IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS)

June - 2015 Volume 20 - Issue 6

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Early Intervention for Children with Intellectual Disabilities: Nigeria Perspective
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Tolu Eni-Olorunda Ph.D

Abstract: Early intervention is very important for all children and especially those with special needs. This study investigated the needs for early intervention for children with intellectual disabilities in Oyo State Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design and 122 special educators that were purposively selected from the Federal College of Education Oyo and other five selected special schools in Ibadan participated in the study. Questionnaire was the instrument used in collecting the data and data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation. Results showed that the participants agreed that early intervention will help in identifying children with ID early (mean=3.72) early intervention will improve areas of challenges in the children (mean 3.76) also that the Nigeria government has a policy for early intervention (mean=3.11).

[1]. Alade,E.B and Eni-Olorunda, J.T (2005). The Status of Inclusive Education in Oyo State Nigeria. African Journal of Education Studies. 1 (1) 34-40
[2]. Adebisi, R. O., Iroham, N. S, Amwe, R. A & Rasaki, S. A (2004). Early Childhood Assement: Implication, for the Development of Response Readiness Skills, Child Care and Early Intervention in Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 4 (6) 84-85
[3]. Baker, B. L and Feinfield, K.A. (2003). Early intervention, Current Opinion Psychiatry. 16(5)3-5
[4]. Centre for Excellence for Children Outcome (2001): early intervention and prevention in the context of integrated services, evidence from centre for excellence and outcomes in children and young peoples services and narrowing the gap reviews. Retrieved from on 22/1/2015
[5]. Federal Republic of Nigeria National Policy on Education (2004), 4th edition Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC)

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Trends in Democracy Promotion by Regional Organizations: The Arab Revolution of the 21st Century and the After-Effects
Country : India
Authors : Kanika Gupta

Abstract: Is democracy an ideal form of governance which should be promoted? Till now no valid answer has been given to this simple question. But some of the given things which can formulate the argument for promotion of democracy are that the world has seen the horror of wars and need peace, security, cooperation for economic and social development. A democratic form of government is often viewed as complementary to these ideals and therefore its promotion became an obvious step towards stability and peace in the world. Undoubtedly, democracy after the end of the Cold War became the dominant form of governance in the international system based upon which relationships between nation states and the norms and standards of international organizations were commenced thereafter.

[1]. Al-Sayyid (2015), "The Arab Spring: Why in Some Arab Countries and not in Others?", in Sadiki, Larbi (ed), Routledge Handbook of the Arab Spring: Rethinking Democratization, Abingdon, Routledge.
[2]. Asmus, Ronald D. et al. (2005), "A Transatlantic Strategy to Promote Democratic Development in the Broader Middle East", Washington Quarterly, 28(2): 7-21.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Critical Appraisal of Integrated Watershed Management Programme in India
Country : India
Authors : Dr. B, Nagaraja, PhD || Mr. G.Ekambaram, M.A. M.Phil.

Abstract: The present paper briefly discusses about the concept of "integrated watershed management programme" adopted by developing countries and the main objectives of the programme. Keeping in view the objectives of the programme, a review was made in India and the necessary driving factors for adopting watershed technology. Sketching out the administrative implementation-chain in India, this paper explains the recent initiatives taken up for successful and efficient implementation of the programme. An attempt is made to present a critical analysis of the performance of the programme in terms of no. of projects, area covered and funds released by the Government of India and provides a comparative analysis of the states in India by calculating the average amount of funds released per project in relation to the extent of rain fed area in the states and the proportion of rain fed area covered by the projects sanctioned to total rain fed land in the states for assessing the successful implementation of the programme.

[1]. Ahmad, J., Alam, D., Haseen, S., 2011. "Impact of climate change on agriculture and food Security in India‟. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology. Vol. 4 (2): 129–137.
[2]. Ankita Rai (2015) "Degraded Land Costs Rs.28,500 crore to India" The Financial Express, June,21,2010 (Updated)
[3]. Arvind singh (2014) Land Degradation in India, (hrrp://www.sciencelog/net/2014/12/land-degradation-in-india.html
[4]. DFID, MARG, iied, ODC DEV.LIFE.CESS (2010) Watershed Development in Andhra Pradesh: A Policy Review : Working Paper 5 on Livelihood-Policy Relationship in South Asia.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : "Fiscal Decentralisation in Kerala: Participation and Accountability of Local Self-Governments".
Country : India
Authors : Renu Krishnan.G

Abstract: In India, fiscal decentralisation is currently emerging as the concept of academic debate and policy interest. The fiscal decentralisation is considered very important and it is necessary in a country or a state for its economic benefits, enhanced political and financial accountability and improved effectiveness. In addition, there are some issues like declined investment in social infrastructures, macro-economic instability and increased horizontal inequities and conflicts. In this study, the fiscal decentralisation in Kerala has been analysed with respect to the participation and accountability of local government. The aim of the research is to investigate in detail about the fiscal decentralisation in Kerala in terms of participation and accountability of local self-governments.

[1]. Aziz, Abdul, N Sivanna, M Devendra Babu, Madhushree Sekher and C Charles Nelson (2002), ―Decentralised Governance and Planning: A Comparative Study in Three South Indian States‖, New Delhi: Macmillan
[2]. Chakraborty, Lekha S. (2006c), ‗Ex-post Gender Sensitive Analysis of Union Budget 2006-07, Government of India', NIPFP—UNIFEM.
[3]. Chakraborty, Lekha S. and Amaresh Bagchi (2007), Fiscal Decentralisation and Gender Responsive Budgeting In South Africa: An Appraisal, Working Paper 44, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi.
[4]. Cherryholmes, C. H. (1992), Notes on pragmatism and scientific realism, Educational Researcher,l 4, August-September, 13-1
[5]. De Mello, Luiz R (2000), ―Fiscal Decentralisation and Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations: A Cross Country Analysis‖, World Development 28(2): 365-380. ---(1999), ―Fiscal Decentralisation in Emerging Economies: Governance Issues‖ OECD

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Angel In The House Vs Femme Fatale: A Contrastive Study Of The Two Female Protagonists In Vijay Tendulkar's Sakharam Binder
Country : India
Authors : Priya Das

Abstract: Since past the role played on the part of the "patriarch‟ towards women is one of domination and subjugation which can be said to have been executed through various ways- oppression, exploitation, subordination, discrimination, inequality and exclusion, sexism, misogyny, chauvinism, patriarchy and phallism. Betty Frieden diagnosed such situation of women and brought forth the concept of "equality feminism‟ which demands that "the freedoms of men‟s lives should be equally available to women, and that both men and women should have equal rights and responsibilities in all significant aspects of social life.

[1] FEMME FATALE. (Web.17th April.2015. < http://www.wikepedia,thefreeencyclopedia.htm.>.)
[2]. Tendulkar,Vijay. SAKHARAM BINDER. (1974). (Web.17th April.2015. <http://www.wikepedia,thefreeencyclopedia.htm.>.) [3]. THE ANGEL IN THE HOUSE. (Web.17th April.2015. <http://www.wikepedia,the freeencyclopedia.htm.>.) [4]. THE ANGEL IN THE HOUSE. (Web.17th April.2015. <http://www.The Angel In The House.htm.>.)

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Innovation in the Classroom Communication and the use of Performing Arts as a suitable alternative
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Satyakam Borthakur || Ambalika Borthakur

Abstract: The process of education is assumed as an established system of communication through which the sender disseminates knowledge related information to the learners. But in the conventional way of classroom communication only limited information can be shared with the learners and normally it conducts one-way communication (though virtually it is both way communication). Different hurdles are there in the normal process of educational communication and the success of such communication depends upon the efficiency of the sender. So, it always varies the quality of success of such communication. Therefore, there is enough scope of converting the conventional method of educational communication through some innovative process. Different components of performing arts may be implied as suitable tools for breaking the walls of educational communication, in which the SMR model of communication will be completely effective. In this paper, attempt has been made to explore different dimensions of performing arts, which could be used for a new model of educational communication.

[1]. Aggarwal, JC (2005), Essentials of Educational Technology: Teaching Learning Innovations in Education, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi-14
[2]. Berlo, D. K. (1960). The process of communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
[3]. Das, B. C. (2005), Educational Technology, Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana-141008
[4]. Sastri, Nityananda, Bharatar Natyasastra, Asam Natya Sanmilan, Nagaon, Assam
[5]. Schramm, W. (1964), Mass Media and National Development: The Role of Information in the Developing Countries. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804702270.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Innovative Techniques, Methods & Trends in English Language Teaching
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Vitthal V. Parab

Abstract: Change is the law of nature. 'There is nothing permanent except change' says Heraclites, the pre Aristotelian Greek philosopher. A trend is the general tendency or direction towards change. With a number of educational options available before the present generation learners, the newer trends seem to have emerged in the field of education that have entirely changed the facet of traditional system of education. Recent trends, methodologies and developments portray the vital role of education sector in general with its internalization of the education process, stress on quality above quantity, increase in the adoption of technologies, necessity for professional talent etc. The theories and methods are constantly evolving in the field of ELT also. This Research paper presents the famous trends in the ELT that have been used practically in recent times in the entire world with specific reference to the trends prevalent during the previous decades. Keywords: Trends, Methods, peer practice, new devices, ICT, pedagogy, learning process, CALL, CLIC, Cooperative learning , Neuro-linguistics.

[1]. Trends in English Language Teaching Today by Adrian Under hill, A 2004, April. Trends in English Language Teaching Today. MED Magazine, issue 18 retrieved September 15, 2007.
[2]. Trends in English Language Teaching Today by YogeshRamani.
[3]. Trends in the Education of English Language Learners by Mary Ann Zehr March 10, 2008.
[4]. 8 Current Trends in Teaching and Learning EFC / ESL by Deena Boraie Dec13, 2013.
[5]. Current Trends in ELT by Yong Kim Journal of English Teaching. A Triannual Publication on the Study of English Language Teaching Vol.1 Feb2011.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Research in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: Issues, Challenges And Prospects: Implication for Educational Managers
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Pastor (Dr) Paul Nwakpa

Abstract: Research is one of the basic functions of tertiary institutions. This paper therefore examines the challenges to research activities in tertiary institutions. These challenges among others are poor funding, corruption, inadequate, educational facilities, misplacement of priority, etc. Qualitative education, national development, improvement in standard of living, solutions to contemporary problems are identified to be gains of research work. Recommendations such as steady supply of electricity, training of academic staff, provision of grants and funds are advanced to enhance productive research work.

[1]. Adebola, B. E. (2009). A logical approach to research proposal Development. In A. O. Ajayi (ed). Institutionalization of research and development. Ibadan: Oduprints.

[2]. Ajayi, A. O. (2009). An opening address delivered to the Academic Staff of F.C.E., Okene during the 2000 capacity building workshop.

[3]. Aminu. J. (1986). Qualify and stress in Nigerian education. Maiduguri & Zaria: University of Maiduguri & Northern Nigeria publishing company.

[4]. Ayodele - Bamisaiye, O. (2005). Philosophical aspect of educational research. In D.F. Olaturoti and J. O. Osiki (eds). The 200? First post-graduate research workshop to all categories of Higher Degree Students. Ibadan: Faculty of education, university of Ibadan.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Attitudes toward Homosexual Practices among the Karanga People: A Religious Perspective
Country : India
Authors : Makamure Clemence

Abstract: Issues relating to homosexuality have ignited endless debates in the fields of religion, theology, politics and human sexuality. Throughout history, various moralists have condemned homosexuality as immoral and many societies have outlawed it. Philosophers have insisted for centuries that homosexuality is immoral. The bible proclaimed that it is an abomination (Lev 18v22), politicians call homosexuals the festering figure; the courts send them to jail. In our time, some nations have repealed laws discriminating against homosexuals and others have given legal recognition to homosexual relationship basing on human rights.

1]. Amanze J.N, African Christianity in Botswana: The Case of African Independent Churches. Gweru: Mambo Press, 1998.
[2]. Aschwanden. H, Karanga Mythology: An analysis of the Consciousness of the Karanga. Gweru: Mambo Press, 1989.
[3]. Boswell, John, "Revolutions, Universals, and Sexual Categories", Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay & Lesbian Past, Chauncey et al., eds. New York: Meridian, New American Library, Penguin Books, 1989
[4]. Chitando, E "Sprit-Type Churches As Holistic Healing Movements: A study of the Johane Masowe Wechishanu Church" Unpublished B.A. Honours Dissertation, Harare: University of Zimbabwe, 1989.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : U.S. Africa Command: Military Operations or Good Governance
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Abdullahi Ayoade Ahmad

Abstract: The United States is the sole supper power that maintains great influences across the globe. Her influences encompass various aspects such as economic, political, cultural, and military. In pursuance of its national interests through foreign policy, indirect methods are commonly adopted; meanwhile the military has remained a direct tool channeled to achieve numerous foreign policy agendas. Account of this can be noted in reference to dozens of US bases across the globe. Africa was not left behind; the continent remains one of the US centers of interest.

[1]. Fact sheet: History of U.S. Military Involvement in Africa US AFRICOM Public Affairs Congressional Research Service WASHINGTON, D.C.,> (12 June 2008)
[2]. Lutfullah Mangi, "US Military Bases in Africa‟ Pakistan Institute of International Affairs 40.2 (1987)
[3]. Lauren Ploch, Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa the Navy Department Library (3 April 2010)
[4]. Varble, Derek the Suez Crisis 1956, Osprey: London 2003, p. 53
[5]. Sarjoh Bah and Aning, K. "US Peace Operations Policy in Africa: From ACRI to AFRICOM‟, International Peacekeeping 15.1 (2008), pp- 118-132

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Anand's idea of Education in Untouchable and Lament on the Death of a Master of Arts
Country : India
Authors : Molla Hafizur Rahaman (W.B.E.S.)

Abstract: None can deny the importance of true education.Without education nation cannot progress and prosper.In the colonial period education was cunningly given to the children of upper caste and lower castes were not given chance to enter the yard of schools.After independence the situation does not change remarkably.My aim in this paper is to show how Mulk Raj Anand criticizes prevalent education system in his major novels Untouchable and Lament on the Death of a Master of Arts.

Keywords: true education,progress,uppercaste,lowercaste etc.

[1]. C.J,George:Mulk Raj Anand ,His Art and Concerns(Atlantic,Publishers&Distributers, P Ltd
[2]. Anand,Mulk Raj,Untouchable,New Delhi:Arnold-Heinemann,1984.
[3]. Anand,Mulk Raj,Author to Critic:The Letters of Mulk Raj Anand to Saros Cowasjee,ed :Saros Cowasjee,Calcutta.
[4]. Anand,Mulk Raj:Gauri, New Delhi:Arnold-Heinemann,1984.
[5]. Sinha,K.N.:Mulk Raj Anand,New York:Twayne Publishers,1972.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Corruption of Public Officials and Conflict of Interests in Albania
Country : Albania
Authors : Fjorida Ballauri (Kallço)

Abstract: This paper aims to make an analysis of the Albanian legislation on issues relating measures against corruption among public officials, identifying some of the most effective legal instruments to combat this phenomenon. How is corruption or cases of abuse in exercising a public function related with private interests or that of the third parties, and to what extent the application of measures against conflicts of interest may help prevent corruption? For this purpose, are analyzed some of the offenses against the state activity committed by public officials that are linked to conflict of interest, as an element that accompanies, precedes or follows the criminal acts committed by public officials. Finally, the paper concludes on some instruments that have been proven successful in the fight against corruption and relevant assessments for possible legal changes or improvements, as measures that a state should take to respond to different forms of corruption. Keywords – Conflict of interest, Corruption, Public official, Albania

[1]. Ismet Elezi, Criminal Law (CC) 2008 edition.
[2]. Annual Reports to the Attorney General on the situation of Albanian criminality 2008-2013
[3]. The Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Albania, 1995
[4]. The United Nations Convention against Corruption, ratified by Law nr.9492, dated 03/13/2006
[5]. The European Convention of Human Rights, ratified by Law nr.8137, dated 31.7.1996.
[6]. Law no.9049, dated 10.04.2003, "On the declaration and audit of assets, financial obligations of elected officials and certain public officials", Official Journal No. 31, 2003

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Perceptions of Employees on Standard Chartered Nairobi Marathon Sponsorship
Country : Kenya
Authors : Dan Odero Manyala

Abstract: The aim of the study was to find out the perceptions Standard Chartered Bank Kenya (SCBK) employees had on The Standard Chartered Nairobi Marathon (SCNM) sponsored by their employer. The study specifically investigated; employees' views as stakeholders, employees' support of the SCNM, .whether the sponsorship improves SCBK image and lastly, employees' views on criticism SCNM received. The sample comprised of 120 participants based in Nairobi where the marathon is annually held. A self administered questionnaire was used in data collection. The results indicated slightly over half of the respondents (52.7%) considered themselves as key SCNM stakeholders, majority supported SCNM sponsorship, the sponsorship improves the image of their employer and majority of the participants felt uncomfortable when SCNM was criticised.

[1]. Cornelissen, J. (2008). Corporate communication: A guide to theory and practice. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
[2]. Beliga, C. (2012). Sports sponsorship as a corporate communication tool: The case of Carrefour tour de France. Unpublished MA thesis, Aarhus University. Aarhus
[3]. Hall, T. (2008). Sponsorship and the internal audience: Examining how corporate sponsorship is related toorganisational identification and job satisfaction, Unpublished Phd dissertation, A & M University, Texas
[4]. Hickman, T. M., Lawrence, K. E., & Ward, J. C. (2005). A social identities perspective on the effects of corporate sponsorship on employees. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14, 148-157.
[5]. IEG. (2015). Sponsorship spending report where the dollars are going and the trend 2015. Retrieved on 23rd

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Imagining Gender and Space in New Delhi
Country : India
Authors : Sonam Sharma

Abstract: This paper shall attempt to understand the imagining of space in New Delhi with respect to gender. In this context, the focus would be on understanding spatial configuration within homes. The idea of privacy was central to this gendered imagining of space. In this context, the housing designs of New Delhi have been analysed in detail. These specifications were sourced from documents and files at the National Archives of India, New Delhi.

Keywords: Gender, Privacy, New Delhi, Space, Urban History.

[1]. GoI,P.W.D, C.W.B, Part B, Proceedings 69-75, July 1916, pp.11
[2]. Ibid.
[3]. Ibid.
[4]. GoI, P.W.D, C.W.B, Part B, Proceedings Nos. 69-75, July 1916, pp. 12.
[5]. Ibid, pp. 15.
[6]. Ibid, pp. 19.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Examining Ethical Reasoning And Transactional Leadership Style In The Nigerian Public Sector
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Chikelu Okey Felix || Abd Halim B Ahmad || Rosita Bint Arshad

Abstract: The moral depth of transactional leadership is not fully explicated and its linkage to moral behaviour is conflicting. This study examines public leaders' degree of moral judgment and transactional leadership behaviour as perceived by subordinates. The Defining Issues Test (DIT2) and the Multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ X5) was completed by leaders and subordinates respectively (Rest, 1990; Bass & Avolio, 2004). PLS path analysis of the structural model indicates no significant statistical relationship between cognitive, moral development (CMD) and transactional leadership style (TL) (β=0. 120, t=1. 286, P<0.10).

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[3]. Abdullahi, Y.S. (2004). Combating corruption in Nigeria; Bliss or bluster? Journal of Financial Crime, 12(1), 69-87. Doi;.10.1108/13590790510625061
[4]. Achabe, C. (1983). The trouble with Nigeria. Great Britain: Heinemann International.
[5]. Adamolekun, and Rowland (1999). The Local Government System in Nigeria, unpublished work.