IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)

Jun - 2016 Volume 18 - Issue 6

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Succession Planning In MSMEs: Emergence, Importance & Process
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Anshika Sharma || Dr. Nisha Agarwal

Abstract: Today's businesses must have the right people in the right jobs at the right times. They cannot afford to be without either enough people or the right people who can quickly fill a key role that could become vacant. It sounds like common sense. Yet it still isn't happening as effectively as it must. It is within this context that organizations, and more importantly leaders and managers, need to look with increased scrutiny at the need to manage employee succession effectively to ensure they have the right person in right place, future leadership, management and technical capacity to deliver government business.............

Keywords: Family Business, MSMEs, Strategic Goals, Succession, Succession Planning

[1]. Abdullah, Abdul, Hashim, 2011: "Family-Owned Businesses: Towards a Model of Succession Planning in Malaysia", International Review of Business Research Papers, Vol. 7. No. 1.
[2]. Avanesh, Neetha Mary, 2011: A Study on Succession Planning and its impact on Organizational Performance in the IT Sector, Researchers World- Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, Vol-II, Issue-I.
[3]. Alcorn P.B., Success and survival in the family-owned firm, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982
[4]. Annual Report, 2010-2011, Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise
[5]. Barnes L.B. S.A. Hershon, Transferring power in the family business, Harvard Business Review, 1976, No. 54(4)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Impact of Crude Oil Price Volatility on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1980 -2014)
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Ifeanyi O. Nwanna (Ph.D) || Ayenajeh Manasseh Eyedayi

Abstract: The recent shock in crude oil prices which started in July 2014 has adversely affected Nigeria, especially in the areas of foreign reserves, currencies crisis, declining government revenue, and ultimately, threat in terms of ability to meet financial obligations as at when due. Oil price changes, volatility have been a very controversial topic among different scholars. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of crude oil price volatility on economic growth of Nigeria.............

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Export Diversification, Shocks, Volatility

[1]. Yuan, Y; Zhaung, X; Liu, Z. and Huang, W. (2014), Analysis of the Temporal Properties of Price Shock Sequences in Crude Oil Markets; Physical A, 394: 235-24[2]
[2]. Bjørnland, Hilde C., (2009) Oil price shocks and stock market booms in an oil-exporting country. Scottish Journal of Political Economy 56, 232–254.[8]
[3]. Ball, L. and Mankiw, N. G. (1995), Relative-Price Changes as Aggregate Supply Shocks, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(1):161-193.[10]
[4]. Armando, F.D. (2009), Latin American Structuralism and Economic Theory, CEPAL Review No. 98: 175-195[11].
[5]. Fischer, S. (1985), Supply Shock, Wage Stickiness and Accommodation, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 17: 1-15[12]


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Are Macroeconomic Factors Substantially Influential For Islamic Bank Financing? Cross-Country Evidence
Country : China
Authors : Shamsun Nahar || Niluthpaul Sarker

Abstract: The advent of Islamic finance has created a significant change in global financial setup and with the introduction of Islamic banking system. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of macroeconomic factors on the financing of Islamic banks. The study used FGLS regression method to analyze the unbalanced panel data of 172 Islamic banks from 48 Muslim and Non-Muslim countries that met the selection criteria and had at least three years' financial data obtainable for the period spanning from 2004 to 2013. The results found that GDP growth rate and inflation rate have significant positive relationship with Islamic bank financing..............

Keywords: Islamic Banking, Macroeconomic Factors, Islamic bank financing, Bank Credits, Panel data.

[1]. The Global Islamic Finance Report: Financial Inclusion (2014), The World Bank, web access (http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTGLOBALFINREPORT/0,,contentMDK:23492074~pagePK:64168182~piPK:64168060~theSitePK:8816097,00.html, access 30 April, 2016).
[2]. Safiullah, M (2010), "Superiority of Conventional Banks & Islamic Banks of Bangladesh: A Comparative Study", International Journal of Economics and Finance 2: 3
[3]. Samad, A. (2004). "Performance Of Interest-Free Islamic Banks Vis-À-Vis Interest- Based Conventional Banks Of Bahrain", IIUM Journal Of Economics And Management 12:2
[4]. Awan, A., (2009). "Comparison of Islamic and Conventional Banking In Pakistan", Proceedings 2nd CBRC, Lahore, Pakistan, November 14, 2009
[5]. Rosly, S.A., and Abubakar, M.A, (2003). "Performance of Islamic and mainstream banks in Malaysia", International Journal of Social Economics 30:12


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Internet and Competitiveness of enterprise: a Study of Tunisian Industrial SME
Country : Tunisia
Authors : Ilhem Hammami || Mustapha Zghal

Abstract: The objective of this research is to explore and understand the influence of the use of the Internet technologies on the competitiveness of the SMEs. A literature review, based on the main approaches of the use of the Internet technologies, has allowed to propose a model of research. This model puts in relation, the use of Internet technologies and the competitiveness of the SMEs. A surveyhas been conducted in this regard, with 206 leaders of the Tunisian manufacturing SMEs. The obtained results, through the structural equationsmethod, validate the proposed model by highlighting the entrepreneurial and environmental factors of the company whichinfluence the use of the Internet.

Keywords: SME, Internet technologies, entrepreneurial factors, environmental factors, competitive advantages.

[1] Aldebert B. (2008), Technologie de l'information et de la communication : un outil stratégique pour les petites et moyennes entreprises touristiques ?, Management et Sciences Sociales, 5, 381.
[2] Aldebert B. et Gueguen G. (2009), Intérêt du dirigeant de PME touristiques pour les TI : quels effets sur l'utilisation et la performance ?, 14ème colloque de l'AIM (2009).
[3] Amabile S. et Gadille M. (2003), Les NTIC dans les PME : stratégies, capacités organisationnelles et avantages concurrentiels, Revue française de gestion 2003/3, n° 144, 43-63.
[4] Amabile S. et Gadille M. (2006), Les usages d'Internet, facteurs de compétitivité de la PME réseau ?, Finance Contrôle Stratégie, 9, 1,35 - 57.
[5] Anthioumane T. (2010), Technologies de l'information, Quel apport pour les PME ?, Conjoncture N° 911, Janvier 2010.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Empowerment Constructs: An Implementation Model-A Case Study
Country : India
Authors : G.Sreelakshmi

Abstract: Empowerment is an emerging construct, widely used by theorists/social scientists. Despite the recognized role of empowerment in management theory and practice, our understanding of the construct is limited and often confusing. Most management theorists have dealt with empowerment as a set of managerial technique and have not paid sufficient attention to its nature or the processes underlying the construct. This may reflect the pragmatic or practice orientation of theorists, and the result may be an inadequate understanding of the notion of empowerment and its theoretical rationale for related practices.............

Keywords: Empowerment constructs,Power,Self-efficacy,Conceptual analysis

[1]. Bandura, A. (1977) Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
[2]. Bandura, A. (1986) Social foundations of thought and action:A social-cognitive view. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[3]. Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985) Leaders. New York: Harper &Row.
[4]. Block, P. (1987) The empowered manager. San Francisco:Jossey-Bass.
[5]. Burke, W. (1986) Leadership as empowering others. In S.Srivastra (Ed.), Executive power (pp. 51-77). San Francisco:Jossey-Bass.
[6]. Conger, J. (1986) Empowering leadership. Working paper,McGill University, Montreal.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Is There Labour Right Provision To Strike In Zimbabwe In Light Of The New Zimbabwe Constitution Of 2013 And The Labour Amendment Act Number 5 of 2015
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : Dominic Uzhenyu

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to find out if there was provision for employees to strike in Zimbabwe in the wake of recent legislation developments such as the New Constitution of 2013 and the Labour Amendment Act 28:01 Number 5 of 2015. The right to strike in Zimbabwe has been a contentious issue in both the public and private sectors. Those who have previously been engaged in strike or industrial action have been victims of decisions taken by employers either to dismiss them or harshly reprimand them. In the Public service, civil servants are not allowed to go on strike according to the Public Service Act 16:04 and even the Labour Act 28:01(Amended August 2015)............

Keywords: ......................

[1]. Beaumant, P, B (1995) The Future of Employment Relations, Sage, London
[2]. Bless, C and Higson-Smith, C (1999) Fundamentals of social research methodology, An African perspective, 2nd edition, Juta and Company Ltd
[3]. Blyton, P and Turnball, P (1994) The Dynamics of Employee Relations MacMillan
[4]. Cresswell, J.W (2003) Research design, qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches, second edition, Sage publications.
[5]. Choga and Njaya (2011) Business research methods, 1st edition, ZOU, Harare


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Measurement of Patient Satisfaction and Loyalty of Hospital Based Customer Relationship Management in Jember Indonesia
Country : Indonesia
Authors : NurulQomariah

Abstract: This study aims to determine the effect of Customer Relationship Management (people, process and technology) to the satisfaction and loyalty of patients at Primary Clinic dr. Suherman Muhammadiyah University of Jember. The population of this study were all patients treated at the Primary Clinic dr. Suherman MuhammadiyahUniversity of Jember. The sampling method is purposive sampling with the number of 100 patients. This research was conducted by spreading questionnaire to patients at Primary Clinic Dr. Suherman Muhammadiyah University of Jember.............

Keywords: Customer Relationship Management, Satisfaction, Loyality, Hospital.

[1]. Estiningsih, Agnes WidayudanTitaHariyanti. 2013. "Pengaruh Customer Relationship Management terhadapLoyalitasIbuHamilpadaPelayananPersalinan (Studi di RS HerminaTangkubanprahu Malang)".JurnalAplikasiManajemen. Hal 280-287.
[2]. Ferdinand, Augusty, 2006. "Metode Penelitian Manajemen (Pedoman Penelitian Untuk Penulisan Skripsi, Tesis dan Disertasi Ilmu Manajemen)", Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang.
[3]. Ghozali, Imam, 2005. Model Persamaan Structural (Konsep dan Aplikasi Dengan Program AMOS Ver. 5.0, Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.
[4]. Hidayat, R., Suprapto, &Akhmad, S. 2012, PengembanganAplikasi Customer Relationship Management RumahSakit, JurnalIlmiahTeknikIndustri. Vol. 11 No.1, pp.22-34.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Process Efficiency Improvement in Small Organization through Lean Supply Chain Approach
Country : India
Authors : K.R. Dushyanth Kumar || Dr.G.S Shiva Shankar || Rajeshwar S. Kadadevaramutt

Abstract: Due to their insufficient production systems and their setups the small and medium scale organizations (SMES) are facing problems of product accuracy and quality in par with the customer satisfaction and competitor's impact also. Which leads poor market values in their product? In another way, Due to increased customer demands, high product variety, and a push production system, the organizations have been suffering from excessive wastes, poor work stations set up, and its environment............

Keywords: 5S, productivity, quality improvement, process time reduction

[1]. J. Michalska, D. Szewieczek, The improvement of the quality management by the activity-based costing, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing engineering, 21(1), 2007, 91-94.
[2]. T. Karkoszka, D. Szewieczek, Risk of the processes in the aspect of quality, natural environment and occupational safety, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering 20, 2007, 539-542.
[3]. Brah SA, Chong WK Relationship between total productive maintenance and performance. International Journal of Production Research, 42(12), 2004, 2383-2401.
[4]. Bayo-Moriones, A., A. Bello-Pintado, and J.M.D. de Cerio, 5S use in manufacturing plants: contextual factors and impact on operating performance. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 27(2), 2010. p. 217-230.
[5]. Chapman, C.D., Clean house with lean 5S. Quality progress, 2005. 38(6), 27-32.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Effect of Profitability to the Disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr Disclosure) on Mining Companies Listed on Indonesian Stock Exchange (Bei) in the Year 2010-2012
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Julius Ompusunggu

Abstract: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effect of profitability on the disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR Disclosure). The ratio of profitability is proxied by the ROA, ROE, and net profit margin. This study was conducted by examining the effect of profitability as the independent variable on the disclosure of CSR as the dependent variable.The sample of this study was the annual report mining company listed on the Stock Exchange in the period 2010-2012..............

Keywords: Profitability, ROA, ROE, Net Profit Margin, Disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR Disclosure)

[1] Aguilera, RV, Rupp, DE, Williams, LA, and Ganapathi, J, 2004, Putting the S back in Corporate Social Responsibility: A Multilevel Theory of Social Change in Organization, Center for International Business Education and research.

[2] Aljifri, Khaled. 2008. Annual report disclosure in a developing country : The case of the UAE. Elsevier Ltd.
[3] Barako, Dulacha, G. (2007). Determinants of voluntary disclosures in Kenyan Companies annual reports. African Journal of Business Management.
[4] Barnea, A dan Rubin, A, 2006, Corporate Social Responsibility as a conflict between Shareholders, Social Sciences Humanities Research.
[5] Bisnis Indonesia, 2016. Kode Saham Emiten Sektor Pertambangan. 17 Maret 2016.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Mergers and acquisitions in India and its impact on shareholders wealth
Country : India
Authors : Amish Bharatkumar Soni

Abstract: In this paper I had done shareholders wealth analysis for short term investment. For the same, I had analyzed top 10 (Value wise) mergers and acquisition by Indian companies, in which I had Find the market return and script return of the companies and Index pre merger and post merger with the help of the regression line. For the same, the changes in the closing prices of the script and compare it with Indices value, here I take BSE 500. I had taken X as an independent variable i.e..............

Keywords: Mergers & Acquisition, Pre and post merger analysis, Share holder's Wealth, Top Ten Mergers & Acquisition.

[1]. Jayant Kalghagi & Dr. Ravindranath V. Bad (2013), "Cross Border Mergers & Acquisitions and Its Effect on Shareholders Wealth in India" Published in: IJRCM, Volume No. 4, Issue No. 06 (June) ISSN 0976-2183
[2]. Smita Kashiramka & N.V.Muralidhar Rao (2013), Research Paper on: "Shareholders wealth effects of Mergers & Acquisitions in different deal activity periods in India" Published in: European Journal of Business and Management, ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online), Vol.5, No.4
[3]. Prof. Anil K. Saini, Dr. Sambhavna, Dr. Mohender Kumar Gupta, Dr. Shivakumar Deene (2014), Published in: IJRCM, Volume No. 5, Issue No. 5 (May), ISSN 0976-2183
[4]. Dr.S.Poornima and V.Chitra (2013), Research Paper on: "Impact of Merger & Acquisition Announcement on Share Price – A Case of Selected Indian Listed Companies", Published in: Journal of Management and Science | Vol.3.No.3 | September; ISSN: 2249-1260|eISSN: 2250-1819


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Proposal of a Module to Measure Economic Performance of Supply Chain
Country : Morocco
Authors : HADDACH || M. AMMARI || L. BEN ALLAL || A. LAGLAOUI

Abstract: Economic performance is a hot topic for researchers in management science. It is also one of the major concerns of supply chain leaders. To assess this performance, there are increasingly many management tools. It is then appropriate to wonder the role of these tools in supply chain: are these tools meet real organizational needs? Or they are used to promote supply chain image face institutional constraints increasingly strong?In this context, many modules and methodologies have been established in literature in order to evaluate economic performance of supply chain, because of the strategic importance of this dimension..............

Keywords: Economic performance; Supply chain; Performance evaluation; Economic indicators; Composite economic index, Mathematical module

[1]. Maloni M.J., Benton W.C.,Supply chain partnerships: Opportunities for operations research. European Journalof Operational Research, 101(3), 1997, 419–429.
[2]. Tahir A C, Darton R C, The Process Analysis Method of selecting indicators to quantify the sustainability performance of a business operation,Journal of Cleaner Production 18(16-17), 2010, 1598-1607.
[3]. Ouzizi L.,Planification de la production par co-décision et négocition de l'entreprise virtuelle,doctoral diss.,University of Metz, 2005.
[4]. Galasso F.,Aide à la planification dans les chaînes logistiques en présence de demande flexible,doctoral diss.,Institut National Polytechnique, Toulouse, 2007.
[5]. Simchi-Levi D., Kaminsky P., Simchi-Levi E.,Designing and Managing the Supply Chain: Concepts, Strategies, and Case Studies(Boston, Irwin/McGraw-Hill., 2000).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Motivation Challenges Due To High Staff Mobility In A Quasi-Government Organisation, ABC In Zimbabwe (2010-2016)
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : Dominic Uzhenyu

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the motivation problems that ABC (not real name but a quasi-government department) workers were facing due to one of the companies' policies, namely the Transfer policy. The study intended to find out why the transfer policy had serious challenges affecting workers motivation and after a detailed investigation, then come up with recommendations that should improve the implementation of the transfer policy as well as improving and creating a harmonious working environment in ABC.............

Keywords: ..................

[1]. Bless, C and Higson-Smith, C (1999) Fundamentals of social research m
[2]. Cresswell, J.W (2003) Research design, qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches, second edition, Sage publications.
[3]. Njaya and Choga (2011) Business research methods, 1st edition, ZOU, Harare
[4]. Kennedy, P (2009) How to combine multiple research methods, practical triangulation,Johny Holland


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Entrepreneurial Education and Economic Conditionof Parents towards Entrepreneurship Attitudesthrough the Entrepreneurship Interest
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Hajrah || BambangBanu Siswoyo || WeningPatmi Rahayu

Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effect of entrepreneurship education and economic condition of parents towards an entrepreneurial attitude through entrepreneurship interestof students on Economic Faculty, State University of Makassar. The sample in this study as many as 223 students of Economic Faculty drawn from each of the different departments.............

Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education, Economic Condition of Parents, Entrepreneurial Attitude, Entrepreneurship Interest.

[1] Abdulsyani, 1994. SosiologiSkematikaTeoridanTerapan. Jakarta: BumiAksara.

[2] Alma, Buchari. 2013. KewirausahaanuntukMahasiswadanUmum. Bandung: Alfabeta.

[3] Aprilianty,Eka. 2013. Pengaruh Kepribadian Wirausaha, Pengetahuan Kewirausahaan, danLingkunganterhadap Minta Berwirausaha Siswa SMK. Jurnal Pendidikan Vokasi, 2 (3)
[4] Arifin, Khusnul. 2012. PengaruhPendidikanKewirausahaanTerhadapSikapKewirausahaan. Skripsi.

[5] Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2013. ProsedurPenelitianSuatuPendekatanPraktik. Jakarta: PT RinekaCipta.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Role of Financial Management in the Decision-making of Business
Country : Sudan
Authors : Bakhit, G. R || Alamin, M.,A

Abstract: This study discussed the role of financial management in the decision-making in enterprises applying it on the Kenana Sugar Co., Ltd. The study aims to find out the role of financial management in the financial decision-making in business and the extent of responsibility to make decisions and commitments in the entrusted tasks through integrated concept of financial management in the business, also to know the business of the Chief Financial Officer in the commercial and financial institutions.............

Keywords: Financial planning, Decision-making, Regulatory process, Business

[1]. Abbas, A. (2000). Financial management in organizations – AL-Zarqa Private University.
[2]. Abdel-Halim, M. (1992). The basics of financial management, Cairo, Printing 1, College of Pharmacy, Cairo University.
[3]. Abdel-Hamid, M. (1992). The basics of financial management, (Cairo: Computer Center, Faculty of Pharmacy.
[4]. Abdul Hadi, M., S. (2000). Financial Management - the investment , finance and financial analysis - Amman, Publishing and Distribution library house, p. 33.
[5]. Alhamka, H. and Aljzrawy, I. (1998). The modern financial management, Analytical scientific approach to decision-making, Amman: Rice Press.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Effect of Need for Achievement and Risk Taking Propensity on Entepreunerial Intention through Entepreunerial Attitude
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Hima Widyas Asmara || Ery Tri Djatmika || Aniek Indrawati

Abstract: This study aims to determine the effect of the following items:(1) need for achievemen tand risk taking propensity partially on entepreneurial attitude, (2) the effect of need for achievement and risk taking propensity partially to entepreneurial intention, (3) the influence entepreneurial Attitude on the entepreneurial intention, (4) the direct or indirect effect of need for achievement and risk taking propensity partially on entepreneurial interest through entepreneurial attitude.............

Keywords: Need for achievement, Risk taking propensity, Entrepreneurial Attitude, Entrepreneurial Intention

[1]. Ajzen, I. 1991. The Theory of Planned Behaviour. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 50, 179-211.
[2]. Autio, E., Keeley, R.H., Klofsten, M., Parker, G. G . C & Hay, M. 2001. Entrepreneurial intent among Student in Scandinavia and in the USA. Journal of Entreprise and Innovation Manajement Studies. 2(20): 145-160.

[3]. Badan Pusat Statistik. 2015. Keadaan Ketatanegaraan Indonesia. (Online), (http://www.bps.go.id/website/brs_ind/brdind-20120505115525.pdf), diakses pada 29 Oktober 2015.
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[5]. Boissin, Jean Pierre, et al. 2009. Student and Entrepreneurhip; a comparative study of france. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 22.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A conceptual framework for vendor selection
Country : India
Authors : Ashish G Jayshingpure || Ankesh C Khona || Dr. B.E. Narkhede || Prof. M.R.Nagare

Abstract: This paper tries to establish a framework to select potential vendors in a competitive environment, who have the capability, capacity and facilities, convenient geographical location, financial standing reputation, business ethics, trade experience and dependability to supply quality and diverse material and service within schedule. The vendor selection process requires a tremendous amount of a firm's resources and time. In return, the firm can expect significant benefits from the process while contracting with vendors..............

Keywords: supply quality negotiating, contract terms.

[1]. F. Hedderich, R. Giesecke, and D. Ohmsen. "Identifying and evaluating Chinese suppliers": China sourcing practices of german manufacturing companies. Practix, 9:1–8, (2006).
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[3]. Arthur L. Corbin. Corbin on Contracts. Matthew Bender & Company, Inc., (2007)
[4]. WoraponThanaraksakul and BusabaPhruksaphanrat. "Supplier evaluation framework based on balanced scorecard with integrated corporate social responsibility perspective". Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2009 Vol II. March 18-20, (2009), Hong Kong.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Factors Affecting Implementation of Lean Purchasing In Controlling Inventory Storage Costs of Supermarket Services At Kitale, Kenya
Country : Kenya
Authors : Antony Charles Ambia || Proff. Gregory Simuyu Namusonge

Abstract: The purpose of this research study is to determine those obstacles Supermarkets and especially those within Kitale town encounter when adopting a method of purchasing stock that aims at reducing the storage duration of the stock held and as a result minimizing inventory holding costs. The objectives of this research study is to determine how, when Supermarket service firms are looking to reduce costs, a great many times they ignore the inventory sitting in their warehouses and the cost of carrying that inventory. It is important for Supermarket businesses to carefully examine all the incremental costs of carrying inventory and determine where they can make changes to reduce that cost.............

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[4]. Bakker, E., Zheng, J., Knigh,t L., & Harland, C. (2008). Putting e-commerce adoption in a supply chain context. International Journal of Operation and Production Management, 28:313–30.
[5]. Burgess, K., Singh, P., & Koroglu, R. (2008). Supply chain management: a structured literature review and implications for future research. International Journal of Operation Management, 2006; 703–29.


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