Version-1 (Jan-Feb 2018)
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Abstract: This research was conducted to examine comparison between hardwood and softwood components. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are major constituents for both hardwood and softwood. Depending on these constituents wood's application varies. In this study we examined 10 important wood samples (5 are hardwoods & 5 are softwoods) which are mostly available in Bangladesh. The wood samples were tested in some standard chemical methods, whose samples were dewaxed and depectinised, then the lignin content was measured (mainly using H2SO4). After the removal of the lignin, two other mains components α-cellulose and hemicelluloses were measured. The average components values are 40-50% cellulose, 15-40% hemicelluloses and 18-25% lignin for hardwoods. On the other hand, the average components values are 40-45% cellulose, 24-37% hemicellulose and 25-30% lignin for softwoods.According to their lingo-cellulosic contents they can convert into various useful products. Also by these constituents of hardwood and softwood they may be useful for same or different purposes.
Key words: Softwood, Hardwood, Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin.
. Guangyu Yang and PirjoJaakkola, 2011.Wood chemistry and isolation of extractives from wood, Literature study for BIOTULI project, pp. 2-4.
. Chen HZ. Ecological high value-added theory and application of crop straws. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press; 2006.
. Yang SH. Plant fiber chemistry. Beijing: China Light Industry Press; 2008.
. H. Chen, 2014. Chemical Composition and Structure of Natural LignocelluloseBiotechnology of Lignocellulose: Theory and Practice, pp. 25-70.
. Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Langan, Paul; Chanzy, Henri (2002). "Crystal Structure and Hydrogen-Bonding System in Cellulose Iβ from Synchrotron X-ray and Neutron Fiber Diffraction".J. Am. Chem. Soc124 (31): 9074–82. doi:10.1021/ja0257319. PMID 12149011.
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Abstract: This study examines the seasonal variation and asses surface water quality of Sundarbans Mangrove Forest in Bangladesh. The statistical analysis ANOVA was used to explore the seasonal variations among three seasons.Water quality and seasonal variation were assessing by measured twelve physico-chemical parameters like Temperature, EC (Electrical Conductivity), pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Salinity, Total Alkalinity, Total Acidity, Free dissolved CO2, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen demand (COD). The values most of the water quality parameters indicate that the sundarbans aquatic habitat is at suitable range for aquatic species but have a little concern about Salinity values. During study timelow level of BOD and COD value indicates that the organic waste pollution was insignificant in the Sundarbans water. The statistical analysis ANOVA shows a significant seasonal variation among three seasons at 0.01 levels of significance.
Key words: Seasonal Variation, Water Quality, Habitat, Aquatic Biodiversity and Sundarbans Mangrove Forest..
. E. Khan,The Bangladesh Sundarbans; Wildlife Trust of Bangladesh (WTB): Dhaka, Bangladesh,(2011) 168.
. World Conservation Monitoring Centre. UNEP: Protected Areas Database,(2005). Available online: http://www.wcmc.org.uk/data/database/un_combo.html.
. Integrated Resources Management Plans for the Sundarbans, Forest Department, Ministry of Environment and Forests: Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1 (2010) 1–281.
. C. Giri, J. Long, S. Abbas, R.M. Murali, F.M.Qamer, B. Pengra, D. Thau, Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia. J. Environ. Manage, 100 (2014) 1–11.
. M. Spalding, M. Kainuma,L. Collins,World Atlas of Mangrove; Earth Scan Press: London, UK, (2010)..
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Abstract: Every research paper includes a method section. It is one of the most easily written section and still accounts for 30% of rejection rate (1).This paper aims to facilitate the writing of the method section by providing threemodels namely Matrix approach ,Pyramid approach ,Concept map/brain map and last but with a condensed and comprehensive account into all ten components of method via text and a Master flowchart and a brief illustrative view of methodology. Also to make the nature of writing easy and to facilitate a tailored approach that goes from general to specific ,a multiple number of questionnaires have been provided with a special emphasis on biomedical researchto tailor the need of a wide number of disciplines and subdisciplines of biomedical sciences and provide a quick checklist.
Key words: Research, method, methodology, shortcomings , models, biomedical research
. Erdemir F. How to write a materials and methods section of a scientific article ? 2013;39(Supplement 1):10–5.
. Ali J. Manuscript Rejection: Causes and Remedies. J Young Pharm [Internet]. 2010 Jan;2(1):3–6. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0975148310210026
. Kallet RH, Faarc RRT. How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper. 2004;(2):1229–32.
. Azevedo LF, Fonseca JA, Winck JC, Hespanhol V. How to write a scientific paper —– Writing the methods section Como escrever um artigo científico — Estruturac ¸ ão e redacc ¸ ão de métodos. 2011;17(5):232–8.
. Methods T, Manual APAP, Methods T. Writing up the Methods Section
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Abstract: This research conducted to find out the capabilities of endophytic bacteria isolate from root of red betel plants (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) in inhibiting the growth of bacteria Streptococcus aureus, escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus mutans, and to identify the endophytic potensial bacteria. this research was devide into 3 stages, endophytic bacteria isolation, antibacterial test, biochemical test and molecular identification upon the potensial endophytic bacteria. It was found 2 isolates from root of the red betel plants; only One (1) isolat can be inhibition S. aureus and E. coli. Based on 16S rRNA molecular identification, isolates of endophytic bacterial of red betel root which have inhibitory effect are closely related to Bacillus pumilus strain AUEC29.
Key words: Root, Red Betel, Isolation, inhibition, molecular test of 16S rRNA
. Widjaja, E.A, Rahayuningsih, Y. Rahajoe, J.S. Ubaidillah, R. Maryanto, I. Walujo, E.B, Semiadi, G. 2014. Kekinian Keanekaragaman Hayati Indonesia. LIPI Press, Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Bappenas.
. Hongsheng, Y. Zhang, L. Li, L. Zheng, C. Guo, L. Li, W. Sun, P. & Qin, L. 2010. Recent developments and future prospects of entimicrobial metabolites produced by endophytes. Microbiological Research 165 437-449.
. Prihatiningtias, W. 2006. Senyawa bioaktif fungi endofit akar kuning (Fibraurea chloroleuca Mires) sebagai senyawa antimikroba. Sekolah Pascasarjana UGM.
. Purwanto, U.M.S. Pasaribu, F.M. & Bintang, M. 2014. Isolasi Bakteri Endofit dari Tanaman Sirih Hijau (Piper betle L.) sebagai penghasil senyawa anti bakteri. Current Biochemistry Volume 1 (1):51-57 e-ISSN.
. Hallman J, Halmann AQ, Miller WG, Sikora RA & Lindow SE. 2000. Endophytic colonization of plant by the biocontrol agent Rhizobium etli G12 in relation to Meloidogyne incognita infection. Phtopathol. 91:415-422
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Production of Milk Clotting Enzyme by Penicillium camemberti using Whey medium|
|Authors||:||A. S. Santhalin Shellomith || B. Preetha|
Abstract: Milk clotting enzyme is commercially known as Rennet which is composed of Rennin and Pepsin. It plays a vital role in Cheese making with good flavor and fine texture. The use of cheaper substrates instead of synthetic medium such as glucose, sucrose, etc will result lower cost of the final product. Approximately half of the cheese whey produced worldwide is discarded without treatment. The utilization of the whey to valuable bio products is the best way to avoid the dairy waste pollution. Penicillium camemberti, a fungal culture was used for the production of milk clotting enzyme by using whey as a substrate in this study. Penicillium camemberti has the ability to produce a high milk clotting enzyme in submerged fermentation.
Key words: Milk clotting enzyme, Rennin, Proteolytic activity. Response surface methodology.
. Amal M. Hashem (1999) Optimization of milk-clotting enzyme productivity by Penicillium oxalicum. Bioresource Technology 70 203-207.
. Anson, M.L.,J.Gen.Phsiol,(1938),22:p.79-89.
. Arima, K., et al.,(1964). Cheese making by using the milk clotting enzyme of Mucorpusillus. I Rennet properties of the enzyme Jap.J.Zootech.Sci.35,221-228.
. Bailey, J.E., and D.F.Ollis, (1986) Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals. McGraw-Hill, New York , 1986.
. Balls A.K and Hoover, S.R., J.Biol, (1937) Chem.121, 737.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Assessment of Mineral and Essential Oil Composition of Anonna Muricata Leaves|
|Authors||:||Onuah Chigozie || Anacletus Francis || Uwakwe Austine|
Abstract: The qualitative phytochemical, mineral and components of essential oil of the leaves of A. muricata were analysed. The qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Carbohydrate, Tannins, Steroids, Terpenoids, Cardiac glycoside, Saponin, Carboxylic acid, Aldehyde/ketone and Phenols. The mineral analysis using Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) showed the presence of Magnesium, potassium, calcium, sodium, Phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium and iron. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed thirteen different compound; Heptadecane, Methyl tetradecanoate, Octadecane, Nonadecane, Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, Eicosane, Methyl 10-trans,12-cis-octadecadienoate, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z), Phytol, Methyl stearate, Octadecane,2,6,10,14-tetra methyl, Tricosane and Phthalic acid, di(oct-3-yl) ester.
Key words: Phytochemicals, Minerals, GC-MS analysis and Essential Oil.
. Adefegha, S. A., Oyeleye, S. I., & Oboh, G. (2015). Distribution of phenolic contents, antidiabetic potentials, antihypertensive properties, and antioxidative effects of soursop (Annona muricata L.) fruit parts in vitro. Biochemistry research international, 2015.
. Al‐Qudah, M. A., Saleh, A. M., Alhawsawi, N. L., Al‐Jaber, H. I., Rizvi, S. A., & Afifi, F. U. (2017). Composition, Antioxidant and Anticancer activities of the Essential Oil from Fresh and Air‐Dried Aerial Parts of Pallenis spinosa. Chemistry & Biodiversity
. AOAC 1980. Official Methods of Analysis (13th ed.N22018). Washington D.C: Association of Analytical Chemists
. Farid A. F and Neda A.F. (2014). Evaluation and determination of minerals content in Fruits. International Journal of plant, animal and environmental Sciences (4)3, 160-161
. Haroko, Y. H., & Wijoyo, S. V. (2015). In vitro antidiabetic activity of "green tea" soursop leaves brew through α-glucosidase inhibition. International Journal of PharmTech Reasearch, 8(1), 30-37.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Degradation of Cellulosic Substrates By Bacteria Isolated From Earthworm|
|Authors||:||Sutama, I N. || S. I M. Mudita || I W. Suberata|
Abstract: A study had been carried out to evaluating degradation ability of cellulosic substrates by bacteria isolated from earthworm. Bacteria were isolated by hungate selective media with Carboxy Methyl Cellulose/CMC as selective substrates. The potency of cellulolytic was identified based on degradation of cellulosic substrates measurement using clear/diffusion zone diameters and cellulase (endoglucanase and exoglucanase) enzyme activities. This study showed that cellulolytic bacteria isolated from earthworm coded EB1CL has produce highest clear/diffusion zone diameters on CMC and rice bran substrates and with highest endoglucanase enzyme activity, while bacteria isolate coded EB8CL has produce highest clear/diffusion zone diameters on avicel and rice straw substrates and with highest exoglucanase enzyme activity. was concluded that bacteria isolates coded EB1CL and EB8CL was potential as cellulosic substrates degrader. bacteria isolates.
Key words: Cellulolytic Bacteria, Earthworm, Clear Zone Diameters, cellulosic Substrates.
. Adney, B. dan J. Baker. 2008. Measurement of Cellulase Activities. Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP). Technical Report. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado. 1-8
. Efiok, B. J. S. 1996. Basic Calculation for Chemical and Bniological Analysis. AOAC International, Maryland, USA
. Ghose, T. K. 1987. Measurement of Cellulase Activities. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Pure and Appl. Chem., 59 (2); 257-268
. Howard, RL, Abotsi E., Rensburg JVEL., and Howard S. 2003. Lignocellulose Biotechnology: Issues of Bioconversion and enzyme Production. African Journal of biotechnology 2:6002-619. Available from: URL: Http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf [cited 2008, February 25]. 2(12): 602-619
. Miller, G. L. 1959. Use of Dinitrosalisylic Acid Reagent. Method for Determination of Reducing Sugar. Anal. Chem. 31: 426 – 428.
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Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia accompanied by greater or lesser impairment in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins resulting from insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the correlation of glycosylated hemoglobin levels with fasting and postprandial glucose in type 2 diabetic patients attending Mahavir institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS) – hospital, (Central Laboratory) Vikarabad, Telangana State, India. Method: A Retrospective observational study was undertaken at MIMS after obtaining clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee. A simple random sampling technique was adopted, over a period of six months. Data was collected on the Subjects attended the different............
Key words: Fasting blood sugar (FBS), Glucose, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS), Glycemic control,
. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047-53.
. Fowler MJ. Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Clin Diabetes 2008;26:77-82
. Sicree R, Shaw J, Zimmet P. The global burden. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, 2010.
. Mohan V. Why are Indians more prone to diabetes? J Assoc Physicians India 2004;52:468-74.
. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2012. Diabetes Care 2012;35 Suppl 1:S11-63..