IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE)

2nd National Conference on "Recent Developments in Mechanical Engineering" [RDME-2013]

Voulme 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Review of Nusselt Number Correlation for Single Phase Fluid Flow through a Plate Heat Exchanger to Develop C# Code Application Software
Country : India
Authors : R. L. Pradhan, Dheepa Ravikumar, D. L. Pradhan

Abstract: Plate heat exchanger has been widely used in heating, cooling application, food industry, chemical industry, refrigeration industry and marine application. The objective of this paper is to review, the Nusselt number correlations of plat heat exchanger available to date, to understand how it is used, to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient and the methodology required to evaluate the correlations. In spite of their long history of commercial use there is still a lack of reliable data and generalized solutions available in the literature for calculation of heat transfer. Number of computer aided design software has been developed by the manufacturers of PHE but the information about the heat transfer coefficients is normally compressed and not a lot of data are available for research purposes about the design of these heat exchangers. The paper is useful to understand modified Wilson plot technique to evaluate the Nusselt number correlation of single phase fluid flowing through PHE.C# code application software is developed to do the calculation of experimental setup readings given by some authors and compared. Results shown by C# code application software (+/-) 5% in error. Water property data based is taken from the NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties, RefpropV-8.

Keywords – Chevron Angle, Modified Wilson Plot, Nusselt Number, Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE), Single Phase Fluid

1] R. Simpson, and S. Almonacid, Plate Heat Exchanger Encyclopedia of agricultural food and biological engineering,2003.
[2] Focke. W.W., Z., J., and Oliver, I. The Effect of the Corrugation Inclination Angle on the Thermohydraulic Performance of Plate Heat Exchangers,InternationalJournal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 28(8),(1985),1469-1479.
[3] T.S. Khan, M.S. Khan, Ming-C. Chyu, Z.H.Ayub,Experimental investigation of single phase convective heat transfer coefficientin a corrugated plate heat exchanger for multiple plate configuration, Applied Thermal Engineering 30 (2010) 1058–1065.
[4] Iulian Gherasim, Matthew Taws, Nicolas Galanis, Cong Tam Nguyen Heat Transfer And Fluid Flow In A Plate Heat Exchanger Part I. Experimental Investigation, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50 (2011) 1492-1498.
[5] Minsung Kim ,Young-Jin Baik Seong-Ryong Park , Ho-Sang Ra , Hyug Lim, Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers,Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 34 (2010) 1265–1272.
[6] F. Akturk, G. Gulben, S. Aradag, N. Sezer Uzol, S. Kakac, Experimental Investigation of The Characteristics of a Chevron Type Gasketed Plate Heat Exchanger, 6th International Advanced Technologies Symposium,16 ,(2011).
[7] Ali Hashmi, Fraaz Tahir, Umair Hameed,Empirical Nusselt Number Correlation for Single Phase Flow through a Plate Heat Exchanger", Recent Advances in Fluid Mechanics, Heat & Mass Transfer and Biology (2011).
[8] W.S. Kuo,Y.M. Lie,Y.Y.Hsieh,T.F.Lin,Condensation heat transfer and pressure drop of refrigerant R-410A flow in a vertical plate heat exchanger,International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 48,(2005) 5205–5220.
[9] Longo, G. A., Gasparella, A. ,Refrigerant R134a Vaporization Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Inside A Small Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger,Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 32 (2007) 107–116.
[10] Jaekyoo Jang,Youngsoo Chang, Byung Ha Kang, Oil Circulation Effects on Evaporation Heat Transfer in Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger using R134A", International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 2012.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Techno Economic Analysis of Battery Operated Vehicle
Country : India
Authors : S. R. Mahajan

Abstract: In the present work, the techno economic analysis of battery operated vehicle has been carried out. The causes of low adoption of such vehicles in the rural the areas have been found. The green house gases emissions using such vehicles is also determined .In order to reach emission reductions of 80% or more, the emissions from the transportation sector have to be reduced by 25%-75%.One approach to achieving such reductions has been through electric, hybrid, or plug-in hybrid vehicles. One of the main challenges to producing cost-effective vehicles of these kinds has been to produce inexpensive, reliable batteries that can mimic many characteristics of internal combustion engines. In India, the battery operated vehicles mostly used have been two wheelers viz. scooters driven by direct current motors .For the present case study of a battery operated scooter was used for transportation. The battery operated vehicles are also at airports, zoos, public transportation, industries for material handling, domestic etc. Analysis shows that the battery operated vehicle has been proved more economical when compared with the motor cycle when the distance of travel has been increased.

Keywords - Battery operated vehicle, Hybrid vehicles, Direct current motors, and internal combustion engines

[1] S. R. Mahajan. To Study And Compare Various Technologies integration Model In Renewable Energy Sources And find Out
Most Suitable Model In Indian Scenario, .National conf. on recent practices in conv.& nonconv. energy sources, SGIT ,atigre. Feb.2013.
[2] Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) , California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE)
[3] B. Klayman, Electric vehicle battery costs coming down, 11 January 2012.
[4] Focus on Safety in the German, Model Regions for Electric Mobility, Detlef Hoffmann, Industry news, Automotive
[7] Elektromotive, Ltd. (2007) "Elektromotive: The ultimate zero-emission transport system"

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Assessment of Window A/C under Drop- In Condition Using Propane as Refrigerant
Country : India
Authors : V. M. Suryawanshi, K. V. Mali, A. A. Keste, S. D.Wankhede

Abstract: R22 is a HCFC refrigerant and it is to be eliminated by 2020, because of its ozone-depletion-potential. This generates a need for the investigation of zero ozone-depletion-potential (ODP) refrigerants with properties similar to CFCs and HCFCs to be used as replacements. R-290 is a refrigerant with zero ozone-depletion-potential. Therefore the compatibility of the existing air conditioner unit for R290 should be checked which is presently working on R22 refrigerant and performance is also evaluated and compared. The comparison should be done on the basis of ozone depletion potential, cooling capacity, thermal exchange properties, and system efficiency, mass flow rate, power consumption of system etc. As a general conclusion, it is observed that using R290 as refrigerant will result COP equal to, or higher than, those of HCFC systems currently in use. It is also shown that components of R22 system are suitable for R290 systems which are easily available in market. Safety issue is a major concern that should not be taken lightly. Reduced charge through indirect systems and compact heat exchangers, outdoor placing of the unit, hydrocarbon sensors and alarms and forced ventilation are all the major steps which may be applied to reduce the risks under normal operation.

Keywords - Window A/C, Refrigerant, Propane R-290, R22, COP.

[1] I. L. Maclaine-cross, E. Leonardi, Why Hydrocarbons Save Energy, AIRAH journal : Australian refrigeration, air conditioning & heating, 51(6), 1997, 33-37.

[2] M. A. Hammad, M. A. Alsaad, The use of hydrocarbon mixtures as refrigerants in domestic refrigerators, Applied Thermal Engineering, 19(11), 1999, 1181–1189.

[3] E. Granryd, Hydrocarbons as refrigerants - an overview, International Journal of Refrigeration, 24(1), 2000, 15-24.

[4] D. Jung, Condensation heat transfer coefficients of flammable refrigerants, International Journal of Refrigeration, 27(1), 2004, 314-317.

[5] M.Yu Wen, Evaporation heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of R290 (Propane), R-600 (butane), and a mixture of R-290/R-600 in the three-line serpentine small-tube bank, Applied Thermal Engineering Vol. 25, (17-18), 2005, 2921-2936.

[6] A. Miyara, Condensation of hydrocarbons – A review, International Journal of Refrigeration Vol. 31(4), 2008,621-632.

[7] B. Palm, Hydrocarbons as refrigerants in small heat pump and refrigeration systems – A review, International Journal of Refrigeration, 31(4), 2008, 552-563.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Experimental Investigation and Computational Validation of Bared Inline Un-Finned Tube Configuration forHeat Exchanger
Country : India
Authors : H. S. Salave, P. R. Dhamangaonkar

Abstract: In the recent last two years, work was done on the prediction of the economizer tube failure. It include study of boiler tube leakages tube failure mechanism, development of equation to calculate wear rate of economizer tube material, experimental validation of wear rate equation, placing the specimen tube in the economizer area. Literature study suggested that with the increasing use of low quality high ash coals over the past few decades, the very factor that had been an advantage of the CFS (Continuous Fin Surface) economizer design became disadvantages, as the design's spacing proved more susceptible to plugging and fly ash erosion¹. The plant under study uses a very high ash content Indian coal as fuel and is thus prone to cause heavy fly ash erosion in economizer. Literature study and root cause analysis suggested that CFS staggered arrangement of economizer could be one of the prominent reason of failure of economizer tube bundle due to fly ash erosion². This paper focuses primarily to find out variation in air velocity moving over the inline un-finned tube configuration and finned staggered tube configuration used in economizer. Simulation results are validated with experimental results. Experiments were conducted on different specimens placing them in wind tunnel.

Keywords: Boiler tube failure, velocity of ash particle, size of ash particle, fins, direction of flow, heat exchanger.

[1] R. Tilley EPRI Project Manager, "Impact of operating Factors on Boiler Availability‟, Electric Power Research Institute, 2006

[2] B.A Allmon and G. B. Watson of Babcock and Wilcox Company.Fouling and Cleaning of a Staggered, finned Tube Bundle Under Coal-Fired Conditions (1991, National Heat Transfer Conference). 1991, 1-15.

[3] J.B.Kitto and S.C. Stultz, Steam its generation and use (The Babcock & Wilcox Company Book), 2005, 1-131.

[4] Dr V T sathyanathan, "Fly Ash Erosion in Boiler Firing High Ash Coals‟, 2011.

[5] Boiler and Burners: Design and Theory (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc) by PrabirBasu, Cen, Kefa, Louis Jestin. 2000.

[6] Zukauskas and Ulinskas,"Experimental study of turbulent cross-flow staggered tube bundle using particle image velocimetry", (1998)

[7] Nathan Tatman and Dr. Rhett Rehman. "Design and operation of wind tunnel",2008.

[8] H.K. Versteeg, W. Malalasekera, An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics – The Finite Volume Method, Prentice-Hall, 1995

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluation of a Refrigerant R410A as Substitute for R22 in Window Air-conditioner
Country : India
Authors : S. S. Jadhav, K. V. Mali

Abstract: CFCs have been phased out, except for essential users, and HCFCs are to be eliminated by 2020, because of their ozone depletion potential. This generates a need for the investigation of zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) refrigerants or refrigerant blends. R410A is among newer brand of refrigerant blends, with zero ODP. The biggest difference to R22 is the pressure levels generated which are more than 50% higher. The refrigerant R410A operates at higher pressure at the same saturated temperatures than R22, therefore system should be redesigned. The early laboratory trials of R410A in air conditioning systems have showed a significant increase in COP vs. R22. The apparent anomalous behavior of R410A has been shown to be due to its very favorable physical and transport properties. The overall COP of the system is 5 to 6% more than the R22.

Keywords – R410A, R22, Micro channel, Condenser, Evaporator, Rating chart.

[1] C. Y. Park, P. Hrnjak, Experimental and numerical study on microchannel and round-tube condensers in a R410A residential air-conditioning system, International journal of refrigeration, 31(5), 2008, 822 – 831.
[2] J. Choi, Y. Kim, J. T. Chung, An empirical correlation and rating charts for the performance of adiabatic capillary tubes with alternative refrigerants, Applied Thermal Engineering, 24(1),2004, 29–41.
[3] P. A. Domanski, D. Yashar, M. Kim, Performance of a finned-tube evaporator optimized for different refrigerants and its effect on system efficiency, International Journal of Refrigeration, 28(6), 2005, 820–827.
[4] P. A. Domanski, Simulation of an evaporator with non-uniform one-dimensional air distribution, ASHRAE Trans, 97, 1999, 793–802.
[5] Y. J. Chang, C. C. Wang, A generalized heat transfer correlation for louver fin geometry, International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, 409 (3), 1997, 533–544.
[6] P. K. Bansal, A.S. Rupasinghe, An empirical correlation for sizing capillary tubes, International Journal of Refrigeration, 19 (8) (1996) 497–505.
[7] B. Mitra, Supercritical gas cooling and condensation of refrigerant R410A at near-critical pressures, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Review on Heat Transfer Augmentation using Twisted Tape inserts inAbsorber/Receiver of PTC
Country : India
Authors : D.R.Waghole, R.M.Warkhedkar, V.S. kulkarni, N. K.Sane

Abstract: Heat Transfer Augmentation techniques refer to different methods to enhance rate of heat transfer without affecting much the overall performance of the system. These techniques are used in various applications such as solar power plants, thermal power plants, refrigeration and air conditioning, process industries, radiators for automobile systems etc.These techniques are of three types which are active, passive and compound techniques. The present paper is review of passive augmentation technique used in recent past. Keywords –Heat transfer augmentation, Tapeinserts Passive methods

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Gamma Prime Coarsening Behavior of Nickel Super alloy Super cast 247A after Prolonged Thermal Exposures
Country : India
Authors : A. Lavakumar, P. K. Singh, S. Srivastava, S. Kori, L.A.Kumar

Abstract: The commercial nickel-base superalloy Supercast 247A can be used for applications in which high mechanical strength and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures is required, such as turbine blades and automotive turbocharger rotors. Prolonged isothermal exposure tests were conducted on Supercast 247A alloy to evaluate the variation of gamma prime particle coarsening behavior after different heat treatment conditions. The long-term exposure tests were conducted at 9000 C to assess gamma prime particle coarsening behavior. Microstructural and Mechanical studies were performed on isothermally aged samples to characterize gamma prime coarsening as a function of aging time and temperature. The gamma prime particles appeared to be more coarsening into round shape or agglomerated between them compared to the initial ones of each heat treatment. The degree of coarsening, as evidenced by gamma prime particle size, increased with increasing heating time and temperature. In most cases, the amount of secondary or very fine gamma prime precipitates decreased with increasing heating temperature and finally disappeared. It was found that the lower solution temperature provided the highest rate of γ' coarsening at both elevated temperatures. In contrast, the higher solution temperature kept the slow rate of γ' coarsening resulting in lower average γ' particle size.

Keywords – Ni-base superalloy, Supercast 247A, Gamma Prime Coarsening, Aging treat. & Microstructure

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Review of Energy Harvesting From Piezoelectric Materials
Country : India
Authors : S. M.Taware, S.P. Deshmukh

Abstract: The field of power harvesting has experienced significant growth over the past few years due to the ever-increasing desire to produce portable and wireless electronics with extended lifespan. Current portable and wireless devices must be designed to include electrochemical batteries as the power source. The use of batteries can be troublesome due to their limited lifespan, thus necessitating their periodic replacement. In the case of wireless sensors that are to be placed in remote locations, the sensor must be easily accessible or of a disposable nature to allow the device to function over extended periods of time. Energy scavenging devices are designed to capture the ambient energy surrounding the electronics and convert it into usable electrical energy. The concept of power harvesting works towards developing self-powered devices that do not require replaceable power supplies. A number of sources of harvestable ambient energy exist, including waste heat, vibration, electromagnetic waves, wind, flowing water, and solar energy. While each of these sources of energy can be effectively used to power remote sensors, the structural and biological communities have placed an emphasis on scavenging vibration energy with piezoelectric materials. This article will review recent literature in the field of power harvesting and present the current state of power harvesting in its drive to create completely self-powered devices.

Keywords - Energy Harvesting Review, Vibration Power, Self-Powered Systems, Power scavenging

[1] K A Cook-Chennault, N Thambi and A M Sastry, Powering MEMS portable devices—A review of non-regenerative and regenerative power supply systems with special emphasis on piezoelectric energy harvesting systems, Smart Mater. Struct. 1.7 (2008).
[2] S. P. Beeby, M. J. Tudor and N. M. White, Energy harvesting vibration sources for microsystems applications, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 (2006) R175–R195
[3] Shashank Priya · Daniel J. Inman Energy Harvesting Technologies, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009
[4] Adnan Harb, Energy harvesting: State-of-the-art, Renewable Energy (2010) 1-14
[5] N.G. Stephen, On energy harvesting from ambient vibration, Journal of Sound and Vibration 293 (2006) 409–425
[6] Steven R Anton and Henry A Sodano, A review of power harvesting using piezoelectric materials, Smart Mater. Struct. 16 (2007) R1–R21
[7] S P Beeby, R N Torah, M J Tudor, P Glynne-Jones, T O'Donnell, C R Saha and S Roy, A micro electromagnetic generator for vibration energy harvesting, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17 (2007) 1257–1265
[8] Dibin Zhu, Michael J Tudor and Stephen P Beeby, Strategies for increasing the operating frequency range of vibration energy harvesters, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21 (2010) 022001 (29pp)
[9] Lei Wang and F G Yuan, Vibration energy harvesting by magnetostrictive material, Smart Mater. Struct. 17 (2008) 045009 (14pp)
[10] E. Lefeuvre, A. Badel, C. Richard, L. Petit, D. Guyomar, A comparison between several vibration-powered piezoelectric generators for standalone systems, Sensors and Actuators A 126 (2006) 405–416

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Fitting Spline Curves through Set of Unorganized Point Cloud Data
Country : India
Authors : V. N. Chougule, R. N.Nirgude, K. D.Ghag, I.R.Madane, A.S.Deshpande

Abstract: In recent days, for fast product development, Reverse Engineering (RE) and Rapid Prototyping (RP) are two widely adopted techniques both by researchers and industries. Due to recent advancements in Computing technology, various techniques like 3D LASER scanner, Co-ordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), Industrial Radiography, etc. can be used to capture data from physical components in form of Point Cloud Data. This Point Cloud Data in turn, can be used for construction of 3D CAD Model by fitting surfaces between points or by constructing curves between points and then fitting surfaces between curves. Prior to solid, it is important to construct a curve model which encompasses all intricate profiles. In current research work, a novel and simplified process of curve generation from unorganised point cloud data is presented. An efficient algorithm using MATLAB to organise the Point Cloud Data acquired from the source images and to fit a B-spline curves satisfying the curve continuity conditions, an efficiently detecting cavities and an abnormilities.

Keywords – Computer Aided Graphics Design (CAGD), Point Cloud Data, Nearest Neighboring Point Method, Curve Fitting, B-spline curve.

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[7] L. M. Mestetskiy, N. F. Dyshkant, D. Gordev, M. S. Kumari, B.H. Shekar, Surface measures for accuracy evaluation in 3D face reconstruction, 10(45), 2012, 3583-3589.
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[9] W. Wang, H. Pottmann, Y. Liu, Fitting B-Spline Curves to Point Clouds by Curvature-Based Squared Distance Minimization, ACM Transactions on Graphics, 25(2), 2006, 214-238.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Syngas Production By Updraft Biomass Gasifer And Its Parametric Analysis
Country : India
Authors : V. N. Raibhole, A. D. Phadke, S. L. Patil, A.G. Ghadge, D. S. Deshpande

Abstract: In today`s scenario of depleting conventionalfuels, biomass provides an alternate source of energy. Gasification is a chemical process that converts carbonaceous materials like biomass into useful convenient gaseous fuels or chemical feedstock. The product gas of gasification has a calorific value unlike that of complete combustion process.The present study is going to be focused on parametric analysis and study of the mathematical model to predict the effect of usage of various types of fuels in gasification process. The gasification process will be simulated using thermodynamic model using MATLAB and EES. Different fuels namely coal, rice husk and wood pallets will be studied. The analysis of syngas produced can be done by gas chromatography and Orsat apparatus. The simulation will be focused on the effect of pressure, air to fuel ratio and steam to fuel ratio on produced syngas composition. An experimental model which can hold a batch of 30kg fuel has been fabricated to take trial and study the process of gasification. Arrangements have been made so as to control the air flow, record the core, gas and steam temperature. Steam is generated within the setup in the water jacket and supplied to gasification process.

Keywords – Gasification, Syngas, Parametric analysis, Mathematical modelling, Pyrolysis

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[2] PrabirBasu, "Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis", Practical Design.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design and Analysis of Globe Valve as Control Valve Using CFD Software
Country : India
Authors : V. J. Sonawane, T. J. Rane, A.D. Monde, R.V. Vajarinkar, P. C. Gawade

Abstract: Globe valves are commonly used as fluid flow control equipment's in many engineering applications. Thus it's more and more essential to know the flow characteristic inside the valve. Due to the fast progress of the flow simulation and numerical technique, it becomes possible to observe the flows inside a valve and to estimate the performance of a valve. This paper presents the modeling and simulation of the globe valves. The flow system with globe valves is complex structure and has non-linear characteristics, because the construction and the hydraulic phenomena are associated of globe valves. In this paper, three-dimensional CFD simulations were conducted to observe the flow patterns and to measure valve flow coefficient when globe valve with different flow rate and constant pressure drop across the valve were used in a valve system. Furthermore, the results of the three-dimensional analysis can be used in the design of low noise and high efficiency valve for industry.

Keywords – Globe valves, CFD, Valve coefficient

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[4] J. A. Valverde, S. H. Frankel, G. P. Salvador, Three-dimensional control valve with complex geometry: CFD modelling and experimental validation, 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit; Portland, Oregon; 2004.
[5] C. Srikanth, C.Bhasker, Flow analysis in valve with moving grids through CFD techniques, Advances in Engineering Software, indiameter, 40 (3), 2009, 193-201.
[6] R. N. Yerrawar, V. B. Tungikar, S. H. Gawande, Finite Element Analysis of Dynamic Damper for CV Joint, 4(4), 2012, 241-247.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Numerical Analysis of Combustion Furnace Performance by CFD
Country : India
Authors : V. N. Chougule, O. F. Daud, G. R. Gupta, V. H. Shelke, R. V. Ugale

Abstract: High temperature processing of raw materials often involves complex multi-phase fluid flow and heterogeneous chemical reactions at various scales. Due to the extreme temperature conditions existing within and around an industrial furnace, it is extremely difficult to measure the temperatures within a furnace at regular intervals during one operation cycle. Hence the industry and market need an accurate method to estimate the flow characteristics of a furnace operation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become a very useful simulation tool to improve process understanding and development. The paper discusses the benchmarking of the CFD analysis by performing the CFD analysis on a mobile heat treatment furnace.

Keywords - Benchmarking of CFD, furnace, heat transfer, time steps

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