IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Mar. – Apr. 2018 Volume 10 - Issue 2

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Expansion of Universe
Country : India
Authors : Nidhi Varshney || Raghav Maheshwari || Nikhil Parihar
: 10.9790/4861-1002010104      logo

ABSTRACT: The origin of matter remains one of the great mysteries in physics. During the last two decades, cosmology has become a precision observational science thanks (in part) to the incredible number of experiments performed to better understand the composition of the universe. The large amount of data accumulated strongly indicates that the bulk of the universe's matter is in the form of nonbaryonic matter that does not interact electromagnetically. Combined evidence from the dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters confirms that most of the mass in the universe is not composed of any known form of matter. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis and many other experiments indicate that ∼ 80% of the matter in the universe is dark, non-relativistic and cold. The dark matter resides in the holes surrounding galaxies, galaxy clusters and other large-scale structures.

[1]. Overbye, Dennis (20 February 2017). "Cosmos Controversy: The Universe Is Expanding, but How Fast?". New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
[2]. "NASA's Hubble Rules Out One Alternative to Dark Energy". NASA. 2011-03-14. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
[3]. Astronomers reported their measurement in a paper published in the December 2000 issue of Nature titled The microwave background temperature at the redshift of 2.33771which can be read here [2]. A press release from the European Southern Observatory explains the findings to the public.
[4]. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
[5]. Hubble, Edwin (1937). "Red-shifts and the distribution of nebulæ". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 97: Bibcode:1937MNRAS..97..506H. doi:10.1093/mnr as/97.7.506


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Vickers Micro-Hardness Studies of Mn++ And Cu++ Doped Calcium Levo-Tartrate Tetrahydrate Single Crystals
Country : India
Authors : S. R. Suthar || H. O. Jethva || M. J. Joshi
: 10.9790/4861-1002010512     logo

ABSTRACT: Calcium tartrate crystals are renowned for its ferroelectric nature. To engineer its properties, calcium levo-tartrate tetrahydrate (CLTT) crystals are doped by Mn++ and Cu++. Pure and doped CLTT crystals are grown by the gel method. The Vickers micro-indentation hardness tests are carried out at various applied loads to study the mechanical properties of pure and doped CLTT crystals. As the load increases the values of Vickers micro-hardness decreases. The doped crystals are found to be softer than the pure CLTT crystals. The work hardening coefficient and the standard hardness values are found to be less in Mn++ doped CLTT crystals than the Cu++ doped CLTT crystals. The yield stress and the first order elastic stiffness constant values are calculated from the micro-hardness values for pure and doped crystals. The Hays and Kendall's approach and Proportional Specimen Resistance (PSR) model are applied for pure and doped CLTT crystals. The effect of doping of Mn++ and Cu++ on the micro-hardness properties of the CLTT crystals is studied and explained.

Keywords: Vickers micro-hardness, Hays and Kendall's law, Proportional Specimen Resistance (PSR) Model

[1]. H. B. Gon, J.Cryst. Growth., 102, 1990, 501.
[2]. S. R. Suthar and M. J. Joshi, Cryst. Res. Technol., 41, 2006, 664.
[3]. S. R. Suthar, S. J. Joshi, B. B. Parekh and M. J. Joshi,, Indian J. Pure and Appl. Phys., 45, 2007, 52.
[4]. A. F. Mohrnheim, Micro hardness testing and Hardness numbers in Interpretive Techniques for Micro-structural Analysis (Springer 1977).
[5]. H. E. Boyer, Hardness testing (ASM Publication 1987).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Wu's Spacetime Field Equation Based On Yangton And Yington Theory
Country :  
Authors : Edward T. H. Wu
: 10.9790/4861-1002011321     logo

ABSTRACT: Wu's Spacetime Field Equation is derived from Yangton and Yington Theory based on Wu's Unit Length lyy (the diameter of Yangton and Yington Circulating Pairs) and Wu's Unit Time tyy (the period of Yangton and Yington Circulating Pairs). Wu's Unit Length and Wu's Unit Time are correlated to each other by Wu's Spacetime Theory. They are also dependent on the gravitational field and the aging of the universe. Furthermore, instead of being a constant, the speed of light C is a function of Wu's Unit Length lyy, which can increase the acceleration (the curvature of Spacetime) to form a deep continuum in Spacetime along the edge of a spherical mass (or black hole). As a result, the existence of black hole can be interpreted by Wu's Spacetime Field Equation. Also, the expansion of the universe can be explained by Wu's Spacetime Shrinkage Theory and Wu's Spacetime Reverse Expansion Theory without the modification of Wu's Spacetime Field Equation with Einstein's Cosmological Constant and dark energy.

Keywords: General Relativity. Einstein's Field Equations, Yangton and Yington, Wu's Pairs, Spacetime, Spacetime Shrinkage, Universe Expansion, Redshift, Black Hole, Dark Energy, Cosmological Constant.

[1]. Edward. T. H. Wu (2017). "My Universe – A Theory of Yangton and Yington Pairs". Amazon.com. ISBN-13: 978-1520923000 and ISBN-10: 1520923007.
[2]. Edward T. H. Wu. "Time, Space, Gravity and Spacetime Based on Yangton & Yington Theory, and Spacetime Shrinkage Versus Universe Expansion". American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2016, pp. 58-64. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20160504.13.
[3]. Catoni, F.; et al. (2008). Mathematics of Minkowski Space. Frontiers in Mathematics. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7643-8614-6. ISBN 978-3-7643-8613-9. ISSN1660-8046.
[4]. Einstein A. (1916), Relativity: The Special and General Theory (Translation 1920), New York: H. Holt and Company.
[5]. Carroll, Sean (2004). Spacetime and Geometry – An Introduction to General Relativity. pp. 151–159. ISBN 0-8053-8732-3.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Investigation of Nsukka Area, South-Eastern Nigeria for Mineral Exploration Using Gravity Method
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Igwe Emmanuel Awucha || Yakubu John Akor || Idike Julius Igboji
: 10.9790/4861-1002012232     logo

ABSTRACT: Gravity method was used in this work to map the survey area and to obtain the causes of the observed anomalies in the area. Digitized airborne gravity data were obtained over Nsukka area from Nigeria Geological Survey Agency (NGSA). The data were processed and reduced to a format suitable for interpretation by the following methods: vertical derivative, upward continuation and analytic signal. Some portions of the survey area were modelled. From the models, the densities of the anomalous bodies were 1.635, 2.643, 2.420, 4.127, and 3.707g/cm3 located at depth of about 564, 822, 407, 815, and 1893m respectively. The densities indicate clay, sandstone and ironstone located at those various depths. Density of 1498kg/m3 corresponds to clay material located at depth of about 923m from the surface. The densities of 3523, 4127 and 3707kg/m3 correspond to that of ironstone located at depths of...........

Keywords: Gravity anomaly, Euler 3D deconvolution, forward and inverse modelling, vertical derivatives, analytic signal.

[1]. Abdullahi, U. A., G. Z. Ugwu and P. O. Ezema (2014): 'Magnetic Exploration of the Upper and Lower Benue Trough for Metallic Deposits and Hydrocarbons using 2D/3D.' Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online) Vol.4, No.20, 41- 46.
[2]. Bracewell, R.M. (1965): The Fourier transformation and its applications. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York
[3]. Briggs, R.P. (1974): Economic geology of Isla de Mona Quadrangle, Puerto Rico. U.S. Geological Survey, Open File Report 74-226, 116p. Doi: 10,1190/1.1443363
[4]. Dobrin, M.B. and Savit, C.H. (1988): Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. New York.
[5]. Hansen, R.O. (1993): 'Interpretive gridding by anisotropic kriging.' 58(10), 1491-1497.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Trailing Edge Noise Prediction from NACA 0012 & NACA 6320using Empirical Pressure Spectrum Models
Country : India
Authors : Vasishta bhargava || S. Rahul || Dr. HimaBinduVenigalla
: 10.9790/4861-1002013346     logo

ABSTRACT: In this paper, the numerical computation of sound pressure using quasi empirical model and wall pressure spectrummodels based on external pressure gradientswas done for NACA 0012 and NACA 6320 airfoils.The development of boundary layer thickness and displacement thicknessfor different chord lengths and Mach numbers with varying angles of attack, are illustrated for NACA 0012. Thesound pressure levels evaluated between 00 to 60angles of attack and at constant chord length of 1.2m using BPM model showed change of ~5dB in peak amplitude. The maximum test velocity and chord length used for analysis is 65 m/s and 1.5m. The relative velocities for airfoils have been computed using the boundary element and panel method. Boundary layer properties involving chord Reynolds number, 3.14 x106, 4.6 x106and Reynolds number based on wall shear, 7410, 6865 were assessed at 20 AOA for NACA 0012. Results have found higher values for thickness at increasing angle of attack but decayed along chord length. Comparison of wall pressure spectrum for favorable and adverse pressure gradients were done and validated with existing literature predictions.

Keywords: Airfoil, Noise, Sound Pressure Level, Trailing edge, Boundary layer.

[1]. Yuan Tian. "Modeling of wind turbine noise sources and propagation in the atmosphere" ENSTA Paris Tech University, Paris – SACLAY, Aug 2016.
[2]. Y. Rozenberg. Gilles Robert. S. Moreau. "Wall-Pressure Spectral Model including the Adverse Pressure Gradient Effects", AIAA JournalVol 50. No 10, October 2012.
[3]. Goody M. "Empirical spectral model of surface pressure fluctuations", AIAA Journal. Vol 42 No 9. 2004.
[4]. McGrath, B.E and Simpson, R.L" Some features of surface pressure fluctuations in turbulent boundary layers with zero and favorable pressure gradients" NASA CR 4051, 1987.
[5]. http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/airfoils/q0259c.shtml


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Review on the Methods for the Measurements of Thermal Expansion Coefficient
Country : India
Authors : Mohammed Yousuf Hussain Ansari || Mohammed Wahed Hussain || Lavanya G || Rakesh G || Ashok K
: 10.9790/4861-1002014750     logo

ABSTRACT: The thermal expansion of solids is a basic physical property representing the dimensional change in a solid induced by a change in temperature. It is of technical importance as it determines the thermal stability of crystal. The thermal shock resistance of crystal depends on thermal expansion. In modern epitaxial device technology lattice mismatch is an important factor this related to thermal expansion behavior. In nuclear fuel technology, the thermal expansions a deciding factor in the choice of container The thermal expansion coefficient is related to several other physical properties. Knowledge of thermal expansion is necessary in experimental determination of temperature variation of elastic constant, refractive index, dielectric constant and photo elastic constants. Data on thermal expansion is required in conversion of Cp into Cv. This demand has led to the development of number of experimental......

[1] Aurora TS, Day SM, King V and Pederson D O (1984) Rev. Sc. Inst.55 (2).

[2] Bailey A C and Yates B (1967) Proc.Phys.Soc. 9, 390.

[3] Bijl D and Pullan H (1955) Physica 21, 285.

[4] Carr R H Mc Cammon R D and White G K (1964) Proc.Roy.Soc.London A, 280, 72.

[5] Dheer P N and Surange S L (1958) Phil Mag. 8, 1, 665..


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Determination of Sound Pollution Impact on Concentration And Performance Level of Jss1 Students of University of Port Harcourt Demonstration Secondary School UDSS.
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Nte F.U || Ogoke C
: 10.9790/4861-1002015154     logo

ABSTRACT: Different age group responds differently to noise impact. This study evaluates the impact of noise on concentration and Learning rate of Junior Secondary One students of the University of Port Harcourt Demonstration Secondary School. Ages between 9 and 12years.The approach is experimentally subjecting the volunteer students to learn under various noise intensity to judge their concentration and performance.It includes a Participatory Appraisal Chambers (1994) NDES (1997) modified, to validate the test results. The noise source is an audio mixer which blended the taped lecture with motor engine noise. The control group was at (50-60dBA). Treatment '1' (70-80dBA) and treatment '2'(85-95dBA). The participatory test kit index shows general restlessness and reduce concentration at noise above 80dBA , while the test score shows no significant difference between the control and treatment '1', the P-value (0.000) on a two way ANOVA however shows a significant difference between treatment '2' and control (C). The advice is to monitor noise in our learning environment for best results.

Key Words: Concentration, Environment, Impact, Performance, Pollution, Sound, Treatment,

[1] Alton, B., Ernest J. (1990). Relationship between Loss and noise exposure levels in a large industrial population, a review of an overlooked study. J. Acoustic Soc. Am 88(SI); S73(A). 1990.
[2] Bond, M. (1996); Plagued by Noise, Journal of New Scientist. November 16:14-15.
[3] Chambers R. (1994) the origin and practice of participatory Rural Appraisal, pergaman printers, Great Britain. Vol22, PP. 953-989
[4] Cheung C.K. (2001). Organisational Influence on working people‟s occupational noise protection in Hong Kong, Journal of Safety Research 35, 465, 2001.
[5] Cohen, S. Evans G.W., Krantz D.S. Stokols D. (1980): Psychological, Motivational and Cognitive Effects of Aircraft Noise on Children: Moving from the Laboratory to the field. American Psychologist 35, 231-243..


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Measure the Errors of Treatment Set-Ups of Prostate Cancer Patient Using Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID)
Country : Egypt
Authors : M.Ali Morsy || A. Raouf Ahmed || K.M. Elshahat
: 10.9790/4861-1002015559     logo

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was the determination of the set-up errors for Prostate cancer patients by using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) [14], as tool to verify the patient treatment positioning. This could be done by the means of identifying and correcting the field displacements in patient's setups which requires accurate patient positioning with reference to the initial three-dimension conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Patient setup is controlled by comparing the Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) with portal images acquired immediately before patient treatment. It is generally accepted that two classes of set-up uncertainties identified by systematic and random errors. A study on 15th prostate cancer patients using Varian Linear accelerator model DMX to treat........

Keywords: Prostate Cancer; 3D conformal radiation therapy; EPID; Radiotherapy; CT Image; ICRU (50&60)

[1] Mijnheer BJ, Battermann JJ, Wambersie A. What degree of accuracy is required and can be achieved in photon and neutron therapy? Radiother Oncol. 1987; 8:237–52.
[2] Kutcher GJ, Coia L, Gillin M, Hanson WF, Leibel S, Morton RJ, et al. Comprehensive QA for radiation oncology: Report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 40. Med Phys. 1994; 21:581–618.
[3] Wambersie A, Van Dam J, Hanks G, Mijnheer BJ, Battermann JJ. What accuracy is needed in dosimetry? IAEA-TECDOC. 1994; 734:11–35.
[4] Ravichandran R, Sathiyanarayanan VK, Supe SS, Shariff MH, Kurup PG. Accuracy of patient set up and on-line imaging in radiotherapy. Clin Radiother Oncol. 1996; 11:58–61.
[5] Bel A, Vos PH, Rodrigus PT, et al. High-precision prostate cancer irradiation by clinical application of an offline patient setup verification procedure, using portal imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996; 35:321-32.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Effect of Treatment Set-Up Errors Correction on Dose Distribution to Organs at Risk in 3D Conformal Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer
Country : Egypt
Authors : M.Ali Morsy || A. Raouf Ahmed || K.M. Elshahat || K.A. Shnishin
: 10.9790/4861-1002016064     logo

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was the determination of the set-up errors for Prostate cancer patients by The purpose of this work was investigation of the dose distribution and dose-volume variations of planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risks (OARs) in fifteen prostate cancer patients treated with 3D Conformal RT 5 beams techniques, treatment plans were created using EclipseTM version 13.6 as treatment planning system. The electronic portal imaging device (EPID) used to determine the set-up errors as tool to verify the Prostate patient treatment positioning. The prescribed dose was 7600 cGy in 38 fractions to dose coverage D95 (PTV). The bladder volume receiving dose >7000 cGy should be <35% volume and >6500 cGy should be <50% volume, and the rectum volume receiving dose >6500 cGy should be <25%volume and receiving >5000 cGy should be <50% volume. The femur head........

Keywords: Prostate Cancer; 3D conformal radiation therapy; EPID; Radiotherapy; ICRU (50&60)

[1] Bel A, van Herk M, Bartelink H, Lebesque JV. A verification procedure to improve patient set-up accuracy using portal images. Radiother Oncol ;29(2):253-60. PubMed PMID: 8310153. (1993),
[2] Gildersleve J, Dearnaley DP, Evans PM, Swindell W. Reproducibility of patient positioning during routine radiotherapy, as assessed by an integrated megavoltage imaging system, (1995)
[3] Ravichandran R, Sathiyanarayanan VK, Supe SS, Shariff MH, Kurup PG. Accuracy of patient set up and on-line imaging in radiotherapy. Clin Radiother Oncol. 1996;11:58–61
[4] Bel A, Vos PH, Rodrigus PT, et al. High-precision prostate cancer irradiation by clinical application of an offline patient setup verification procedure, using portal imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996; 35:321-32.
[5] Hanley, Joseph, et al. "Measurement of patient positioning errors in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of the prostate." International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics 37.2: 435-444m (1997),..


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Aquifer Delineation inOmuma Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria Using Vertical Electrical Sounding Techniques
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Nwokocha Charles || E.D. Uko || S.A.Ngah
: 10.9790/4861-1002016570     logo

ABSTRACT: Nine Vertical Electrical Resistivity Soundings Were Conducted In OmumaLocal Government Area Of Rivers State, Nigeria Using Schlumberger Configurationto Delineate Groundwater Potential Aquifer Zones.TheData Acquired Were Analyzed And Interpreted With A RESISTSoftware, While The Subsurface Maps Were Generated Using SURFER8software. The Resistivity Range Of The Area Lies Between 25Ωm And 7356.5Ωm And A Maximum Depth Of 70m Was Penetrated. The Quantitative And Qualitative Analysis Delineates 4-5 Distinct Subsurface Geo-Electric Layers And Total Of Six Different Geo-Electric Curves Types Were Obtained;AKQ,KQQ,AK,HQ,KHK, And HK. Theaquifer Thickness And Iso-Resistivitymaps Delineated The Area Of Study Into Grade1,Grade11........

Keywords: Vertical Electrical Sounding, Groundwater, Aquifer, Resistivity, Hydro-Geological

[1]. Abam TSK AndNgah S.A. Evaluation Of Sub-Soil Geo-Electric Properties In A Proposed Power Sub-Station Site At Ebubu, Rivers State, Nigeria. T.K.S. Abam Int. Journal OfEngineering Research And Application 4(9), 2014, 42 – 52.
[2]. Abam TKS AndNgah SA. Geo-Electric Characterization Of A New Development Area: The Case Of Greater Port Harcout, Phase 1, Rivers State,Nigeria. American JournalOf Environmental Engineering . Vol3(5)2014, Pp199-20
[3]. Uchenna U, Alexander I, Opara TT, Emberga FD, Ibim AI, Omenikoro E,Womuru N, Delineation Of Shallow Aquifers Of Umuahia And Environs, Imo River Basin, Nigeria, Using Geo-Sounding Data. Journal Of Water Resource And Pretection,5, 2013, 1097-1109.
[4]. Ngah S.A,Groundwater Resource Development In The Niger Delta: Problems And Prospects. Proceedings Of8th International IAEG Congress, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1990, 1379 – 1386.
[5]. Rajkamal B,The Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Procedure To Delineate Potential Groundwater Aquifers In Guna Madhya Pradesh. Imperial Journal Of Interdisciplinary Research, 2, 2016, 122-134.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Determination of Lithology and Pore-Fluid of A Reservoir In Parts Of Niger Delta Using Well-Log Data
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Onuoha. Chioma || E. D. Uko || I. Tamunobereton-ari
: 10.9790/4861-1002017182     logo

ABSTRACT: Lithology and pore fluid determination was effectively carried out using well logs in an Onshore, Niger Delta field. The aim was to use rock physics and petrophysical analysis to distinguish lithology and fluid and to determine hydrocarbon potentials of the field. A suite of geophysical logs comprising gamma ray,resistivity, neutron and density logs from three wells in 'AGBADA' field were used in the analysis. The results reveal that the average porosities of reservoir sands, ranging from 21% to 39%, are very good to excellent indicating good reservoir quality and reflecting probably well sorted coarse grained sandstone reservoirs. The permeability of the field, ranged from 505 mD to 1435 mD, are excellent. Hydrocarbon saturation is high in all the reservoir sands, ranging from 68% to 98%, with corresponding water saturation from 2% to 32%, this indicates that the proportion......

Keywords: Lithology, Reservoir Characterization, Petrophysical Parameters, Shale Volume

[1] Kupecz, J.A.,Gluyas, J., Bloch,S.(1997).Reservoirqualitypredictioninsandstones And Carbonates, Memoir American Association Of Petroleum Geologies, Tulsa, OK, 311 Pp.

[2] Tuttle, M. L. W., Charpentier, R. R., And Brownfield, M. E. (1999). The Niger Delta Petroleum System: Niger Delta Province, Nigeria, Cameroon, And Equatorial Guinea, Africa. United States Geological Survey, Open‐File Report 99‐50‐H, P. 65.

[3] Short, K.C. And Stauble, J. (1967). Outline Geology Of The Niger Delta. AAPG Bull5: 761–779

[4] Doust, H. And Omatsola, E. (1990). Niger Delta, In J. D. Edwards, And P.A. Santogrossi, Eds. Divergent / Passive Margins Basins: American Association Of Petroleum Geologist Memoir 48, Pp. 201‐238.

[5] Haack, R.C., Sundararaman, P. And Dahl, J. (1997). Niger Delta Petroleum System, In, Extended Abstracts, AAPG/ABGP Hedberg Research Symposium, Petroleum Systems Of The South Atlantic Margin, November 16-19, 1997..


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Effects of Atmospheric Temperature and Wind Speed on Uhf Radio Signal; a Case Study of ESUT Community and Its Environs in Enugu State
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Chima,A.I || Onyia,A. I || Udegbe,S.U
: 10.9790/4861-1002018390     logo

ABSTRACT: Radio Signal Strengths From Automatic Weather Station Signal Strength Meter(AWSSSM) In The Department Of Industrial Physics ESUT, Longitude 7.54˚ And Latitude 6.31˚ Transmitted At 11.7-12.7Ghz Ku Band Signal Which Was Converted To 950-2150mhz Simultaneously With The Meteorological Components (Weather Parameters): Temperature, Pressure, Relative Humidity And Wind Speed And Direction To Ascertain The Impact Of Atmospheric Temperature And Wind Speed On UHF Radio Signals In ESUT Community And Its Environ. We Downloaded Our Data From The AWSSSM And Were Statistically Analyzed. It Was Observed That Temperature Inversion In The Tropospheric Layer Causes A Ducting Effect Which Affects Radio Signals. Consequently, The Speed Of Wind Was........

Keywords: Atmospheric Temperature, Radio Signal, Signal Strength, Ultra High Frequency (UHF).

[1]. Anastasi, A. Falohi, A. Passarella, M. Conti And E. (2004). "Performance Measurements Of Motes Sensor Network" In Proceeding Of The 7thacm International Symposium On Modeling, Analysis And Simulation Of Wireless And Mobile Systems. New York. Ny, Usa.
[2]. Bannister, G. Giorgetti And S. Gupta, (2008). "Effect Of Temperature On Signal Strength, Data Collection And Localization". In Proceeding Of The Fifth Workshop On Embedded Network Sensors.
[3]. Barclay, L.W. (2003). Propagation Of Radio Wave, 2nd Edition. The Institution Of Electrical Engineers, London, United Kingdom.
[4]. Boano, J. Brown, Z. He, U. Roedig And T. Voigt, (2010) "Low Power Radio Communication In Industrial Outdoor Deployment. The Impacts Of Weather Conditions And Atex-Compliance.
[5]. Feynman And Richard P, (2005). The Feynman Lectures On Physics. Isbn 978-6-8053-9065-0.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Study of Relaxation in Polymer Blends Film
Country :  
Authors : Mrs. R. Y. Bakale || Y.G. Bakale
: 10.9790/4861-1002019196     logo

ABSTRACT: Thin films of micro composit polymer PVC-PMMA doped with and cinnamic acid are prepared using isothermal evaporation techanique. Current time characteristics, by application of direct and reverse polarities in succession was continued until conduction current reached stady state. Therelaxation time τ obtained from these plots. The Values of drift mobility "μ‟and density "n‟ of change carriers obtained from theoretical relations. The magnitude of time, found in the present micro composites system, agrees quite well with that reported in a literature. Increase of concentration of dopants adversely affects mobility while favours charge carrier density..

Keywords: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ; Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA);Micro – Composites ; Relaxation time.

[1]. E M Dannemberg, Rubber Chem. Technol48,410(1979)
[2]. A Narayan and H P Singh, Indian J. Pure & Appl. Phys29,814-816 (1991)
[3]. R. Bahri and R K Seth, Indian J.Pure & Appl. Phy .35 104 - 108 (1999)
[4]. F H Abd EI – kedar , W H Osman , H S Ragab, A M Shehap, M S Rizk and M A F Basha, J. Polym Mater21,49-60 (2004)
[5]. P Bahadur and N V Shahtre " Principals of polymer Sciences" 2ndedition 16 (2005)


Researcher can also search IOSR published article contents through

IOSR Xplore