IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS)

January - 2015 Volume 20 - Issue 1

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analyzing Two Sonnets by Milton: VII & XIX
Country : Saudi Arabia
Authors : Gassim H. Dohal
: 10.9790/0837-20110103   logo

Abstract: In this paper, I will use the late-written Sonnet XIX and the early Sonnet VII so as to analyze what comes over John Milton's poetic creativity. Sonnet VII concerns with time and how it passes hurriedly; Sonnet XIX with Milton's blindness. From the theme of each sonnet, we can realize the seriousness and depth of poetic matter though at the end of each sonnet; Milton becomes more aware of his situation, his God and even the solution. Indeed, Milton's early poems, particularly those written before 1632 are not impressive, though there are many good lines. Hence, he realizes that he has accomplished little of what he has hoped to do when he writes Sonnet VII. In my analysis, I will compare between these two sonnets: VII & XIX, and discuss how they reflect the main aspects and poetic differences between Milton's early and late poetry.

Keywords: Milton, sonnet VII, sonnet XIX

[1]. Honigman, E. A. J. Milton's Sonnets. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1966.
[2]. Hughes, Merritt Y., ed. John Milton: Complete Poems and Major Prose. NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1957.
[3]. Lawrence, Karen, et al. The McGraw Hill Guide to English Literature. In't Ed. 2 Vols. Singapore: McGraw
[4]. Hill, Inc., 1992.
[5]. Lawry, Jon S. The Shadow of Heaven: Matter and Stance in Milton's Poetry. NY: Cornell UP, 1968.
[6]. Macaulay, Ron. Milton. NY: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1935.
[7]. Nicolson, Marjorie Hope. John Milton: A Reader's Guide to His Poetry. NY: Farrar, Straus and Company,1963.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Social Functions of Advice Genre in Alas
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Salamuddin Selian|| Amrin Saragih || T. Silvana Sinar || Busmin Gurning
: 10.9790/0837-20110415   logo

Abstract: This research describes the social functions of advice genre in Alas. The objective of the research was to examine seven subgenres of advice (sGA) under institutional and non-institutional headings. The institutional heading consisted of (1) high and higher education, (2) marriage, and (3) profession and the institutional one refered to (1) circumcision, (2) sickness, (3) death and (4) non formal educationor safety from accident.The research designwas qualitative with embedded case study as its approach to knowthe Alas' genre and ideology. Validity of data analysis involved triangulation technique following the formula: if the meaning (X) is found, then the expression (Y) is confirmed and if the expression (Y) is found, then the meaning (X) is confirmed. The results showedthat the social functions of advicein Alas were to give guidance to act and react, to inform the structural changes of advice, and to guide Alas people in their action and interaction. Keywords: Advice, genre, institutional, non institutionalsocial function, texts

[1]. J.R. Martin and D. Rose, Genre and texts: living in the real world,Indonesian Journal of Systemic Functional Linguistics, 1(1), 2012, 1-21.
[2]. S. Humphrey and S. Dreyfus, Exploring the Interpretative Genre in Applied Linguistics,Indonesian Journal of Systemic Functional Linguistics,1 (2), 2012, 156-174.
[3]. l. Gerot and P.Wignell, Making Sense of Functional Grammar(Sydney: Southwood Press, 2001).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Pattern of Engagement in Medan-Based Newspapers' Editorial Texts
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Suriyadi || T.Silvana Sinar || Amrin Saragih || Eddy Setia
: 10.9790/0837-20111622   logo

Abstract: This paper investigates Engagements ineditorial texts (EET) found in four local newspapers in Medan. The objectives of the research were to describe the pattern of EET. The research method was analytically descriptive. The research samples were taken from thirty two EETsas having the following topics: religion, disaster, economics, entertainment, corruption, hero, education, and politics. The data of the EETs were then analyzed by using both the Appraisal theoryand the soft program of Simple Concordance Program (SCP). The findings showed that there was inclination on the use of negative pattern of EETsthe editorial writersproduced when they wrote aboutcontroversialevents which were then delivered to society or newspaper readers.

Keywords:pattern, appraisal, engagement, newspaper, editorial texts

[1]. G. Brown and G. Yule,Discourse analysis(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
[2]. M.A.K. Halliday,Introduction to functional grammar(London: Arnold, 1985/1994).
[3]. M.A.K. Halliday and C.M.I.M. Matthiessen, Introduction to functional grammar, 3(London: Arnold, 2004).
[4]. J.R.MartinandP.R.R. White, Language of evaluation: appraisal in English(Basing Stoke: Palgrave, 2005).
[5]. P.R. White, Telling media tales: the news story as rhetoric,doctoral diss., University of Sydney, 1998. Retrieved from (www.grammatics.com/Appraisal).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Degradation of Wetland Environment: A Case Study of Dora Beel of Kamrup District Assam
Country : India
Authors : Inamani Das
: 10.9790/0837-20112329   logo

Abstract: 'Wetland' a relatively new term occupies a significant position as natural resources in our state. The importance of wetland has been increasing day by day due to its role on environment and economy of a region. But the growing pressure of human interference has been degrading the wetland environment constantly and it has posed a serious threat to the biodiversity of the wetland. An attempt has been made in this paper to know the status of wetland and analyze its environmental degradation. The study tries to put forth some eco-friendly measures of conservation and management for sustainable development of the wetland habitats and the people around the wetland. The study is based on both primary and secondary data.

Keywords: Conservation, environmental degradation, natural resource, sustainable development, wetland

[[1]. ARSAC, 'Wetlands of Assam: A Study Using Remote Sensing Technique', 1997, Guwahati.
[2]. Baruah, P. , Sharma, P. and Goswami, D.C. : 'A Data base for Wetlands of Assam; A Study using Remote Sensing Technique' Proceeding of NAGI(Easrern region) National Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development, (1998), pp.27-34.
[3]. Bhagabati, A.K. , Bora, A.K. , Kar, B.K.: Geography of Assam, New Delhi, Rajesh Publication, 2001.
[4]. Bhagabati, A.K. , Kalita, M.C. , Baruah, S.: Biodiversity of Assam, Guwahati, EBH Publication, 2006.
[5]. Chaudhury, A. , Check list of birds of Assam, Sofia Press PublicationPvt. Ltd., Guwahati, 1990.
[6]. Craft, C.B. and Carry, W.P. , Sediment and Nutrient Accumulation in Floodplain and Depressional Freshwater Wetland of Georgia, USA. The Society of Wetland Scientists, Wetlands Vol.20, No.2 pp. 323-332, 2000.
[7]. Dauri, P.C. and Lahan, B. , 'Food Controls Measures in Assam: Impacts on beel fisheries' Compendium, Workshop on development of Beel Fishery in Assam, 1987.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Relevance Of Vedic Ideals Of Education In The Modern Education System
Country : India
Authors : Zahoor Ahmad Rather
: 10.9790/0837-20113036   logo

Abstract: Vedic literature is supposed to be a part of our daily life.Its nothing to do with employment opportunities . It would be great if we can have it as a essential subject in school itself. Vedic education is the core foundation of India's culture & rich heritage. No one can be called educated who cannot preserve and expand his cultural heritage.This study is about the importance of vedic ideals of education in the modern education system.The need of this study is to maintain the decipline in the modern educational institutes and to create cordial relation between teacher and student.This study can convence the modern generation that in order to achieve high ideal of perfect mastery over senses,in order to erect the ideal of truth, the ideal of liberty,the ideal of equality and ideals of peace and unity then we need to accept the ideals of vedic education.

1. 1)Dr.A.S Alteker(1965) : Education in ancient india
2. 2)Dr.Radha kumud Mukherji(1960) :- Ancient Indian Education
3. Archambault, R.D. 1965 : Philosophical Analysis and Education, New York: Routledge & Keagan Paul . 4. Basham, A. L. (2008) : The Wonder That Was India: A survey of the history and culture of the Indian sub- continent before the coming of the Muslims Scholarly


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Context of Inter-Governmental Relations in Zimbabwe Reflections from the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment Number 20 Of 2013
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : Chakunda Vincent
: 10.9790/0837-20113741   logo

Abstract: Zimbabwe is politically and constitutionally a unitary, democratic and sovereign state with a three tier governmental structure: national government; provincial and metropolitan councils, and local government (rural district councils and various types of urban councils) according to the Constitution [Amendment No. 20] of 2013. This paper explores the composition, structure and the legal basis of the three tiers of government. Diagrammatic illustrations were used to depict these tiers more elaborately, highlighting focal points of power, authority, accountability and responsibility and how the system is synergised and synchronised from the national to the lower levels. Brief historical reviews are additionally used to locate the transformation of these structures through the vicissitudes of colonial discriminatory and racist structures to post independent African government supposedly modelled to dismantle the colonial system with fair, impartial and equitable structures established on the basis of human rights, improved access for all with important non racist, non ethnic codes and disregarding colour or creed.

[1]. Ademolekun, L. (1983). Public administration: A Nigerian comparative perspective, Longman, Lagos.
[2]. Anderson, W. (1960). Intergovernmental Relations in Review, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
[3]. Agranoff, R. (2014). Reconstruction of Bureaucracy for Service Innovation in the Governance Era, Routledge, London.
[4]. Agranoff, R and Radin, B. A. (2014). Deil Wright‟s Overlapping Model of Intergovernmental Relations. The Basis for Contemporary Intergovernmental Relations, ASPA, Washington DC.
[5]. Bless, C and Higson-Smith C. (2004). Fundamentals of Social Research Methods, Juta Education, Lusaka.
[6]. Blumberg, B et. (2008). Business Research Methods, McGraw-Hill, London.
[7]. Boone, C. (1998). "State building in the African countryside: structure and politics at the grassroots‟, Journal of Development Studies Vol 34 no.4 pp 1–31.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Towards Intergovernmental Balance Of Power in Zimbabwe. Opportunities, Challenges and Critical Success Factors
Country : India
Authors : Chakunda Vincent
: 10.9790/0837-20114248    logo

Abstract: The study of inter-government relations (IGR) presents a dynamic and complex discourse aimed at understanding political and administrative power dimensions and distribution between different tiers, spheres or levels of government. IGR reflects the horizontal and vertical power dynamics between central, state/ provincial/ regional and local government and the consequences of this relationship on the degree of autonomy and discretion that sub national government tiers enjoy from central government control and direction. Anderson (1960) argued that the term IGR designate a body of activities or interactions between governmental units of all types and levels or the totality of all permutations and combinations of relations among units of government in a government system either unitary or federal. The context of IGR discourse is undergoing radical change and transformation affecting perceptions about the role and functions of different tiers of government. This discourse is occurring in the context of ongoing global change on the relative efficacy and the relevance of the nation state vis a vis growing appreciation of local government capacity given increasing challenges of globalization. National governments in the face of these dynamics and in search of policy and administrative efficiency are exiting from their traditional roles with massive shifts from centralization, overregulation and other protectionist tendencies.

[1]. Ademolekun, L. (1983). Public administration: A Nigerian comparative perspective, Longman, Lagos.
[2]. Anderson, W. (1960). Intergovernmental Relations in Review, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
[3]. Agranoff, R. (2014). Reconstruction of Bureaucracy for Service Innovation in the Governance Era, Routledge, London.
[4]. Agranoff, R and Radin, B. A. (2014). Deil Wright‟s Overlapping Model of Intergovernmental Relations. The Basis for Contemporary Intergovernmental Relations, ASPA, Washington DC.
[5]. Bless, C and Higson-Smith C. (2004). Fundamentals of Social Research Methods, Juta Education, Lusaka.
[6]. Blumberg, B et. (2008). Business Research Methods, McGraw-Hill, London.
[7]. Boone, C. (1998). "State building in the African countryside: structure and politics at the grassroots‟, Journal of Development Studies Vol 34 no.4 pp 1–31.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Indigenous Traditional Healing Care: Belief & Practices among Tribals of South Bastar in Chhattisgarh
Country : India
Authors : Sushila D. Mahant
: 10.9790/0837-20114954    logo

Abstract: Globally, about 85% of the traditional medicines were used for primary healthcare which are derived from plants. There is a need to document the indigenous knowledge related to Indian herbs and plants and their medicinal and other uses and convert it into easily navigable computerize data base for easy access and to secure patenting rights; to discourage other countries for patenting Indian heritage; to transfer knowledge to all sectors who are interested to know about our Indian Systems of Medicine; most of our knowledge is in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian and other classical languages, which needs to be translated to other modern languages. The tribes of Bastar region are known for their unique and distinctive tribal culture and heritage in all over the world. Each tribal group in Bastar has their own distinct culture and enjoys their own unique traditional living styles.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Type 2 Diabetes; Affecting Factor & Prevalence among Mining Workers: A Case Study of NMDC Bacheli, Dantewada (Chhattisgarh)
Country : India
Authors : Sushila D. Mahant || Swapan Kumar Kolay
: 10.9790/0837-20115558    logo

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) globally. It is the fourth or fifth leading cause of death in most high-income countries and there is substantial evidence that it is epidemic in many economically developing and newly industrialised countries. The number of people with type 2 diabetes is increasing in every country 80% of people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries. The greatest numbers of people with diabetes are between 40 to 59 years of age. 183 million people (50%) with diabetes are undiagnosed; Diabetes caused 4.6 million deaths in 2011. Diabetes has no obvious clinical symptoms and not been easy to know, so that many diabetes patient unable to obtain the right diagnosis and the treatment (IDF, 2010).To assess the factors which are responsible the trend and prevalence of type 2 diabetes among mining workers, the study had been done by researcher. For above study, NMDC Iron ore mine of Bacheli, Dantewada (Chhattisgarh) was selected.It has been observed that there can be undesirable consequences for those working shifts outside standard daytime hours, particularly those covering the night or with early morning starts.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Sex Education to Indian Adolescents – Need of the Hour
Country : India
Authors : Neeru Garg
: 10.9790/0837-20115961   logo

Abstract: Sex is very sensitive subject and public discussion on sexual matters is considered as a taboo Indian society. Most of us do not talk openly about the topic in presence of our elders. But there are certain things that the youth of our country need to know. Sex education refers to a broad programme designed to impart knowledge/training regarding values, attitudes and practices affecting family relationships. It aims to develop the qualities and attitudes on which family life depends. The real purpose behind sex education is the transfiguration of a male child into manhood and female child into womanhood. The education that provides knowledge on physical, social, moral, behavioral and psychological changes and developments during puberty is termed as sex education. It teaches the adolescents about the role of boys and girls in family and society, responsibility and attitude of boys and girls towards each other etc. within social context. Many

[1]. Bearinger LH, Sieving RE, Ferguson J, Sharma V : Global Perspectives On The Sexual And Reproductive Health Of Adolescents: Patterns, Prevention, And Potential. The Lancet 2007, 369:1220-31.
[2]. World Bank Report On Sexually Transmitted Infection In Developing Countries, Current Concepts And Strategies On Improving STI Prevention, Treatment And Control. World Bank 2008.
[3]. Behne KL, Riedner G: Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Adolescents; The Need For Adequate Health Services. World Health Organization, Geneva; 2005.
[4]. Marton C, King E: Factors That Shape Young People‟s Sexual Behavior; A Systematic Review. The Lancet 2007, 368 : 1581-600.
[5]. Wellings K, Collumbien M, Slaymaker E Et Al.: Sexual Behavior In Context: A Global Perspective. The Lancet 2006, 368: 1706-28.
[6]. Gupta N, Mathur AK, Singh MP, Saxena NC : Reproductive Health Awareness Of School Going, Unmarried, Rural Adolescents. Indian J Pediatrics 2004, 71 (9) : 797-801


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Historical Background of the Municipalities of Bangladesh: An Analysis
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Dr. S. M. Hasan Zakirul Islam
: 10.9790/0837-20116271   logo

Abstract: This paper attempts to focuses on the historical development of local government particularly the growth of municipality and its administration in Bangladesh. Present arrangement of the local government is the outcome of gradual evolution of several hundred years. The existence of local government in the Indian subcontinent dates from approximately 1200 BC. But during the Mughal regime, an immense attention had been paid to the growth of rural and urban local government institution. Local government in modern sense was, however, started during the British period.

Keywords: Local Government, Municipality, Poura Commission, Permanent Local Government Commission, Municipal Administration.

[1]. Ahmad. Emajuddin, 1980. Bangladesh Lok Proshason (Bangladesh Public Administration). Dhaka: Dhaka University.
[2]. Brinkerhoff. W. D., & Arthur, A. G., 2002. Cientelism, Partrimonialism and Democratic Governance: An Overview and Framework for Assessment and Programming. Paper Prepared for U.S Agency for International Development. USA: Office for Democracy and Governance under Strategic Policy and Institutional Governance.
[3]. Chowdhury. A. I., 1997. Resource Mobilization and Urban Governance in Bangladesh. N. Islam et al. (Eds.). Urban Governance in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Dhaka: Centre for Urban Studies.
[4]. Clarke J. J., 1948. The Local Government of the United Kingdom. London: Sir I. Pitman & Sons Ltd.
[5]. Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Bangladesh. Retrieved from, http://www.unescap.org/huset/lgstudy/new-countrypaper/Bangladesh/Bangladesh.pdf. Accessed on December 26. 2009.
[6]. CPD, 2001. Task Force Report on Administrative Reform and Local Government. Dhaka: Center for Policy Dialogue.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Attitude of Parents toward Western Education in North Eastern Nigeria"Case Study Chibok Local Governmetn Area of Borno State".
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Hammajam A. A || Moh'd Galdi || Idris S.N
: 10.9790/0837-20117277   logo

Abstract: This research work, "attitude of parents toward Western education" In Chibok Local government area has given an ample opportunity to determine and summed up the opinion of stake holder in the area of social, religion, cultural, tradition and educational background of parents in the area. Understanding these factors will provide a substantial venue for government policy planning in terms of needs and encouragement to the parents in the area for manpower development and future of our youth. From the study carried out, it was discovered that the attitude of parent under this research have great influences on the attainment of western education of their children. Chibok local government area is so positive towards western education. This may be due to the influence of early settlement of the Christian missionaries in the area, respect of the basic economic constrain. It can be assumed that 68% of the people of the five districts are educational influenced. The impact of parents low economic status, create impact on formal education.

Keywords: Chibok, western education, attitude, parent, kibaku

[1]. Gerald, A.N, and Lois, R.N 2011, The Life Among Chibok People in Nigeria. McPherson, KS: Gerald Neher Publishing USA. [2]. Martha W. A, Ana C. S, Alayna N .B, Yvonne S. K, Mitchell J. N,2014; Middle School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Equations: Evidence from Writing Story Problems: International Journal of Educational Psychology.Vol.3 No.3 pp 235-264.
[3]. James Majasan, 1998, Educational Policy and Reform: General Quantative Education and Development, Spectrum Books Limited, pp29-33
[4]. Fafuwa, A.B. 1974, The History of Education in Nigeria, Allen and Unwin Australia, pp101-103.
[5]. Isaac Prilleltensky , 2014; Justice and Human Development: International Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.3 no.3 pp287-305
[6]. Abdulsalam, A.B and Peter A.1978, The link of Scholar the Islamic tradition of education in Nigeria. Macmillan.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Bringing Marginalized Population Intonational Stream.
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Dr. Khalid Iraqi
: 10.9790/0837-20117882   logo

Abstract: Marginalized people have little control over their lives which makes them handicap in delving contribution to society. They are prevented from participating in local life, which in turn leads to further isolation. It has a tremendous impact on development of human life, as well as on society at large. In this paper, we have systematically reviewed the scientific literature on marginalization, its nature, types of marginalization, marginalized groups and then we have focused on one marginalized group who suffer from HIV/AIDS related stigma. We have highlighted promising strategies to address stigma related issues. We have focused on the following key challenges: defining and reducing HIV/AIDS related stigma as well as assessing the impact of stigma on the effectiveness of HIV prevention and treatment programs. Based on the literature and personal observation we have concluded by offering a set of recommendations that may represent important next steps that how can we bring this marginalized group into national stream through communication.

[1]. AFAO (Australian Federation of AIDS Organizations). 1997. "Human rights: from policy to practice," National AIDS Bulletin 11(5):28-29.
[2]. Aggleton, P. and I. Warwick. 1999. Household and Community Responses to HIV and AIDS in Developing Countries: Findings from Multi-site Studies: Geneva, UNAIDS.
[3]. Bharat, S. and P. Aggleton. 1999. "Facing the challenge: Household responses to AIDS in India," AIDS Care 11:33-46.
[4]. Byrne, L. 1992. "Health risks of Rio‟s street children," British Medical Journal 304:1459-50.
[5]. Crocker, S. 2003. The Fogo Process: Participatory Communication in a Globalizing World in Shirley White (ed) Participatory Video: Images that Transform and Empower. Sage Publications, New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London.
[6]. .Daniel, H. and R. Parker. 1993. Sexuality, Politics and AIDS in Brazil. London: Falmer Press.
[7]. De Bruyn, T. (1999) HIV/AIDS and discrimination 2. Stigma and discrimination: definitions and concepts. Ottawa, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the Canadian AIDS Society.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Gandhian Morel of Political System in Comparision with Nehru's Mixed Liberal Socialist Model
Country : India
Authors : Prof (Dr) V. Indira devi
: 10.9790/0837-20118387   logo

Abstract: After independence we tried to adopt every model, every philosophy to make India a rich and developed country.Towards this end we adopted the lenthiest constitution and mixed democratic model etc ,but very conveniently ignored Gandhian model which is giving answers to all problem.Afresh look at the approach and adopting the Gandhian model is need of the hour.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Stories
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Syeda Afshana
: 10.9790/0837-20118889   logo

Abstract: The stories are everywhere in the world. The characters are scattered all around us. We as narrators need to pick up such stories and connect them to real life situations. Fiction can be a technique to place stories in real contexts and derive meanings out of them. There are instances where the storytellers, the writers have symbolized messages through a storyline that is genuine and realistic. Stories are ample, in profusion. They have substance, carrying weight. Writers simply need the sincerity of purpose to get such narratives out in public domain. Keywords: Characters, Narrative, Real-life, Storytelling, Writers

[1]. Pieter Jacobus Fourie, Media Studies: Content, audiences, and production (Juta and Company Ltd, 2001).
[2]. Ernest Hemingway, The Old Man And The Sea, (Papilio Classics, Projapoti , 2013).
[3]. Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights, (Heritage Publishers,New Delhi, 2009).
[4]. Mark Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, (Peacock, 2010).
[5]. Slumdog Millionaire, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slumdog_Millionaire
[6]. Arundhati Roy, Ordinary Person's Guide To Empire, (Penguin Books India, 2006).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Translation Strategies Of Cultural Words In Animal Farm Into Indonesian
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Umar Mono || Amrin Saragih || M.R. Nababan || Syahron Lubis
: 10.9790/0837-20119095   logo

Abstract: This study investigates translation as a product dealing with the translation strategies of cultural words in Animal Farm, a novel written by George Orwell, and translated by Mahbud Djunaidi, an Indonesian writer, politician, and journalist, into Indonesian entitled Peternakan Binatang. The data are the linguistic units (forms) from Animal Farm as the source text and Peternakan Binatang as the target text which consists of words and phrases dealing with cultural words proposed by Newmark (1988). From the investigation, it is found out that the translator manipulates structural and semantic strategies. The structural strategy consists of addition, reduction, and transposition. Semantic strategy consisits of synonymy, cultural adaptation, naturalized borrowing, amplification, and deletion.

Keywords: translation, cultural words, source text, target text, and translation strategy.

[1]. George Orwell, Animal farm (Hong Kong: Longman, 1983).
[2]. Mahbud Djunaidi, Peternakan Binatang (Bandung: Iqra, 1983).
[3]. Mildred L. Larson, Meaning-based translation: a guide to cross language equivalence (Lanham: University Press of America, 1984).
[4]. Peter Newmark, A textbook of translation (New York: Prentice Hall, 1988).
[5]. Eugene A. Nida and Charles E. Taber, The theory and practice of translation (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1974).
[6]. Roger T. Bell, Translation and translating: theory and practice (London: Longman, 1991).
[7]. Mona Baker, In other words: a course book on translation (London: Sage Publication, 1992].
[8]. H.B. Sutopo, Metodologi penelitian kualitatif. Dasar teori dan terapannya dalam penelitian (Surakarta: Universitas Sebelas Maret, 2006).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Impact of Family Support Group on Co-Dependent Behaviour
Country : Saudi Arabia
Authors : Uzma Zaidi
: 10.9790/0837-201196100   logo

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of family support group on co-dependent behaviour of spouse of drug addicts. It was hypothesized there would be significant difference between new and old members of family support group on co-dependent behaviour. It was also hypothesized that new members will score higher on denial, self- esteem, control and compliance as compare to old members. A sample (N=60) female spouse acquired through addiction treatment Centre's of Lahore city. The data was collected through purposive sampling technique. Am I Co-dependent Scale was administered to measure co-dependant behaviour. Independent sample t- test was used to find out the difference of co-dependent behaviour. Results shows that there is significant difference between new members and old family support members on variables. Findings can be implemented to enhance the benefits of self-help groups or group therapies supported by drug treatment centres to family members.

Keywords: Co-dependent behaviour, compliance, control, denial, family support groups, self- esteem, spouse of drug addicts

[1]. Copello, L. Templeton, and J. Powell, The impact of addiction on the family: Estimates of prevalence and costs. Drugs: education, prevention and policy, 17(s1) , 2010, 63-74. doi/abs/10.3109/09687637.2010.514798
[2]. K. Kanjanapipatkul, Development of family and peer support groups: a hand book of addiction recovery issue (Sri Lanka: Colombo Plan drug Advisory Programme, 2003).
[3]. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, 39. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 04‐3957. (Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2004).
[4]. Drug Advisory Program. Development of family & peer support group: a hand book of addiction recovery issues (Sri Lanka: Colombo Plan drug Advisory Programme, 2003).
[5]. M. R. Stone, Co-dependent Relationship. (2000). Retrieved on September, 2014 from http://psychcentral.com/library/id63.html
[6]. M. Beattie, Co-dependent No More: How to Stop Controlling Others and Start Caring for Yourself. (USA: Hazelden Publishing, 1987).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Old wine in new wineskins: Revisiting counselling in traditional Ndebele and Shona societies.
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : Sambulo Ndlovu || Elizabeth F. Hove
: 10.9790/0837-2011101105   logo

Abstract: The institution of counselling is present in all human communities as people share their sorrows, mentor, empower and advise each other. The service of advising and grooming is all that counselling is. This paper seeks to explore the institution of counselling in Shona and Ndebele traditional societies before the advent of western formalised counselling institutions. The research sets to prove that counselling is not a new phenomenon in these societies, that is a remnant of colonialism but rather it is an old institution that has been window dressed with western strategies and formalisms.

[1]. Kottler, JA. & Sherpard, DS. 2010. Counselling Theories and Practice. New Delhi: Brooks/Cole.
[2]. Niekerk, VE. & Prins, A, (eds) 2001. Counselling in Southern Africa: A Youth Perspective. Johannesburg: Heinmann.
[3]. Gelfand, M. 1973. The Genuine Shona, Survival Values of an African Culture. Gweru: Mambo Press.
[4]. Vambe, MT. 2004. African Oral Story- telling Tradition and the Zimbabwean Novel in English. Pretoria: UNISA Press.
[5]. Gelfand, M. 1996. Introduction to Shona Culture. Harare: Juta, Zimbabwe Ltd.
[6]. Bourdillon, MFC. 1993. Changing Culture in Zimbabwe. Harare: M.Z Publications.
[7]. Bozongwana, W. 1983. Ndebele Religion and Customs. Gweru: Mambo Press.
[8]. Mbiti, JS. 1969. African Religions and Philosophy. London: Heinmann Books Ltd.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study on Work-Life Balance of Auto Rickshaw Drivers in Mumbai
Country : India
Authors : Rajesh Ranjan
: 10.9790/0837-2011106111   logo

Abstract: This study examines the relation between work-life balance and quality of life among auto rickshaw drivers in Mumbai. Author assessed the components of work-life balance on time balance (equal time devoted to work and family). The purpose of this survey study is to discuss the work-life balance among auto rickshaw drivers in Mumbai. The present study is a survey study and for the same data was collected through a pre-designed questionnaire filled by the participants from a sample of 50 auto rickshaw drivers at Dadar railway station, Mumbai. Sample includes both married and unmarried auto rickshaw drivers over 20 years of age and presently driving auto rickshaw for more than one year. This study indicates those who spent more time on family than work (driving) experiences a higher quality of life than who spent more time on work (driving) than family.

Keywords: Work-life balance, Auto rickshaw driver and working conditions.

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