IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Sep. - Oct. - 2016 Volume 8 - Issue 5

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect the heat treatment on the properties of the X (NiO) X- 1 (CdO) Thin film using pulsed laser deposition technique at 732K
Country : Iraq
Authors : Kadhim A. Aadim || suaad khafory || Ghasaq Ali

ABSTRACT: (CdO)1-x(NiO)x thin films have been deposited at annealing temperature (732K) with different concentration of NiO of x=( 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05)Wt% onto glass substrates by using pulsed laser deposition technique Nd-YAG laser with λ =1064nm , energy =500 mJ and number of shots = 500. the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveals that the characteriste deposited(CdO)(NiO)thin films polycrystalline was cubic structure and many peaks (111), (20 0),and (220) with disappear the peak of NiO, The results it was calculated show that the UV emission is at a constant peak position in the spectra.

Keywords:: (CdO)1-x(NiO)x Thin Film; structural properties; pulse laser deposition technique; optical properties and electrical properties

[1]. K.L chopra , "Thin Films phenomena " , Mc Graw Hill Inc, USA , p.2 (1969) .
[2]. Ludmila Ekertove "physics of Thin Films " , plenum press , New York and London , (1977) ,
[3]. W. Robert, M. peter and T. Murray, "thin film technology" Liton Educational publishing, Int. New York, 1968.
[4]. T. J. Couttsand D. L. Yong and X. Li, "characterization of Transparent oxides" 1990.
[5]. Wells, A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-855370-6.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Growth, Spectroscopic, Mechanical and Dielectric Properties of Picric Acid doped Thiourea Single Crystals
Country : India
Authors : S.Radhika

ABSTRACT: Single crystals of pure and picric acid doped thiourea were grown by slow evaporation technique. Single crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction data and it reveals that the crystal belongs to orthorhombic crystal system with space group of Pnma. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were calculated by varying frequencies at different temperatureThemicrohardness test reveals that the crystals possessvery good mechanical strength. Vibration spectrum reveals the symmetries of molecular vibrations

Keywords: Slow evaporation technique, dielectric studies, mechanical strength etc

[1]. K. Sangwal, 'Micromorphology as grown surfaces of crystal' Pro. Crystal Growth.Cha.-19, 189, 1989.
[2]. D.S. Chemla, J. Zyss (Eds.), Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, Academic Press, New York, 1987.
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and Breach, Basel, 1995.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Some Physical Properties of ZnO/SnO2 Thin Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis Technique
Country : Iraq
Authors : Suaadkhafory || Noor Talib || Mahdi HasanSuhail

ABSTRACT: ZnO/SnO2 thin films with different percentage (1:1,1:2,2:1) were deposited on a glass substrate by Spray Pyrolysis technique using solution of zinc acetate ,tin chloride and air as the carrier gas at 400 °C temperature. The structural properties of the composite films are investigated by x-ray diffraction andAFM. The optical spectra of the films were measured in the wavelength range of 300 –1100nm by UV-VIS Spectrometer device.Optical constants such as Absorption coefficient α, refractive index n , extinction coefficient k and dielectric constant were determined from transmittance spectrum in the UV-VIS regions. The films were found to exhibit high transmittance inthe visible regions. The energy band gapof the films were evaluated as 3.85,3.70,3.70,3.85 and 3.60 eV for ZnO pure,SnO2 pure and the percentage (1:1,1:2,2:1) of ZnO:SnO2 respectively.

Keywords: Metal-oxides , Morphological structures,Dopant elements,spray pyrolysis ,Optical properties ,Structural properties .

[1]. .Li Y Q, Yong K, Xiao H M, Ma W J, Zhang G L and Fu SY, Mater. Lett. 64, 1735,2010
[2]. Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma and Y. Segawa, "Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Laser Emission from Self-Assembled ZnOMicrocrystallite Thin Films," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 72, No. 25, pp. 3270-3272, June 1998.
[3]. Y. B. Li, Y. Bando and D. Golberg, "ZnONanoneedles with Tip Surface Perturbations: Excellent Field Emitters," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 84, No. 18, pp. 3603-3605, May 2004.
[4]. S. H. Lee, S. S. Lee, J. J. Choi, J. U. Jeon and K. Ro, "Fabrication of a ZnO Piezoelectric Micro Cantilever with a High-Aspect-Ratio Nano Tip," Microsystem Technologies, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 416-423, June 2005. [5] J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun and Z. Z. Tian, "Grain Size Control and Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO Gas Sensor," Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 66, No. 1-3, pp. 277-279,July 2007.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Validation of Data Files of JENDL-4.0u for Neutronic Calculation of TRIGA Mark-II Reactor through the Investigation of Integral Parameter of Benchmark Lattices TRX and BAPL
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : M.M. Islam || M.M. Haque || S.M.A. ISLAM

ABSTRACT: Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF) can be used for neutronic analysis of thermal reactor such as research reactor. JENDL-4.0u (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) is released by JAEA to read in ENDF-6 format. The aim of this analysis is to validate the nuclear data files of JENDL-4.0u for neutronics calculation of 3-MW TRIGA MARK-II research reactor through the analysis of integral parameters of TRX (Thermal Reactor-one region lattice) and BAPL (Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory-one region lattice) benchmark lattices of thermal reactor..............

Keywords: BAPL, JENDL-4.0u, NJOY99.0, TRIGA MARK-II, TRX and WIMSD-5B

[1] E. Pastreich, S. Butakov and M. Delorme, A survey of the nuclear safety infrastructure in Southeast Asia and prospects for the
future, The Asia Institute Report for the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, May 1, 2010.
[2] S.I. Bhuiyan, M.A.W. Mondal, M.M. Sarker, M. Rahman, M.S. Shadatullah, M.Q. Huda, T.K. Chakrobortty, and M.J.H. Khan,
Criticality and safety parameter studies of a 3-MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor and validation of the generated cross-section
library and computational method, Nuclear Technology, 130(2), 2000, 111-131.
[3] S. Igarasi, T. Nakagawa, Y. Kikuchi, T. Asami, and T. Narita, Japanese evaluated nuclear data library, JENDL-1, JAERI 1261, 1,
1979.
[4] K. Shibata, O. Iwamoto, T. Nakagawa, N. Iwamoto, A. Ichihara, S. Kunieda, S. Chiba, K. Furutaka, N. Otuka, T. Ohsawa, T.
Murata, H. Matsunobu, A. Zukeran, S. Kamada, and J. Katakura, JENDL-4.0: A new library for nuclear science and engineering,
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 48(1), 2011, 1–30.
[5] J.R. Askew, F.J. Fayers, P.B. Kemshell, A general description of the lattice code WIMS, Journal of the British Nuclear Energy
Society, 5 (4),1966, 564.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The astronomical photometric data and its reduction procedure
Country : India
Authors : Gireesh C. Joshi

ABSTRACT: The photometric data reduction procedure is the fundamental step to get the signal information of stellar objects. These signals are collected through the CCD camera; the brief notes have been given about the character and work function of the CCD camera. Here, we are briefly discussing about the reduction procedure of the UBVRI photometric system, which is worldwide utilizing for stellar study from last two or three decades. Moreover, the procedure of standardization has been given for the captured CCD images. Presently, there are several databases/catalogues............

Keywords: Astronomy: photometric methods – database – telescopes – astronomical reduction – statistical analysis

[1]. Albrecht M.A., Brighton A., Herlin T., et al., 1997, in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems VI, ASP Conf. Ser. 125, 333
[2]. Bessell, Michael S., 2000, The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (PASP), 112, 773, 961
[3]. Bonatto, Ch., Bica, E. 2003, A&A, 405, 525
[4]. Bonnarel F., Fernique P., Bienayme O., Egret D., Genova F., LouysM., Ochsenbein F.,Wenger, M. and Bartlett J.G. 1991, CCD astronomy. Construction and use of an astronomical CCD camera, ed. Buil, C. 35
[5]. Buonanno, R. & Iannicola, G., 1989, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 101, 294.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Energy & Mass
Country : India
Authors : Sultan Singh Jain

ABSTRACT: The Energy means Potential Energy in our day today life. Enormous Potential Energy is available in the Gravitation but it hardly of great use, except remarkable use in hydroelectric Plants running through rain water harvesting to filling the dams. The petroleum products, oils, eatables, heat, ocean waves and winds volcano etc are the sources of Potential & alternate energies...........

Keywords: Temperature Coefficient, Kinetic Energy &, E= mC2.

.........


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Co-Dopant on the Structural and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline Zro2 Thin Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis Technique
Country : Iraq
Authors : Saleem Azara Hussain || Adel H. Omran A; lkhayatt || Eqbal Abduljalil Mahdi

ABSTRACT: In this work pure and Cobalt doped ZrO2 thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis on glass substrate at 450◦C .The structure properties have been investigated by using XRD, SEM and AFM. The XRD results show that the prepared films have polycrystalline structure in nature with tetragonal phase. The preferred orientation was along (011) plane, the intensity and the crystallite size nanostructured increased after doping process. The surface morphology SEM of ZrO2 thin film seems relatively homogeneous and plated regularly integrate the granules after doping and the EDX spectra confirm the stoichiometry of the prepared films.............

Keywords: Zirconia ZrO2, Cobalt-doped zirconia, thin film, spray pyrolysis, Atomic force microscopy, Band gaps.

[1]. L. Vergnieres, P. Odier, F. Weiss, C.-E. Bruzek, J. M. Saugrain," Epitaxial thick films by spray pyrolysis for coated conductors", J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.25 (12) ,2951–2954, (2005).
[2]. A. Kuwabara, T. Tohei, T. Yamamoto, and I.Tanaka, "Ab initio lattice dynamics and phase transformations of ZrO2", Phys. Rev. B 71,064301 (2005).
[3]. S. Dankesreiter," Advanced Synthesis of Gold and Zirconia Nanoparticles and their Characterization", Diplomica, Hamburg Verlag Gmb, (2011).
[4]. G. Fadda, L. Colombo, and G. Zanzotto," First-principles study of the structural and elastic properties of zirconia", Physical Review B 79, 214102 ,(2009).
[5]. Uuganbayar Otgonbaatar, Wen Ma, Mostafa Youssef, and Bilge Yildiz," Effect of Niobium on the Defect Chemistry and Oxidation Kinetics of Tetragonal ZrO2", J. Phys. Chem. C, 118, 20122−20131, (2014).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Active Galactic Nuclei Influence the Genesis of Galaxies
Country : United States of America
Authors : Sanjay Sastry

ABSTRACT: Most or all spiral and elliptical galaxies were formed by quasars with supermassive black holes. The genesis of such galaxies occurred when the universe was young, approximately 5 billion years ago. Quasars are extremely bright masses of energy and light. They are high redshift sources of electromagnetic radiation. The quasar and the supermassive black hole form active galactic nuclei (AGN). The combination of quasars and its black hole engine formed large accretion disks as matter from the quasar. A considerable amount of matter from the accretion disk escaped the gravitational pull from the event horizon of the black hole. This matter led to the formation of stars, planets, asteroids, etc., after the quasar burned out. These eventually become spiral and elliptical galaxies.

[1]. Greenstein, Jesse L.: Schmidt, Maarten (1964). "The Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources 3C 48 and 3C 273". The Astrophysical Journal 140:1. Bibcode:1964ApJ…140….1G. doi:10.1086/147889.
[2]. Maarten Schmidt, 3C273: a star-like object with large red-shift." (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1963Natur.197.1040S&db_key=AST&data_type=HTML&formate=&high=4521318e0232118)Nature. 197:1040. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
[3]. ↑Jodrell Bank Observatory, The MKI and the discovery of Quasars.(http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/public/story/mk1quasars.html) Retrieved September 28, 2007.
[4]. Schmidt Maarten (1963). "3C 273: a star-like object with red-shift. Nature 197 (4872): 1040-1040. Bibcode: 1963Natur.197.1040S. doi:10.1038/1971040a0.
[5]. S. Chandrasekhar (1964). "The Dynamic Instability of Gaseous Masses Approaching the Schwarzschild Limit in General Relativity". Astrophysical Journal140 (2): 417-433. Bibcode:1964ApJ…140..417C.doi:10.1086/147938.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Dielectric constant and Dielectric loss tangent for Rochelle Salt ferroelectric crystal
Country : India
Authors : Balkrishna Kandpal || Trilok Chandra Upadhyay

ABSTRACT:The Expression for dielectric susceptibility, dielectric constant, Curie-Weiss constant and dielectric loss tangent for Rochelle Salt ferroelectric crystal calculated by using Green Function the dielectric susceptibility, dielectric constant, Curie-Weiss constant and dielectric loss tangent have been calculated for different temperatures for ferroelectric Rochelle Salt crystal. With the help of these values the values of dielectric constant and loss tangent for Rochelle Salt crystal for different temperatures have been calculated. The calculated values of dielectric constant and loss tangent for Rochelle salt crystal have been shown in Tables and in figures. The values obtained have been compared with experimental values of Habltzul 15 and Sandy & Jones 5. Chaudhuri et al's7 calculated values have also been compared.

Keywords: Dielectric Susceptibility, Dielectric Constant, Curie-Weiss Constant, Dielectric Loss Tangent

[1]. J. Valasek, Phys. Rev. 17, 475 (1921), 9, 478 (1948), 22, 566 (1924).
[2]. H. Muller, Phys. Rev. 47, 175 (1935), 57, 829 (1940).
[3]. W. P. Mason, Phys. Rev. 72, 1 (1957)
[4]. T. Mitsui, Phys. Rev. 111, 1259 (1958).
[5]. F. Sandy & R.V. Jones, Phys. Rev. 168, 481 (1968)..


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluation of radiation dose rates due to calibration and interrogation neutron sources while using the AWCC in horizontal configuration
Country : Egypt
Authors : W. El-Gammal

ABSTRACT: The Active Well Neutron Coincidence Counter (AWCC) is a device that can be used for nuclear safeguards purposes to measure different types of Nuclear Material (NM) in different modes. The detector uses neutron sources either for calibration (252Cf) or for interrogation of NM (AmLi). The radiation dose due to such sources should be estimated for safety reasons. In this work radiation dose due to neutron sources is estimated using the MCNP code. The results could be taken into consideration while measuring NM with the AWCC in open horizontal configuration.

Keywords: AWCC, Monte Carlo, Radiation Dose, Safeguards..

[1]. H.O. Menlove, Description and operation manual for the active well coincidence counter, LA-7823-M, Los Alamos, 1979.
[2]. W. El-Gammal, W.I. Zidan, E. Elhakim, A proposed semi-empirical method for 235U mass calibration of the active-well neutron coincidence counter, NIMA, 565 (2006) 731–741
[3]. T.D. Reilly, N. Ensslin, H.A. Smith Jr., S. Kreiner, Passive nondestructive assay of nuclear materials, NUREG/CR-5550, LAUR-90-732, Los Alamos National Laboratory, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1991.
[4]. M.S. Krick, H.O. Menlove, J. Zick, P. Ikonomou, Measurement of enriched uranium and uranium-aluminum fuel materials with the AWCC, LA-10382-MS, Los Alamos, 1985
[5]. T.R. Wenz, H.O. Menlove, G. Walton, J. Baca, Design and calibration of the AWCC for measuring uranium hexafluoride, LA-12992, Los Alamos, 1995.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Synthesis, Characterization AC Electrical Properties of Cd Doped with Nano Nickel Ferrite by Sol -Gel
Country : Iraq
Authors : Malik Jabbar || Farah T.M.Noori || Abdulhadi.Kadhim

ABSTRACT: Cadmium doping with nickel ferrite with general formula CdxNi1-xFe2O4 (x =0.0,0.1,0.3,0.5 and 0.7) has been prepared by using Sol-Gel method. The X-ray spectra shown indicate formationof crystalline cubic spinal phase ferrite, with appearance of smalls amount of secondary phases. The lattice parameter results were 8.38 0A - 8.4460A. Surface morphology features were studied by AFM and SEM. The dielectric measurement of the samples at room temperature studied in the frequency range 10 Hz to 5MHz shows dispersion in the low frequency region and remains constant at high frequency region. However, the small polar on hoping type of conduction mechanism was inferred from the linear increase of ACconductivity. It is also found that dielectric constant increases with cadmium content increasing while it decreases with decrease of cadmium content.

[1]. Q. Song, Q. Zhang and Z. John, Shape Control and Associated Magnetic Properties of Spinel Cobalt Ferrite Nanocrystals". Journal of theAmerican Chemical Society ,126, 2004, 6164-6168.
[2]. S. E. Shirsath, B. G. Toksha and K. M. Jadhav,Structural and Magnetic Properties of In3+Substituted NiFe2O4, J. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 117(1), 2009,163-168.
[3]. M. Mozaffari, J. Amighian, E. Darsheshdar, Magnetic and structural studies of Nickel – substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, synthesizedby sol-gel method' Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic materials, 350, 2014,19-22.
[4]. A. Goldman, Modern Ferrite Technology, (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1990).
[5]. S. ManjuraHoque, Md. Amanullah Choudhury and Md.Fakhrul Islam, Characterization of Ni-Cu Mixed SpinelFerrite, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials,251(3), 2002, 292-303..


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