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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||An Analysis Of Risk Factors Among Urban Fish Famers In Kaduna, Kaduna State|
|Authors||:||Abayomi E, **Balogun O.S., *Omonona B.T , *Yusuf S.A|
ABSTRACT:The risk factors associated with fish production were examined in Kaduna metropolis of Nigeria. A multi stage sampling method was used in sampling a total of 240 respondents with the aid of structured questionnaires which were administered to fish farmers. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Bayesian decision models. The result shows that farmers in the study area have an average age of about 37.8 years and an average household size of about 5 people. An average sampled fish farmer in the study area had a minimum of secondary education. The three major risk factors identified in the study area includes diseased/parasites, flooding resulting from excessive rain and pilfering with posterior probabilities of occurrence of 0.34, 0.46 and 0.20 respectively. it is recommended that farmers should stock disease resistant varieties ,put in place adequate disease preventive measures, arrange for prompt veterinary attention when ever there is outbreak of diseases and also ensure good security around their farms.
Key words: Risk factors, Fish farming, urban agriculture.
Ogun and Oyo States held at OGADEP Abeokuta on 27th July.pg 3-5
 Adeogun O.A, Adereti F.O and Opele A.I, (2006). Factors Affecting Adoption of Fisheries Innovations by Artisan Fishermen in
costal Areas of Ogun State. Journal of Applied Science Research, 2(11)pg 966-971
 Afolabi, J.A. and Fagbenro, O.A. (1998) Credit financing of coastal artisanal aquaculture in Nigeria pp.12-14, in A.Eide & T.
Vassdal (eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries, Economics and Trade.
International Institute of Fisheries, Economics and Trade, Tromso, Norway.
 Ahmed B. (2006). Aquaculture for a sustainable development aquaculture handbook Vol 2 page 3-5
 Balogun,O.S. Agbomaka,F.I and Akinyemi,M (2009). Research Productivity and Efficiency Among Urban Fish Farmers
in Abuja Metropolis. Proceedings of 14th annual conference of animal science association of Nigeria (ASAN) pp 532-536.
 Fagbenro, O.A. (1987) Fish farming in concrete-block tanks in Nigeria- a new fishery business.
 Food and Agricultural organization FAO (2002) development report. .Journal of International Food Agricultural development No. 6
 Hoel, P.G. (1976), Elementary statistics. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York
 Hurley T.M (2010). A review of agricultural production risk in the developing world. Working paper, Harvest choice . Internet ;
www. Harvest choice .org
 Imoudu, P.B. (1999) Sustainable agriculture and poverty alleviation: reality or illusion. 17th Inaugural Lecture delivered at the
Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria on October 12, 1999. 45pp
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ABSTRACT:This study was carried out to determine the incidence of mastitis in lactating she-camel in North Kordofan State, Sudan. Furthermore, the causative bacterial agents were identified. Sixty lactating she-camels were examined clinically for mastitis. Thereafter milk samples (n= 216 samples) were collected from each quarter of the udders of the she-camels. The samples were subjected to white side test (WST), somatic cell count test (SCC) and bacteriological examination. The results of the clinical examination revealed that the incidence of mastitis was 25% (n=15 she-camels) while upon the WST and SCC were15% (n= 9 she-camels) and 13.33% (n= 8 she-camels), respectively. However, the incidence of mastitis (41.66%) was significantly high (p<0.001) when the milk samples were bacteriological examined (n=25 she-camel).The bacterial examination revealed that the predominant cause is Staphylococcus spp. (80.30%) followed by Bacillus spp. (9.09%), Pasteurella spp. (6.06%), Corynebacteria spp. (3.03%), and Streptococcus spp. (1.52). It is concluded that the mastitis prevails in lactating she-camels in North Kordofan State and the most predominant cause of mastitis are Staphylococcus species. Mastitis emerges as a serious hazard and problem that affect a resource essential for many nomadic tribes that lives in the desert and semi desert areas. A national program to diagnose and compact this disease should be launched.
Keywords: she-camel; mastitis; WST; SCC
MSC, Freie Universität Berlin and Addis Ababa University.
 Abdel Gadir, A. E., Hildebrandt, G., Kleer, J. N., Molla, B., Kyule, M., Baumann, M. P., (2006): Comparison of California Mastitis
Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and bacteriological examinations for detection of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) mastitis in
Ethiopia. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 119:45-49.
 Abdurahman, O. S. H., Aga, H., Abbas, N.,Astom, G., (1995): Relation between udder infection and somatic cells in Camelus
dromedarius milk. Acta Vet. Scand., 63(4): 424-431.
 Amel, M. A., (2003): Bacteria and fungi isolated from she-camel mastitis in the Red Sea Area of the Sudan. Thesis MSc, University
of Khartoum, Sudan.
 Barrow, G. I., Feltham, R. K. A., (1993): Crown and steel's manual for identification of medical bacteria. 3rd ed. Cambridge
 Bekele, T.,Mulla, B., (2001): Mastitis in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar region, north-east Ethiopia. Berlin Münch.
Tierärztl. Wochenschr, 114(5-6): 169-172.
 Cowan, S. J., Steel, K. J., (1985) Manual for identification of Medical bacteria 2nd ed. London, Cambridge University Press.
 Elayis, A. A., (2004): Studies on staphylococci associated with bovine mastitis in KhartoumState. Sudan. Thesis MSc, University of
 Fthenakis, G. C., Jones, J. E. T., (1990): Subclinical mastitis and milk loss. Brit. Vet. J. 146:43.
 Hafez, A. M.,Fazig, S. A., El Amrousi, S.,Ramadan, R. O., (1987): Studies on mastitis on farm animals in Al Hassa: I-Analytical
studies. Assoc. Vet. Med. J., 19(37): 140-145.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Weed Biology and Ecology: - A Key to Successful Weed Management
|Authors||:||Talaka, A and Rajab, Y.S|
ABSTRACT: Weed biology is related to the study of weeds in relation to their geographical distribution, habitat, growth, population dynamics and communities. On the other hand, ecology is the interrelationship between organisms and their environment. Weed ecology is thus concerned with growth characteristics and adaptations that enable weeds to survive changes in the environment. The environment includes climatic, edaphic and biotic factors and it determines the distribution, prevalence, competing ability, behavior and survival of the weeds. Development of an appropriate and effective weed management program is dependent on the sound knowledge of weed biology and ecology i.e. a thorough knowledge regarding propagation, dispersal, behavior, survival and persistence behavior of weeds. Man plays an important role in changing the environment by altering the crop husbandry practices and by managing weed-free mono crop or multi crop cultures. Mono crop culturesutilize moisture, nutrients and light available for plant growth in a way different from multi crop cultures and this influences the ecological requirements for weed growth, behavior, competition and survival. The various aspects related to weed biology and ecology are discuss in this paper and the importance of weed biology in weed control have been reviewed in the paper. The discussion on weed biology may sometime overlap weed ecology.
Key Words: Weed, biology, ecology, management and control.
symposium on integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Vol. 1: pp. 57-66. Department of Agronomy, CCS, HAU,
Hissar, Haryana, India.
 Black, C.L, Chen, T.M. and Brown, R.H. (1969). Biochemical basis for plant competition. Weed Sci. 17: 338-344.
 Chiska, H. (1977). Weed damage to crops: yield loss due to weed competition (eds).Integrated control of weeds. Uni. Press of Tokyo, Tokyo, pp: 1-16.
 Dekker, J. (1997).Weed diversity and weed management. Weed Sci. 45: 357-363.
 Fenner, M. (1985). Seed ecology (chapter 4). Chapman hall, New York, NY, pp. 87-104.
 Gill, H.S, Bhatia, R.K, Sandhu, K.S. and Mehra, S.P. (1983).Ecological studies on Cyperus rotundus L. Tropical ecology. 24: 292-
 Harper, J.L. (1977). Population Biology of Plants. Academic press, San Diago, C.A, pp. 892.
 Isikawa, S. and Fujii, T. (1961). Photo control and temperature dependence of germination of Rumex seeds. Plant and cell physiology. 2: 51-62.
 Jayakumar, R. and Jagannthan, R. (2003). Weed science principles. Kalyani publishers, New Delhi, India. Pp 15-24.
 Jensen, L.L. (1971). Morphology and photoperiodic responses of yellow sedge. Weed Sci. 19: 210-219.
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ABSTRACT:The growth and yield performances of groundnut in Sole cropping and intercropped with Okra and maize was investigated in field trial at the Thinker's Corner Emene-Nike, Enugu State. The experiment was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates which consisted of Groundnut sole cropping (SG). Groundnut intercropped with Okra (GO), Groundnut intercropped with maize (GM), Groundnut, Maize, Okra intercropped (GMO). Growth and yield parameters such as height, branches, leaflets, flowering and weight of pods (Fruits) were assessed. The result obtained indicated that there were no significant differences (P=0.05) among the treatments in height, branches and leaflets. The Fruits weight and days to 50% flowering showed significant differences among the treatments. Groundnut on Sole cropping yield better with a Value 28.75gm and performed competitively better than the one intercropped with either Okra or maize as well as the one intercropped with maize and Okra in the parameters measured. Groundnut intercropped with Okra however, performed relatively better than the Groundnut/Maize intercrop and Groundnut/Maize/Okra intercrop. While Groundnut intercropped with Maize and Okra performed poorly in all the parameters assessed in this study.
Key words: Sole cropping, Inter cropping, Groundnut, Okra, Maize.
 Addo-Quaye, A. A. Darkwa, A. A. and Ochoo, G. K. (2011) Growth analysis of compound crops in a Maize-Soybean intercropping
system as affected by time of planting and spatial arrangement. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 6(6): 34-44.
 Akobundu 1. 0 (1987). Weed Science in the tropics: Principles and Practices. John willy and Sons, Chichester PP439-448.
 Antoir, U. M. (2005). Studies on the influence of certain tropical legumes on Soil fertility and crop yields. Plant and Soil Science, 10:
 Assefa, G. and Ledin, I. (2001). Effect of Variety, Soil type and fertilizer on the establishment, growth, forage yield, quality and
Voluntary intake by cattle of oats and vetches cultivated in pure stands and mixtures. Animal feed Sci. and Tech. 92: 95-111.
 Atilola, N. C. P (2007). Effect of interplant Groundnut with Maize on soil organic carbon and yield of Groundnut. Soil Fertility
Research. 16: 81-86.
 Bantru, L. A. (2007). Maintains Soil Fertility through cover-cropping. Journal of sustainable Agriculture, 4(1): 81-85.
 Caballero, R. Goicoechea, E. L. and Hernaiz, P. J. (1995). Forage yield and quality of common vetch and oat Sown at Varying
Seeding ratios and seeding rates of common vetch. Field Crops Res. 41: 135-140.
 Catin, A. O. (2004). Tropical legumes: A viable practical option for soil fertility maintenance in the tropics, Advanced Journal of Soil Science, 16: 171-177
 Encyclopedia of Agricultural Science (1994) Vol. 3 Academic press.
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ABSTRACT: Ruminant milk composition is directly affected by diet, which can interfere in rumen fermentation
and in the availability of precursors for the synthesis of fat, protein and lactose. This study evaluated the effect
of the inclusion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, milk production and
composition of Bergamácia ewes. Sixteen lactating ewes were divided into four 4x4 Latin squares. The
experimental diets consisted of protein concentrate and alfalfa hay. Concentrate:forage ratios varied according
to treatment, to achieve the required levels of NDF: (T1) 23%, (T2) 32%, (T3) 41% and (T4) 50% NDF in total
ration. The ewes were milked twice a day in a milking machine. Milk samples were collected for two days in
each sub-period to determinate the composition by infrared method. There was a linear effect (P<0.01) in milk
production and average daily production efficiency (P<0.02) with the inclusion of fiber in the diet. A quadratic
effect was observed for DMI (1.69, 1.71, 1.58 and 1.32 kilograms). Increasing fiber in the diet reduced milk
production without altering its composition. The maximum intake was achieved at 37.8% NDF in the ration.
Keywords - dry matter intake; lactation; Neutral Detergent Fibre; efficiency
(Eds.), Nutrição de ruminantes. (FUNEP, Jaboticabal, 2006) 182-228.
 S. Carvalho, M.T. Rodrigues, R.H. Branco. Consumo de nutrientes, produção e composição do leite de cabras Alpinas alimentadas
com dietas contendo diferentes teores de fibra. Rev. Bras. Zootecn., 35, 2006, 1153-1161.
 B.P. Lammers, D.R. Buckmaster and A.J. Heinrichs. A simple method for the analysis of particle sizes of forage and total mixed
rations. J. Dairy Sci., 79, 1996, 922- 928.
 S.T. Woodford and M.R. Murphy. Effect of forage physical form on chewing activity, dry matter intake, and rumen function of dairy cows in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci., 71, 1988, 674-686.
 J.M. Forbes. Voluntary feed intake, in: Dijkstra, J., Forbes, J.M., France, J. (Eds.), Quantitative aspects of ruminant digestion and
metabolism, 2 (CABI Publishing, Cambridge,2007) 13-47.
 NRC (National Research Council), Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats Cervids and New World Camelids,
(National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2007).
 D.J. Silva and A.C. Queiroz, Análise de Alimentos: Métodos Químicos e Biológicos (third Ed. UFV: Viçosa, 2002).
 P.J. Van Soest, J.B. Robertson and B.A. Lewis. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in
relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 1991, 3583-3597.
 C.J. Sniffen, J.D. O'connor and P.J. Van Soest. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. J. Anim. Sci. 70, 1992, 3562-3577.
 D. R. Mertens. Creating a system for meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80, 1997, 1463-1481.
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ABSTRACT:An intercropping experiment of sorghum/cowpea intercrops was carried out in summer season of 2009 and 2010 at Agricultural and Research Station, College of Food Science and Agriculture, King Saud University. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the growth and yield potential of sorghum/cowpea intercrops over sole cropping pattern. The experiments included 18 treatments three sorghum varieties, i.e., two semi dwarfs (Pioneer and S-1007) and a tall one local variety (Shahlaa), theses varieties were planted in two cropping patterns as solid culture at the densities of 200, 300 and 400 103 plants/hectare for semi dwarfs varieties, whereas tall variety at 160,240 and 320 103 plants/hectare. These densities for the three varieties are equal to 100, 150 and 200 % of the solid recommended culture .The intercropping was alternating two rows of grain sorghum with other rows of cowpea (2 & 2) pattern. The data obtained indicated that sorghum plants, when intercropped with cowpea, exhibited greater potentiality and recorded higher values of most of the studied criteria viz., plant height, number of leaves per plant, stem diameter, leaf area, dry matter accumulation and grain yield /plant .Grain yield per hectare was lower in intercropping pattern than solid pattern. The increase in grain yield per plant and plant density could not compensate the decrease of the area occupied by the crop under solid culture.
Key words: sorghum, cowpea, intercropping, variety, cropping pattern.
(Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso. African Journal of
Agricultural Research Vol. 6(4), pp. 882-891.
 Aliyu, B.S. and A.M. Emechebe. (2006): Effect of Intra- and inter-row mixing of sorghum with two varieties of cowpea on host crop
yield in a Striga hermonthica infested field. African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 1 (2), pp. 024-026, September 2006.
Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR.
 American Public Health Association (1992): Standard Methods for Examination of Water and wastewater, 18th ed., AWWA, WPCF, NY, Washington.
 Ashour, N. I; Selim, M. M; Abd El-Lateef, E.M and T. G. Behairy. (1993): Effect of variety, cropping pattern and plant density on
growth and yield of grain sorghum/cowpea intercrops .I. Grain Sorghum, Bull.NRC, Egypt, Vol. 18, No.4, pp 305-315.
 Bhupinder, S; Kalidindi, U; Singh, B and K, Usha. (2003): Nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation of cowpea genotypes as
affected by fertilizer nitrogen. J Plant Nutr 26 (2): 463-473.
 But, R. (2004): Soil Survey Laboratory Manual Report No.42 USDA, National Resources Conservation Service. Washington. No.4-
 Cottenie, A. M; Verlo, L.; Kjekens, M and R. Camerlynch. (1982): Chemical Analysis of Plant and Soil. Laboratory of Analytical
Agro chemistry. State Univ. Gent, Belgium. 42: 80-284.
 Craufard, P. Q. (2000): Effect of plant density on the yield of sorghum-cowpea and Pearl millet-Cowpea intercrops in northern
Nigeria. Expt. Agric. 36: 379-395.
 Carruthers, K.; B. Prithiviraj ; Q. Fe, D. Cloutier; R. C. Martin and D.L. Smith. (2000): Intercropping corn with soybean, Iupine and
forage yield component responses. Eur.J.Agron. 12:103-115.
 Gomez, K.A. and A. Gomez. (1984): Statistical Procedure for Agricultural
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ABSTRACT: Nigeria is a leading producer of cowpea. However, average yield as obtained by local farmers is far below the yield capacity of the crop. Some of the reasons for this low yield could be attributed to cultivation of low yielding varieties and lack of optimum spacing of specific varieties. Field experiments were conducted during the 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola (9010'N, 11014'E and 158,5 above sea level), to evaluate the effects of inter-row spacing on some selected cowpea varieties. The experiment consisted of three row spacing (45 x 25cm, 60 x 25cm and 75 x 25cm) three varieties (IT89KD-288, IT89KD- 391 and IT97K-499-35), and were replicated three times with plot size of 4m x 3m. Data collected include number of pods per plant, pod length and pod weight, number seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, 1000 seed weight, seed yield per plot. The result showed that increasing spacing from 45cm x 35cm to 75cm x 25cm significantly increased number of pods per plant from 12.77 to 15.74 in both 2009 and 2010 rainy seasons. Similarly, number of seeds per pod increased from 10.91 to 12.74. On the other hand, seed yield per plot was higher in spacing of 45cm x 25cm with 1227.9 kg/ha. With respect to the varieties, IT89KD -391 had higher seed yield of 1240.54 kg/ha. Yield increased with decrease in row spacing and hence it is suggested that closer spacing of 45cm x 25cm should be adopted for the erect varieties IT89KD-391 and IT97K-499-35 in the studied area.
Keywords: Cowpea, savannah, Yield
condition of natural infestation by the parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides. International journal of Pest Management 54(3): 189 – 195.
 Mortimore, M.J; B.B Singh, F. Haris and S.F blade. (1997). Cowpea in Traditional cropping system (Eds B.B Singh; D.R
Mohan Raji; K.E Dashiell and L.E.N Jackai). Advances in Cowpea Research. Co-publication of IITA/JIRCAS, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.
 Rachie, K. O. (1985). Introduction. (Eds Singh, S.R and K.O Rachie). Cowpea Research, production and utilization. John Wiley
and sons, New York. PP xxi – xxv.
 Akande, S.R. and Balogun, M.O. (2009). Multi-locational evaluation of cowpea grain yield and other reproductive characters in the
forest and southern guinea savanna agro-ecologies of Nigeria. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food
Chemistry. 8 (7). pp526-533
 ADADP (Adamawa Agricultural Development Programme (1996). Crop Production Recommendation for Adamawa State,
Adamawa Agricultural Development Programme, Yola, Nigeria.
 Onwueme, I.C and T.D Sinha. (1991). Field Crop Production in Tropical Africa. Technical centre for Agriculture and Rural
Cooperation, Wageningen, Netherlands PP 297 – 301
 Onwueme, I.C and T.D Sinha. (1991). Field crop production in Tropical Africa. Technical centre for Agriculture and Rural
Cooperation, Wageningen, Netherlands PP 297 – 301
 Gomez, K.A and A.A. Gomez (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd Edition, New York, John Wiley and
 Ndiaga, C., 2000. Genotype x Row Spacing and Environment interaction of cowpea in semi- arid zones. African Crop Science
Journal, 9(2): 359-367. Bambey, Senegal.
 Rowland, J. R. J. (1993). Dry land farming systems in Africa. Macmillan press limited. P271– 273.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of row spacing on growth and yield of Sesame (Sesamum indicum l.) in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Jakusko, B.B.*, Usman, B.D., Mustapha A.B.|
ABSTRACT: Sesame or Beniseed (Sesamum indicum L.) is cultivated in almost all the tropical and subtropical countries of Asia and Africa. However, low yield is obtained as results of poor cultural practices among others discourage growers. Field experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of row spacing on the growth and yield of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). The field trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 rainy seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. The treatments consisted of three row spacing (60 x 15cm, 60 x 10cm and 75 x 10cm) which was laid out in a split plot design replicated three times with plot size 3m x 2m. Parameters measured include length of capsule, number of capsule per plant, seed yield per plot, 1000 –seed weight among others. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were separated using least significant difference (LSD). The result revealed that there were significant effect of spacing on the number of seed per capsule, capsule per plant and length of capsule as well as 1000 seed weight and yield per hectare in both seasons. From the findings of this study, it is suggested that 75 x 10cm spacing should be adopted in Yola.
Key words: Row spacing, seed yield, sesame, yield components.
Nigeria Agricultural Journal 33:76-82.
 Alegbejo, M.D., Iwo, G.A., Abo, M.E. & A.A. Idowu (2003). Sesame: a potential industrial and export oil seed crop in Nigeria.
Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 23(1):59-76.
 Evans, R.C, & B.T. Kang (1978). The quantitative analysis of plant growth.Blackwell's Scientific Publication, London pp135-137.
 Sajo, A.A. Okunsanya, B.A.O. Jada, A.Y., and D. Bello (2002). Effect of plant spacing on the growth and yield of
cowpea in Yola, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, held at
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, October, 15th -19, 2002.
 Youdeowei, A. (1986). Introduction to Tropical Agriculture. Anthony, Y., F.O.C. Ezedinma and C.O Ochapa (eds)
Longman Limited, London.
 Olowe, V.I.O & L.D. Busari (1994). Appropriate plant population and spacing of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in the SGS of
Nigeria. Tropical Oils Seed Journal 2:18-27.
 Adeyemo, M.O., Ojo, A.A. & D.T. Gungula (1992). Effect of plant population density on agronomic traits and seed yield of
sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in the southern guinea savannah environment. Tropical Oilseed Journal 1992, 135 145.
 Anonymous (1996). Crop Production Recommendations for Adamawa State, ADADP, Yola, Nigeria.
 Gomez, K.A. Gomez, A.A. (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research,2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons, New York,
 Anonymous (2002). Overview of the Nigeria Sesame industry. Prepared for the United StatesAgencyforInternational Development
(USAID)/Nigeria. Chemonic International Inc., Washington DC, USA pp34.
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ABSTRACT: No significant economic breakthrough is possible in a labour-surplus economy like India without transformation of its agricultural sector. The transformation should take place in two very important factors which are quite interdependent e.g. technological and institutional. These two being interdependent, a deliberate change in either of them independently will not bring forth any lasting effect on agricultural productivity. Accordingly, simultaneous change has to be introduced both in the prevailing technology and reforms in different institutional factors operating in the economy for the purpose of rapid agricultural growth. In this process technological change, which is embodied in capital and knowledge inputs, would play a major role. Moreover, irrigation, fertilizer and high yielding varieties are the most important factors that emanate the technological change and have major influence on the productivity of land. In this paper we try to examine the issues related to land size, irrigation facilities, HYV seeds and expenses on modern implements including tractorisation etc. among the factors for promoting cropping intensity which are the strongest force in promoting cropping intensity.
Key Words: Productivity, Cropping-intensity, Certain-irrigated area, Gross cropped area, Chemical fertilizer,
 Singh, J. and Dhillon, S. S.(2004): "Agricultural Geography", Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.New Delhi.
 V. Mathur.(2005): "WTO and Indian Agriculture", New Century Publications, New Delhi.
 Raychaudhuri, A. and Sarkar, D.(1996): "Economy of West Bengal", Problems and Prospects, Allied Publishers Ltd., Jadavpur
 Rudra, A. (1975): "Loans as a part of Agrarian Relations", Some Results of a Preliminary Survey in West Bengal , Economic and
Political Weekly,July 12.
 Rehaman, H. (2003): "Energy Use in Agricultural Productivity", Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi.
 Kapila,U.(1998): "Indian Economy since Independence", Academic Foundation, New Delhi.
 Datt, R. and Sundharam, K.P.M.(2006): "Indian Economy",S. Chand and Company Ltd.
 Misra, S.K. and Puri, V.K. (2003): "Indian Economy", Himalya Publishing House.,"Kalyani Publiers, New Delhi.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Laser treatment may enhance growth and resistance to fungal infection of hard wheat seeds|
|Authors||:||Yasemin Z.Rassam, Firdaws A.Al .Mashhadani, Amange F.Boya|
ABSTRACT: The effect of Hard wheat (Triticum durum ) seeds exposer to visible light with = 632nm, 650nm and 532nm produced from He-Ne ,Diode and SHG Nd-YAG lasers respectively on germination , early growth and resistance to fungal infections had been studied under laboratory conditions. He-Ne & diode laser enhanced the germination percentage of wheat cultivars after two days a maximum of 95% & 93% after irradiation respectively for 5 minutes in respect to control, with the beginning to infection with fungus in both irradiated and non irradiated seeds, SHG Nd-YAG laser significantly enhanced the germination percentage of wheat after 3 days to reach maximum of 93% after irradiation .Seeds irradiated with SHG Nd-YAG laser ,no fungi infection was recorded ,while seeds irradiated by the two other types show highly infection especially after 3 days ,and the petri plates which added to them antifungal agent show significant increase in infection with and without irradiation. From these results, we concluded that SHG Nd-YAG laser Irradiation could be an alternative method to control seed infection by fungi of hard wheat seeds.
Keywords: Laser radiation, hard wheat, fungal infection, generation, SHG Nd-YAG.
Science and Technology ,34(2),2006,349-353.
 Vasilevski G. Perspectives of the Application of Biophysical Methods in Sustainable Agriculture.BULG.J.PLANT
 Aladjadjiyan A.The Use of Physical Methods for Plant Growth Stimulation in Bulgaria.Journal of Central European Agriculture
 Injushin M,V.,Expertnes of bioenergetic structure-horizo of new opinion Voprosi Biogoloniki,Proceedings of papers,1990,3-
 Raven ,Peter H.,Ray F.Evert,Susan E.Eichhorn(2005).Biology of plants,7th Edition .(New York:W.H.Freeman and Company
 Muszynski S.,and Gladyszewska B.Representation of He-Ne laser irradiation effect on radish seeds with selected germination
 Jiang, X.L., A preliminary experimental report on killing pests by laser. (Liangsh; zhuzang Hubifood school, wuhan, china. 4,
 Dinoev St.,Antonov M.,Stoyanov T.,Gerogieva Chr. Spectral impact of low-power laser radiation on wheat and maize
parameters.Bulgarian Academy of Sciences ,2004,54.
 Shinomura T. Phytochrome regulation of seed germination. J. Plant Res., 110(1),1997, 151-161.
 Hartmann K.M. and Mollwo A, The action spectrum for maximal photosensitivity of germination. Natur wissenschaften, 87,
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Allelopathic potential of some crop plant species on bread Wheat Triticum aestivum Using Equal compartment Agar Method.|
|Authors||:||Kawa Abdulkareem Ali|
ABSTRACT: This experiment was designed to study the allelopathic effect of durum wheat Triticum durum variety Symmit, Barley Hordeum vulgare variety Acsad 14 and Oat Avena sativa variety Narimski on bread wheat Triticum aestivum variety Aras in mixed culture using Equal Agar Compartment Method to exclude any competition effect. Results indicated the significant effect of root exudates of the three studies crop plants that affect the elongation and dry weight of Bread wheat variety Aras seedlings when compared to pure stand culture in such a way that durum wheat caused lowest radical length while Oat crop root exudates minimized all recorded data. It was obvious that allelochemicals from studied crop seedlings root exudates caused the reduction in the recorded data of bread wheat seedlings under no-competition and no-nutrient environment that was created in the Equal Agar Compartment Method. Keywords : – Allelopathy, Phytotoxicity, allelochemicals..
 Keedy, A. Paul. (1989). Population and Community Biology -Competition. Chapman & Hill . New york. USA.
 Ismail, B. K. (2006). Effect of water stress on growth, yield, and quality characteristics of eight bread wheat cultivars. MSc. Thesis. College of Science .University of Salahadin. Iraq.
 Marof, S. M. (2007). Competititive Interference Between Triticale x Triticosecale rimpaui Wittmac and Wheat Triticum spp . L. under two different environmental conditions. Ph D. Dissertation. College of Agriculture .University of Salahadin
 Khalaf, S. Ahmed. (2010). Principles of Field Crops. Dohuk University Publishing's. Dohuk.Iraq.
 Al-ali, Aziz. (1980). Guide of agricultural pest control. Agricultural ministry. Institute of plant protection.
 Wu,H., T.Haig., J.Prately., D.Lemerle., and M.An. (2002). Biochemical Basis for Wheat Seedling Allelopathy on the Suppression of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) . Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry .50: 4567-4571.
 Seal, An. J. E. Pratley. (2010). The Specificity of allelopathy in Rice ( Oryza sativa). Journal of European weed Research Society weed research .50: 303-311.
 Wu, H., J. Prately., D.Lemerle., and T. Haig. (1999). Crop cultivars with allelopathic capability. Weed Research. 39: 171-180.
 Belz, G. Regina., and Karl. Hurle. (2004). A Noval Laboratory Screening Bioassay for Crop seedling Allelopathy. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 30. (1): 175-198.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Serological assays and PCR for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in an ostrich farm at Ismailia Province, Egypt|
|Authors||:||El-Madawy S R ; Metawea F Y|
ABSTRACT:One hundred and twenty serum samples from ostriches (Struthio camelus) in a commercial farm in Egypt were tested for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies using ELISA test (IgM and IgG ) and Modified agglutination test (MAT). Five out of 120 birds (4.2%) were found positive to IgM enzyme immunoassay and 11 birds (9.2%) were IgG enzyme immunoassay positive. Modified agglutination test detected IgG in 15 birds (12.5%). PCR amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the blood of birds was recorded in 9 birds (7.5%). The Cases were categorized into acute and chronic cases depending on the result of blood-PCR and serological test where the positive cases for IgG were the most frequent (6.7%). The tissues of five dead birds tested by PCR assay showed the amplification of DNA fragment of T...........
Key word: Toxoplasma, Ostriches, ELISA, MAT, PCR, Egypt..
 J.P. Dubey, M.E. Camargo, M.D. Ruff, S.K. Shen, G.L. Wilkins, O.C.H. Kwok and P. Thulliez, 1993. Experimental toxoplasmosis
in turkeys, Journal of Parasitology, 79, 1993, 949-952.
 J.P. Dubey, M. A. Goodwin, M.D. Ruff, O.C.H. Kwok, S. K. Shen, G. L. Wilkins and P. Thulliez, Experimental toxoplasmosis in
Japanese quail, Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 6 (2), 1994, 216– 221
 J.P. Dubey, M.D. Ruff, M.E. Camargo, S.K. Shen, O.C.H. Kwok, G.L. Wilkins and P. Thulliez, Experimental toxoplasmosis in
Bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus), Journal of Parasitology, 79, (6), 1993, 935– 939.
 J. P. Dubey, W. B Scandrett, O. C H. Kwok, and A. A. Gajadhar, Prevalence of Antibodies to T. gondii in Ostriches (Struthio
camelus), Journal of Parasitology, 86 (3), 2000, 623-624
 T. Hove and S. Mukaratirwa, Seroprevalence of T. gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from Zimbabwe, Acta
Tropica, 94 (1), 2005, 49-53
 J.P. Dubey, Validation of the specificity of the modified agglutination test for toxoplasmosis in pigs, Veterinary Parasitology, 71
(4), 1997, 307–310
 J.P. Dubey, P. Thulliez, R.M. Weigel, C.D. Andrews, P. Lind & E.C. Powell, Sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests
for detection of T. gondii infection in naturally infected sows, American Journal of Veterinary Research, 56, (8), 1995, 1030-
 A. El-Massey, O.A . Mahdy, A. El-Ghaysh and J.P. Dubey, Prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in sera of turkeys, chickens, and
ducks from Egypt, Journal of Parasitology, 86, (3), 2000, 627–628.
 S. O' Neil and M. Lappin, Clinical and Epidemiological aspects of FIV and Toxoplasma coinfections, Journal of the American
Animal Hospital Association, 27 (211), 1991, article 211.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Equine Pyometra: A Case Report|
|Authors||:||Mohamad Naguib Bin Rais, Noraniza Mohd Adzahan, Mimi Armiladiana Mohamad, Lawan Adamu|
ABSTRACT: Etiopathogenesis of equine pyometra is poorly understood. Diagnosis can be made via physical examination and ultrasonography findings. The recurrence of cases after treatment is high. In the present study, a case of equine pyometra was presented to the University Veterinary Teaching hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia. On presentation, physical examination and ultrasound finding revealed 'snowy' appearance of the uterus. Uterine flushing was performed and milky creamy exudate was collected using uterine flushing tube. Bacteria isolation and identification showed mix growth of Streptococcus dysagalatiae ss equisimilis and Serratia spp. The systemic antibiotics administered were trimetoprim and sulphadiazine intravenously at the dose rate of 1ml/16 kg body weight (26ml), SID for 5 day. However, ultrasonography examination after 3 weeks revealed recurrence of the problem.
Key words: Pyometra, Streptococcus dysagalatiae ss equisimili, Ultrasound.
 D.C Knottenbelt, M.L. Blanc, C. Lopate, R.R. Pascoe, Equine Stud Farm Medicine and Surgery (Edinburgh, UK: Elsevier Science
 G.C.W. England, Fertility and Obstetrics in the Horse, 3rd Edition, (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2005,
 K. Wolfgang, Veterinary Reproductive Ultrasonography (Hannover, Germany: Schlȕtersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 2004,
 S.P. Brincko, T.L Blanchard, D.D. Varner, J. Schumacher, C.C. Love, K. Hinrichs, K. Hartman, Manual of Equine Reproduction
(Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier, 2011,
 M. McDonald, R.J. Towers, R.M Andrews, J.R. Carapetis., G.J. Currie, Epidemiology of Stretococcus Dysagalactiae subsp.
Equisimilis, Emerging Infectious Disease, 13(11), 2007, 1694-1700
 J.F. Timoney, The Pathogenic Equine Streptococci, Veterinary Research, 35, (4), 2004, 397-409
 S. Preziuso, F. Laus, A.R. Tejeda, C. Valente, V. Cuteri, Detection of Stretococcus Dysagalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Equine
Nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR, Journal of Veterinary Science, 11,(1), 2010, 67-72