustration, to conquare the situation is essential but the higher degree of the same is venomous for persons and especially for the student's achievements. In this situation person is paralised to a greater extent with reference to his achievement . It is due to fact that he is not in position to channelise his energy in right direction.

[1]. Ajawani, J.C. and Sharma, R. (2004) Intelligence Variance of Under & Over Achievers.
[2]. Psycho-Lingua, 4,2, 135-136
[3]. Akhani, P., Rathi, N. and Ipe, A (2003) Moral Educational, Moral Judgement and Personality Characteristics – An Exploratory Study.
[4]. Indian Journal of Psychometry and Education, 34, 1, 47-51 [166]
[5]. Bakshi, Arti (2001) Impact of the Parental Attitudes on the Personality
[6]. Development of Their Children

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Understanding the Mystical Power: A Case Study of African and Christian Religious Beliefs for National Development
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Fr. Bartholomew Chidili
: 10.9790/0837-191076268     logo

Abstract: The problem of grasping and fathoming the mystical power and its workings in human environment is such a startling force thathas created a bemusing influence on human curiosity since the dawn of consciousness. While some people express it as a magical power when it strikes them as diabolical, others see it as a mystery in the sense of being aware of a phenomenon but very difficult to wrap one's mind round it. Because of itsperplexing uncertainty, mystical power generates an incalculable fear on some people while some others enjoy its nature of existence since it offers them the opportunity to elicit their esoteric power to do either good or evil.

[1]. Adibe, G. E. (2006). Ogwu. Onitsha, Nigeria: GoodMark Prints Production.
[2]. Arinze, F. (1970). Sacrifice in Ibo religion. Ibadan, Nigeria: University Press.
[3]. Chidili, B. (2005). Provocative Essays on the practices of religion and culture in African society. Jos, Nigeria: Fab Anieh Nigerian Limited
[4]. Chepkwony, A. K. (2006). Healing practices in Africa: Historical and theological consideration. In Adams, K. A. (Ed.), Religion and health in Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: Paulines Edem, M. L. (1997). The Power to decide. Lagos, Nigeria: Jeromelaiho & Associates Ltd. Printers.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluating the Magnitude of Female Foeticide Problem of Punjab and Haryana A - Regional Analysis
Country : India
Authors : Dalbir Singh, Satpal Singh
: 10.9790/0837-191076978     logo

Abstract: Today, female foeticide problem is one of pressing problems of India. This problem has become a stigma and considered a sin in the Indian society. The problem has become aggravated particularly in the north-western part of India. In this context, various studies show that the male-child preference given by the masses which have given rise to skew the sex-ratio particularly the female proportionate figure in the age-group of 0-6 years. The present paper is an attempt to establish a 'cause-effect relationship for determine the attitude and the mind-set of the people for giving their preference to the male child, particularly in the rural areas. This study is an empirical study, carried out for all the districts of Punjab and Haryana indicate a considerable regional disparity, as revealed by the district-wise study, carried out in Punjab and Haryana.

[1]. Armold, F. Choe, M.K. Roy, T.K. (1988): Son Preference, the Family Building Process and Child Mortality in India, Population Studies 52(3), p. 302.
[2]. Armold, F. Choe, M.K. Roy, T.K. (2002): "Sex Selective Abortions in India", Population and Development Review, (4) p.28.
[3]. Bhat, P.N. M. (2002) " On the trail of "Missing Indian Females Illusion and Reality" Economic and Political Weekly, 37 (52), p. 5105
[4]. Bhat, P.N. M. and Zavier, A.J.F. (2003), "Fertility Decline and Gender Bias in Northern India,‟ Demography, 40 (4), p. 637
[5]. Bora (2007)‟ Imbalance in Child sex Ratio: Trends Causes and Emerging issue" accessed from

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Diasporic Consciousness in the Writings of Rohinton Mistry
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Vijay Negi
: 10.9790/0837-191077982     logo

Abstract: The nature of the diaspora depends on the nature of the host country. Diasporas, despite their common origin, may behave in a totally different manner depending on the country of their re-location. The narrative of diaspora is essentially a narrative of the "self‟. In the modern context, the word "home" not necessarily connotes as "self‟ of belonging and an individual sometimes seems to dwindle between "home" and homeland. For Rushdie, being Indian outside India is a daily questioning of the self. There are also people like Naipaul, who travel because they are not-at-home anywhere. It is also true in case of Rohinton Mistry. Leaving India behind is his own choice for better perspectives in life.

[1]. Bhaba, Homi K. The Location of Culture, London: Routledge. 1994.
[2]. Birbal Singh, Frank "Series Editor‟s Preface", Jasbir Jain, Neil Bissoondath: Indo-Caribbean-Canadian Diaspora, Jaipur: Rawat Publications. 2005.
[3]. Hall, Stuart "Cultural Identity and Diaspora", Diaspora and Visual Culture, Nicholas Mirzoeff, ed., London: Routledge. 2000.
[4]. Jain,Jasbir "The New Parochialism: Homeland in the Writing of the Indian Diaspora", In Diaspora, MakarandParanjape, ed., New Delhi:Indialog Publications. 2001.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Government Policy of Mining Business License (Iup) Production Operations for Social Justice Community around Realized
Country : Indonesia
Authors : La Sensu, Achmad Ruslan, Abdul Razak, HM. DJafar Saidi
: 10.9790/0837-191078390     logo

Abstract: This study aims to explain the Government's policy on Mining Production Operation IUP mining on surrounding communities, and to identify and analyze how government policy on IUP production of mining on the environment as a life support communities, as well as to analyze the extent of mining entrepreneur attitude creates benefits for the surrounding community in efforts to achieve social justice. This study uses data collection methods with two approaches, namely:

[1] Pramudya Sunu, 2001, Melindungi Lingkungan dengan Menerapkan ISO 14001, PT Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia, Jakarta. [2] Widia Edorita, 2007. Peranan Amdal Dalam Penegakan Hukum Lingkungan Di Indonesia Dan Perbandingannya dengan Beberapa Pemerintah Asia Tenggara, Universitas Andalas. [3] Rafael Rela, 2002. Opini, www, kompas. com, Kebijakan Pertambangan dan Problem Keadilan Sosial, diakses 22 Juni 2013. [4] Nyoman Nurjaya, "Indonesian Environmental Law Development And Reform: From Dutch Ordormantie, The 1982 Basic Environment Management Act to the Human Environment Management Act Of 1997", paper presented at the International Seminar on Environmental Law Development and Reform of Asian Countries, Canada, and Australia: A Comparative Perspective, jointly organized by Faculty of Law Brawijaya University and Faculty of Law Trisakti University on 25 to 27 February, 2008 at Klub Bunga Butik Resort, Batu, Malang, East Java, hlm. 1 [5] Achmad Ruslan, 2009, "Legal Drafting" Prosedur dan Pembentukan Peraturan Perundang-Undangan (Perda), diselenggarakan oleh Pemerintah Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan di Makassar, tanggal 24 – 25 Maret 2009.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Groundwater Contamination and Its Impact on Labour Productivity: A Case Study of Mehsana District in Gujarat, India
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Indira Dutta, Ashok Kumar Maurya
: 10.9790/0837-191079199     logo

Abstract: Gujarat, the growth engine of India is shining very brightly in the industrial map of India. Its dynamic economic growth in the form of double digits has done enough environmental damage in several digits. For the last one decade Gujarat is continuously facing continuous depletion of groundwater resources, which is creating various health related problems. Mehsana district of Gujarat is one of the most fluoride affected areas of the Gujarat. Fluoride contamination in Mehsana has brought fluorosis in the marginalised section of the society who faces extreme deprivation. The labourers and the marginal farmers are the worst sufferers because they are not in the position to purify water for drinking purpose. Fluorosis makes them partially disabled and sometimes fully disabled. This has brought diminishing physical working capacity among labourers which in turn has a direct impact on household socio-economic condition..

[1]. Asenso- Okyere, K., F.A. Asante, J. Tarekegn, & K.S. Andam (2009), "The linkage between agriculture and health", International Food Policy Research Institute Discussion Paper 00861, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC
[2]. Asenso- Okyere, K., Catherine Chiag, Paul Thangata & Kwaw S. Andam (2011), "Interactions between Health and Farm-Labor Productivity", International Food Policy Research Institute, Food Policy Report, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC
[3]. Bloom, D, D. Canning & P. Malaney (2000), "Demographic Change and Economic growth in Asia", Population and Development Review, Vol. 26, pp. 257-290
[4]. Duraiswami, R. D and Uday Patankar (2011), "Occurrence of Fluoride in the Drinking Water Sources from Gad River Basin, Maharashtra", Journal of Geological Society of India, Vol. 77, pp. 167-174.
[5]. Econtech (2007), "Economic modeling of the cost of presenteeism in Australia", Report prepared for Medibank Private Canberra: Econtech Pty Ltd. Viewed 28 July 2009, Accessed to->.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Jhumpa Lahiri's the Lowland: A Critical Analysis
Country : India
Authors : Dr. TK Pius
: 10.9790/0837-19107100117     logo

Abstract: Jhumpa Lahiri's novel The Lowland, traces the fate of tender fraternal bonds torn asunder by violent politics. Lahiri's delineation of the narrative events purports to show how the absence of loved ones becomes covertly a portent haunting presence within the subconscious mind of the affected characters directing their overt actions to their own consequential ways of life through which they are goaded on. When their respective paths crisscross, Lahiri proves herself to be adept at depicting the unhappiness at the core of the intricate interpersonal relations that materialises

[1]. Driscoll, Molly."'Kite Runner' author Khaled Hosseini will release a new novel this spring", The Christian Science Monitor. November 2012.
[2]. Hanish, Carol. "The personal is political" in Shulamith Firestone and Anne Koedt's Notes From the Second Year: Women's Liberation. Radical Feminist, 1970. Print
[3]. Hosseini, Khaled. And the Mountains Echoed. New York:Riverhead Books, 2013. Print
[4]. Kapur, Manju. The Immigrant, Noida: Random House of India, 2011. Print.
[5]. Lahiri, Jhumpa. The Interpreter of Maladies. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999. Print.
[6]. ...The Namesake. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. Print.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Application of Secure Container Technology in Digital Libraries
Country : India
Authors : Nitumika Gogoi
: 10.9790/0837-19107118124     logo

Abstract: Copyright issues in the digital environment are global and unless reasonable, access to copyright works is not maintained in digital environment, a further barrier will erupt which will deny access to those who cannot afford to pay. The paper touches upon the biggest uncertainty that digitally stratifies the society between and among the developed and less developed countries in regards to providing access to digitized information. The scope of this paper expects the formation of Information Security Teams (IST), developing strict security policies in digital libraries as well as usability of the mechanism that ensures document security and authenticity which unless otherwise realized, the very existence of such a technology based concept will be crippled. Document encroachment by copyright infringement being the hamstring of the present paper, tries to broaden the matter of integrity of e-documents through a mechanism wrapped in a secure cryptographic envelope by way of encryption merged with the combined working of hash function and digital signature techniques..

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Dispositional Optimism and Treatment Compliance in Heroin Addicts
Country : Saudi Arabia
Authors : Uzma Zaidi
: 10.9790/0837-19107125131     logo

Abstract: The current study aimed to investigate the relationship of dispositional optimism and treatment compliance in heroin addicts. It was hypothesized that dispositional optimism would be negatively correlated with treatment compliance in them. Seventy Heroin addicts with an age range of 18 to 40 years were selected through purposive sampling from addiction rehabilitation centers and hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Life Orientation Test-Revised assessed dispositional optimism and Treatment Motivation Questionnaire assessed treatment compliance, were administered. Pearson Correlation and Linear Regression Analysis suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between the dispositional optimism and treatment compliance in heroin addicts. Signification relation was found between treatment compliance and variables of External reason, Internal reason, help seeking and confidence. Additionally, correlation of number of relapses with dispositional optimism and treatment compliance was done. Result can be demonstrated to psychiatric and non-psychiatric population and therapeutic intervention should be applied to overcome these problems.

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