IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE)

2nd National Conference on "Recent Developments in Mechanical Engineering" [RDME-2013]

Voulme 2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Automotive Radiator Sizing and Rating – Simulation Approach
Country : India
Authors : P. S. Amrutkar, S. R. Patil

Abstract: Automotive radiator is key component of engine cooling system. Radiator thermal analysis consist sizing and rating of heat exchanger. Radiator size mainly depends on heat rejection requirement. Heat transfer calculations are important fundamentals to optimize radiator size. Automotive manufacturers use 1-D simulation software to decide radiator size. This paper focuses on thermal analysis of radiator theoretically using ε-NTU method and its validation by simulation approach.

Keywords - Automotive radiator, Heat transfer, Rating, Simulation, Sizing

[1] M. Carl, D. Guy, B. Leyendecker, A. Miller, and X. Fan, THE THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE HEAT TRANSFER PROCESS OF AN AUTOMOBILE RADIATOR, Proc. ASEE Gulf Southwest Annual Conference, El Paso, Texas, 2012, 1-12
[2] A. R. Esmaeili Sany, M. H. Saidi, J. Neyestani,Experimental Prediction of Nusselt Number and Coolant Heat Transfer Coefficient in Compact Heat Exchanger Performed with ε-NTU Method, The Journal of Engine Research, Vol.18, Spring, 2010, 62-70
[3] K.Y. Leong, R. Saidur, S.N. Kazi, A.H. Mamun, Performance investigation of an automotive car radiator operated with nanofluid-based coolants (nanofluid as a coolant in a radiator), Applied Thermal Engineering ,30(17-18), 2010, 2685-2692
[4] S. K. Saripella, W. Yu, J. L. Routbort, D, M. France, Rizwan-uddin, Effects of Nanofluid Coolant in a Class 8 Truck Engine, SAE Technical Paper, 01-2141, 2007
[5] D. G. Charyulu, G. Singh, J.K. Sharma, Performance evaluation of a radiator in a diesel engine- a case study, Applied Thermal Engineering 19(6), 1999, 625-639
[6] S. Kakac, H. Liu, Heat Exchangers Selection Rating and Thermal Design (CRC Press LLC, 2002)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Evaluation of Active Suspension for Passenger Cars Using MATLAB
Country : India
Authors : K. S. Patil, Vaibhav Jagtap, Shrikant Jadhav, Amit Bhosale, Bhagwat Kedar

Abstract: The aim of this study are to obtain a mathematical model for the passive and active suspension systems for quarter car model and construct an active suspension control for a quarter car model subject to excitation from a road profile using PID controller. Current automobile suspension systems using passive components only by utilizing spring and damping coefficient with fixed rates. The purpose of the suspension system is to improve passenger comfort while providing good road handling characteristics subject to different road profile. Passive suspensions only offer compromise between these two conflicting criteria. Active suspensions possess the ability to reduce the traditional design as a compromise between handling and comfort by directly controlling the suspensions force actuators. In this study, the active suspension system is proposed based on the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control technique for a quarter car model for the enhancement of its road handling and comfort. Comparison between passive and active suspensions system are performed by using road profile as an input. The performance of the active suspension system is evaluated by comparing it with passive suspension system. The performance of these will be determined by performing computer simulations using the MATLAB and SIMULINK toolbox. The simulation is enhanced with 3-D animation of car going on bump created in VRML. Keywords - Active suspension system, PID Controller, Simulink, Quarter car model, Virtual reality animation

[1] Kiran Antony, "Analysis of Passive Suspension System using MATLAB, Simulink and SimScape".
[2] Yi Chen, "Skyhook Surface Sliding Mode Control on Semi-Active Vehicle Suspension System for Ride Comfort Enhancement", Engineering, 2009.
[3] J. Wang, A. C. Zolotas., D. A. Wilson, "Active Suspensions: A Reduced-Order H∞ Control Design Study", Proceedings of the 15th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, July 27-29, 2007, Athens-Greece.
[4] Haiping Du, Nong Zhang, "H∞ control of active vehicle suspensions with actuator time delay", Science Direct, Nov. 2006.
[5] Prof. Dr. Yahaya Md. Sam, "Robust Control of Active Suspension System for A Quarter Car Model", Thesis from University Teknology Malaysia, December 2006.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : LCD based Micro – Stereolithography: A Novel Technique for Rapid Prototyping
Country : India
Authors : B. K. Suryatal, S. P. Deshmukh

Abstract: The LCD based Micro stereolithography (μSLA) can be developed to produce highly precise, three-dimensional (3D) microstructures from broad selection of functional materials, especially bio-compatible materials. In principle, μSLA utilizes focused light to scan over the surface of a photo-curable resin, which undergoes photo-polymerization and forms solid microstructures. It provides an engineering platform for various applications, such as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), integrated photonics, tissue engineering, and Tetra hertz (THz) metamaterial synthesis. The μSLA fabricated devices, containing complex engineered microstructures which are covered with self-assembled functional groups, can work as a unique interface between the nanometer scale functional group and macro-scale bio-medical samples, therefore can find applications in Bio-MEMS. The basic concepts of LCD based Micro stereolithography and a case study of manufacturing a bevel gear using photosensitive resins reinforced with ceramic nanoparticles is presented in this paper.

Keywords – LCD, Micro – Stereo lithography, MEMS,

1. S. C. Ji, Development of micro-stereolithography technology using a UV lamp and optical fiber, Int J Adv.Manuf.Tech., 41 (3-4), 2009, 281–286.
2. K. Ikuta , K. Hirowatari1, Real three-dimensional microfabrication using stereolithography and metal mold, Proc. of IEEE International Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS'93), 1993, 42–47.
3. A. Bertsch, P. Bernhard, C. Vogt, P. Renaud, Rapid prototyping of small size objects, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 6(4), 2000, 259-266.
4. Bertsch A., Zissi S., Jezequel J., Corbel S., Andre J. (1997) "Microstereolithography using liquid crystal display as dynamic mask-generator", Microsystems Technologies, Vol 3 No 2, pp. 42-47.
5. Bertsch A., H. Lorenz, P. Renaud (1999) "3D microfabrication by combining microstereolithography and thick resist UV lithography". Sensors and Actuators 73: 14-23.
6. Bertsch A, Jiguet S, Berhard P, Renaud P (2003) "Microstereolithography: A Review". Mat Res Soc Symp Proc 758:L.L.1.1.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Patient Specific CAD model of Pulmonary artery for Analysis of Arterial Disease
Country : India
Authors : A. D. Muhuri, T. Rajalakshmi, S. J. Pal

Abstract: In recent years model analysis of medical and industrial research is governed by computer aided design and image processing techniques. The computer aided design (CAD) and image processing serves as a better tool than conventional in vivo techniques, when it comes to speed of diagnosis. In applications like clinical medicine and customized medical implant design CAD is now used at an extensive pace. Therefore Computer assisted designing and image processing techniques are most promising non invasive tools for faster diagnosis and useful tool for designing of biomedical implants .In this study Heart's CT (computed tomography) image35 year old Indian male patient's was collected. By using imaged based software MIMICS (Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System) and Solid Work Professional (Dassault Systems Solid Works Corporation, USA) software3D model and CAD model of normal as well as diseased PA (Pulmonary Artery)is obtained These models can be used for designing of implants and analysis of Pulmonary artery disease such as Pulmonary artery Embolism.

Keywords - CT image, MIMICS, Pulmonary artery (PA),PA Embolism, CAD, Solid Work

[1] Adam Torbic, RPerreir, Guidines on the diagnosis and managment of acute pulmonary embolism, Europian Heart Journal, (82), 2008, 2277–2315.
[2] Samuel Z. Goldhabe and C. Gregory Elliot, Acute Pulmonary embolism, Americal Heart Journal, 2003.
[3] Gregory Piazza and Samuel Z. Goldhabe, Pulmonary embolism with heart faliure, Americal Heart Jounal, 2008, 1598-1601.
[4] NilsKucher and Samuel Z.Goldhabe,, Management of Massive Pulmonary embolism, Americal Heart Journal, June 2005, 29-32,.
[5] W.Sun, B.Starly ,J.Nam, A. Darlng, Bio CAD modeling and its application computer aided tissue engineering, ELSEVIER, 2005, 1097-114,.
[6] Benoit G Haye, Alexender Ghuysen, Valeric Villems, Sever pulmonary embolism:Pulmonary artery clot load Scores and Cardiovescular parameters as preductors if mortality, Radiology, vol.39 , pp. 884-891, 2005.
[7] Karki D B, Neopane A ,Regmis, Update on Pulmonary artery hypertension, Katmandu university medical journal, vol. 15, No.1, pp.574-582, 2007.
[8] K.S Burrowes, A.R Clark, A.Marachin Kowski, Pulmonary artery preduction diseaseseverty, pp. 4255–4277, 2011.
[9] Comelius T Leondas, Biomechanical System Technology, Neurointervention, vol A4, pp.439-448, 2009.
[10] A.F.Frangi, W.J.Niessen, Three-Dimensional Model-Based Stenosis Quantification of the Carotid Arteries from Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 110-8, 2000


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : 3D Modeling Of Lower Urinary Tract to Analyze Lower Urinary Tract Constriction
Country : India
Authors : S. J. Pal, P. Muthu, A. D. Muhuri

Abstract: CT scan is a basic and very important tool for medical diagnosis. But if we can build a physical model from CT scan data then it can be a very useful tool for medical diagnosis and several medical simulations. This article surveys a promising approach to computer assisted image medical image analysis technique. This analysis combined with extracting the data from CT scan, segmentation and building a 3D physical model from the virtual CT scan data. We have priority knowledge about the size, shape and the location of biological structures. But there is a significant variability of biological structures over time and across different individuals. So these patient specific models will help medical physicians to interpret with the disease more prominently. These CAD model also can be simulated with any fluid-structure interaction analysis and the behaviour of fluid flow san be estimated through this diseased biological organ. In this study a complete methodology, from acquisition of medical images to building the three dimensional model with a particular emphasis on image segmentation was studied. In this study we have developed a 3D CAD model of female Lower Urinary Tract (LUT.

Keywords - CT scan, Virtual model, Physical model, Segmentation, Biological model, CAD model, Lower Urinary Tract (LUT)

1. Ross and Wilson , "Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness", ISBN 0 443 06468 7, Ninth edition 2001
2. Shirish Yande and Maya Joshi, "Bladder outlet obstruction in women", , J Midlife Health , PMCID: PMC3156494, 2011 Jan-Jun,
3. Patel R, Nitti V, "Bladder outlet obstruction in women: prevalence, recognition, and management", Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, Current Urology Report. 2001 Oct

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design and Analysis of Barrel Coupling
Country : India
Authors : S. S. Bari, D. H. Burande, M.R. Birajdar

Abstract: The A Barrel coupling system is the method of choice in transferring torque between rotating parts. The torque load is acting axially along the centreline of the shaft. The challenge in coupling design lies in Finite element structural analysis which leads to better results than current classical practices, because it permits a more accurate representation of the true structure. In this paper factors affecting on barrel coupling size like the Nominal transmission torque and Radial load are discussed. The methodology employed in this work will subsequently used to carry structural rigidity under load conditions. The emphasis in the work will be placed mostly to use a finite element method. Barrel Coupling was modeled in Catia V5 CAD software and analysis of this was done by using ANSYS work bench. The analysis of barrel coupling has been done by fixing different components of assembly, with application of radial force and transmission torque. We have found out stresses and deflection occurred in the barrel coupling.

Keywords - Barrel coupling, Radial load, Stresses & deflection, Transmission torque

[1] T. Zhaoping, S.Jianping, The Contact Analysis for Deep Groove Ball Bearing Based on ANSYS, Procedia Engineering, 23 (2011), 423 – 428

[2] M. ZHANG, H. YANG, L.I. Zhongkui, A Coupling Model of the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis Method and the Finite Element Method, TSINGHUA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 221-226

[3] J. C. Miranda-Valenzuela, K.H. Muci-Ku¨chler, S. Soriano-Sorianoc, Adaptive meshing for two-dimensional thermo elastic problems using Hermite boundary elements, Advances in Engineering Software, 32 (2001) 171–188 [4] S. J. Owen, Hex-dominant mesh generation using 3D constrained triangulation, Computer-Aided Design, 33 (2001) 211-220.

[5] Z.W. Yang and W.D. Lu, Static soil-structure interaction coupling method analysis, FE-BE"

[6] A. Jahan , M. Bahraminasab a, K.L. Edwards, A target-based normalization technique for materials selection, Materials and Design, 35 (2012) 647–654.

[7] S. M. Sapuan, A knowledge-based system for materials selection in mechanical engineering design, Materials and Design, 22 (2001) , 687-695.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis of STHE to Identify Low Stress Area for Locating Nozzle Opening
Country :  
Authors : M. A. Nalawade, S. H. Dwivedi, K. R. Kapadni, A.V.Waikar, S. H. Gawande, R. N. Yerrawar, U.B. Ubarhande

Abstract: Conventionally heat exchangers are designed using either ASME code or TEMA standards for the given design conditions. This design ensure the safety, however the stresses at typical locations, such as a Kettle type conical shell and in the vicinity of nozzle reinforcement pads, are not easy to locate and evaluate. Hence, in this work a simplified approach to locate the position of nozzle opening for kettle type STHE is presented. This paper focuses on the analysis of eccentric cone which is welded with the shell on both sides with the nozzle. During analysis it is observed that stress peak is lying in the close vicinity of the nozzle opening. The detailed design, analysis, fabrication and testing work was carried out at Alfa Laval (India) Pvt. Ltd., Pune-12.

Keywords - Shell and tube heat exchanger, TEMA, finite element analysis, Nozzle openings

1. R. Mukherjee, Effectively Design Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchangers, Chemical Engineering Progress, Feb. 1998.
2. S. H. Gawande, A. A. Keste, L.G. Navale, M. N. Nandgaonkar, V. J. Sonawane and U. B. Ubarhande, "Design Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger by Vibration Analysis," Modern Mechanical Engineering, 1(1), 2011,6-11, doi: 10.4236/mme.2011.11002.
3. C. J. Dekker, H. J. Boss, Nozzles-on external loads and internal pressure, International Journal of pressure vessel and piping, 72, 1997, I-18.
4. J. Fang, Q.H. Tang, Z.F.Sang, A comparative study of usefulness for pad reinforcement in cylindrical vessels under external load on nozzle, International journal of pressure vessels & piping, 86 (4), 2009, 273-279.
5. D. E. Hardenbergh, Stresses at nozzles connections of pressure vessels, SESA Spring Meetting, Washington, 1(5), 1959, 52-158.
6. Y.J.Kim, K.H.Lee, C.Y.Park, Limit loads for thin-walled piping branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane bending, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 83 (9), 2006, 645–653.
7. M. Qadir, D. Redekop, SCF analysis of a pressurized vessel–nozzle intersection with wall thinning damage, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 86 (8), 2009, 541–549.
8. E. Madenci, I.Guven, The Finite Element Method and Applications in Engineering Using Ansys, (Springer publication, USA) 2005, ISBN-10: 0-387-28289-0.
9. J. L. Ha, B. C. Sun, B. Koplik, Local Stress Factors of a Pipe-Nozzle under Internal Pressure, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 157(1), 1995, 81-91.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Optimization of an Error due to Non-Perpendicularity of optical axis of Digital Microscope with the plane of Micro machine Base
Country : India
Authors : G. K. Jain, A. A. Agarwal, A. M. Dalavi

Abstract: Errors are introduced in Micro machining processes due to various types of External physical effects. One of the major effects often taken into consideration is known as Non-Perpendicularity. When we need to find offset between two or more movable attachments or tools on the machine, error may occur due to non-perpendicularity of the respective planes of tool and base and as a result we get approximated value of offset. This paper is made on the work of optimization of this error by developing a Mathematical Model so as to obtain precise results. The perpendicularity of the camera's optical axis to the surface being observed is one of the basic conditions for the validity of the measurement. Small magnitudes of camera misalignment angles, up to two or three degrees can go easily unnoticed during the initial setting of the experimental setup especially when the stand-off-distance between the camera and the surface is not small.

Keywords - Non-Perpendicularity, Camera Misalignment, Optimization, Stand-off-distance

[1] M. Sutton, W. Walters, W. Peters, W. Ranson, and S. McNeill, Determination of displacement using an improved digital correlation method, Image and Vision Computing, 1, 1983, 133-139.
[2] M. Sutton, S. McNeill, J. Helm, and Y. Chao, Advances in two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer vision, Topics in Applied Physics, 77, (Berlin: Springer), 2000, 323–372
[3] M. Sutton, J. Orteu and H. Schreier, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements, (New York: Springer, 2009).
[4] P. Luo, Y. Chao, M. Sutton, and W. Peters, Accurate measurement of three-dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision, Experimental Mechanics, 33 , 1993, 123-132
[5] J. Orteu, 3-D computer vision in experimental mechanics, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 47, 2009, 282-29.1
[6] T. Chu, W. Ranson, M. Sutton, and W. Peters, Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics, Experimental Mechanics, 25, 1984, 232-244.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Wall Thickness Analysis Methods for Optimal Design of Casting Parts
Country : India
Authors : N. A. Patil, A. P. Deshmukh

Abstract: Wall thickness is an important parameter for casting design. Thin wall sections cause breakage of parts during manufacturing or during usage of the part. Thick wall sections cause problems in castings and increase weight, needs more material thus increasing the cost. Optimal wall thickness is also important for adequate and sufficient strength of parts. The current process of wall thickness measurement involves taking sections of the design along standard axis and then measuring those sections using tools available in Computer Aided Design (CAD) Software. Designers use these methods to measure wall thickness. It takes couple of week's time to analyze a complete casting for power train parts. Moreover, the process is not accurate and error prone. Most of these errors may be detected during simulation and analysis phase. This phase is a complex and time consuming process. Also it requires specialized knowledge to use these software's. In this paper, we describe an easy and efficient process related to wall thickness check for power train design, where design checks are performed in an automated fashion by the designer. This helps to correct many of the defects arising out of the wall thickness of the model. By providing this process right at the design stage, valuable time and effort is saved. Also high quality of the part guaranteed right at the design stage.

Keywords: - Casting, CAD, Geom Caliper, Optimal Wall Thickness, Ray & Sphere Method.

11. Pro/ENGINEER® product website: http://www.ptc.com
2. GeomCaliper product site : http://geomcaliper.geometricglobal.com
3. GeomCaliper product FAQ site : http://geomcaliper.geometricglobal.com/faqs.aspx
Journal Papers
4. Sample, N, Haines, M, Arnold, M, Purcell, T. 2001. Optimizing Search Strategies in k-d Trees. Stanford University website: http://graphics.stanford.edu/~tpurcell/pubs/search.pdf

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design, Manufacturing & Analysis of Differential Crown Gear and Pinion for MFWD Axle
Country : India
Authors : S. H. Gawande, S.V. Khandagale, V. T. Jadhav, V. D. Patil, D. J. Thorat

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to perform mechanical design of crown wheel and pinion in differential gear box of MFWD (FWA) Axle (of TAFE MF 455). Detailed modeling, assembly and analysis of tooth of crown gear and pinion is explained which is performed in Pro-E.

Keywords: - MFWD, ANSYS, Crown wheel & pinion gear, Bevel gear, FEA.

[1] H. B. Pacejka, Tire and Vehicle Dynamics, SAE Inc. 2002.
[2] R., Morselli, Detailed and Reduced Models of Passive and Active Limited Slip Car Differentials." Mathematical and Computer
Modeling of Dynamical Systems, August , pp. 347-362, 2006
[3] T. Newton, How Cars Work, Vallejo CA: Black Apple Press, 1999
[4] R. Maki, Wet clutch Tribology, Doctoral Thesis for Lulea Institute of Technology, Lulea Sweden, 2005



IOSR Journals are published both in online and print versions.