IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Jan. – Feb. 2018 Volume 10 - Issue 1

Version 1 Version 2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : About The Properties Of A Hidden Matter
Country : Israel
Authors : Prof. D.Sc.Techn. V.A. Etkin
: 10.9790/4861-1001010108      logo

ABSTRACT:A new approach to the study of the properties of the hidden mass of the universe is proposed, based on the modification of the law of universal gravitation with respect to continuous media. According to him, gravity is a consequence of the inhomogeneous distribution of the density of matter in the universe. This law reveals the presence of "strong" gravity in hidden matter, which exceeds the Newtonian potential on the surface of the Sun by five orders of magnitude, as well as the existence of gravitational equilibrium and gravitational repulsive forces that make "dark energy" an unnecessary entity. The possibility of separating the "free" (workable) part in the gravitational energy and its division into "gravistatic" and "gravikinetic" components is revealed. It is shown that this part of the gravitational energy makes the hidden matter the true "fuel" of the stars and the cause of many..........

Key words: hidden mass; dark matter; gravity and antigravitation; gravistatic and gravikinetic energy; force of attraction and repulsion; wave-particle; torsional (swirling) waves; angular momentum; unknown phenomena

[1]. Clowe D. et al. A Direct Empirical Proof of the Existence of Dark Matter.) // The Astrophysical Journal Letters. — 2006. — Vol. 648, no. 2. — P. L109–L113.
[2]. Perlmutter S.Nobel Lecture: Measuring the acceleration of the cosmic expansion using supernovae. // Rev. Mod. Phys. — 2012. — Vol. 84. — P. 1127—1149.

[3]. 3.Riordan M. Shadows of Creation: Dark Matter and the Structure of the Universe. — W H Freeman & Co (Sd), 2012. —ISBN 0-7167-2157-0.

[4]. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017. www.nobelprize.org. 4.10.2017..

[5]. Ade P. A. R. et al.Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results. //Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2013. —1303: 5062.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis of Wind Speed And Frequency In Azare North eastern Part of Nigeria
Country : Nigeria.
Authors : DahiruDahuwa || kc U. promise || W. Umar || I.Bello || R. Mohammed
: 10.9790/4861-1001010917      logo

ABSTRACT: The analysis of wind speed and frequency forAzare,Katagum LGA in Bauchi state Nigeria was carried out with the aim of calculating the average wind speed distribution as well as the efficiency of electricity production by using wind speed data recorded from a unique potential measurement locations in the study area. The measurement have been performed or carried out for 12 consecutive months, for the year 2016 by Meteorological observers at the Meteorological Station Bauchi state, (old Airport) to cover all seasonal variations of the wind condition, including the mean wind speed from January to December 2016 and the wind Frequency. However, the minimum mean wind speed occurred in the month of October which is 28.15m/s while the maximum mean wind speed occurred in July which is 145.29m/s.The result obtained indicated that there is good prospect for wind energy utilization in the study..........

Keywords: Windenergy, Windspeed and frequency

[1]. Armaroli, N., and Balzani, V. (2011)."Towards an electricity-powered world" Energy and environmental science. 4:3193-3222.
[2]. Bauchi State Meteorological Department,Bauchi, Nigeria. 2016
[3]. Ellaban, Omar; Abu-Rub, Haitham; blaanbjerg, freed (2014). "Renewable energy resources: current status, future prospect and their
enabling technology". Renewable and sustainable energy reviews. 39: 748-764.
[4]. Gipe Paul and Associates, October (1991), overview of worldwide Winds generation, Tehachapi, USA.
[5]. Isa A. (1991), windsanalysis,unpublished project, physics department, Usman
Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, sokotostate. Nigeria.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Measurement of Power By Varying Load Resistance – Thermoelectric Generator
Country : India
Authors : S.Parveen || S.Victor Vedanayakam || R. Padma Suvarna
: 10.9790/4861-1001011822      logo

ABSTRACT: For energy conversion between heat and electricity a thermoelectric technology , which gives power generation and electric refrigeration. The high performance of thermoelectric materials can be calculated by maximizing the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity. The different thermoelectric materials perform at different temperatures. The operating temperature of Bi2Te3alloys is nearly 330 0c to 525 0c and PbTe alloys has an operating temperature of 500 0C to 700 0C. A thermoelectric module consists of thermo elements in series to increase the operating voltage and in parallel to increase the thermal conductivity. In this paper we have studied the variation in power over load resistance, when four thermoelectric generators made from Bi2Te3, and PbTe are connected in parallel at hot..........

Keywords: Thermoelectric devices, load resistance, power

[1]. Tritt. T. M. Bottner h, chen l. D .thermoelectrics: Direct solar thermal energy conversion [J]. MRS .Bulletin , 2008, 33; 366-368. [2]. G.S.Nolas, J. Sharp , and H.J. Goldsmid: Thermoeletrics Basic Principles and New Materials Developments, Vol. 45 (Springer Series in Materials Science , Heidelberg, Germany,2001.

[3]. S.B. Riffat and X. Ma: Thermoelectrics : A review of present and potential applications. Appl. Therm. Eng. 23,913(2003).

[4]. B.Yu, Q.Zhang, H.Wang, X.Wang, H.Wang, D.Wang, H.Wang. G.J.Snyder, G. Chen, and Z.F. Ren: Thermoelectric property studies on thallium-doped lead telluride prepared by ball milling and hot pressing .J.Appl.Phy. 108,016104(2010).

[5]. H.J. Goldsmid,(1986) Electronic Refrigeration (Pion, London),p.10.Snyder GJ, Toberer ES. Complex thermoelectric materials, Nature Matter,2008:105-114..


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Decay Nature of Efficiency over Time in Unsealed Aging Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Aduloju KelvinAlaba
: 10.9790/4861-1001012329      logo

ABSTRACT: Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), a third generation photovoltaic cell that mimics photosynthesis process were fabricated in this study using natural and synthetic dyes. The cells were operated under the same solar irradiance condition in an open field in the peak of dry season in Ado-Ekiti for a period of 20 consecutive days during which there is no rain/snow but sunshine with a fairly constant solar radiation of about 5.75kwh. Laboratory investigation carried-out under simulated (AM1.5, 100 mW/cm−2) spectrumusing appropriated filters revealed that DSSCssensitized with synthetic and natural dyes exhibited efficiencies of 6.90 and 1.60 respectively. However, under open field operations, the natural dye prototype exhibits highest power output while the synthetic dye prototype exhibits great resistance to degradation and aging.

Keywords: photovoltaic, photosynthesis, solar irradiance, efficiency, prototype, aging.

[1]. Gra¨tzel, M. Nature, 414, 2001, 338-344.
[2]. Chen1. Y. S., Lee J. N., Tsai S. Y. and Ting C. C., Mater. Sci. Forum594, 2008, 324 - 330 .
[3]. Wongcharee, K., Meeyoo, V., Chavadej, S.: Dye-sensitized solarcell using natural dyes extracted from rosella and blue peaflowers. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 91(7), 2007, 566–571

[4]. Gra¨tzel, M.: Dye-sensitized solar cells. J. Photochem. Photobiol.C 4, 2003,145 .
[5]. Aduloju KelvinAlaba .Utilizing Dye Sensitization Potency OfBixaOrellana.Lseed and PlumeriaRubra.Lflower In Dye Sensitized Solar Cell. IOSR Journal of Engineering , Vol. 7, Issue 11 ,November 2017), 37-42...


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Compton was Greatly Mistaken Using the Quantum
Country : Kenya
Authors : Mahmoud E. Yousif
: 10.9790/4861-1001013040      logo

ABSTRACT:The alleged existence of quantum with momentum in electromagnetic radiation is disputed, this is within the supposed balance of both Einstein's mass-energy equivalent with Planck's radiation energy, we realize this is untrue, except at one energy state represented by a single frequency, from the whole frequency spectrum; this formula is also analyzed and compared with the balance between kinetic energy and the Planck's radiation energy, the energy as well as the momentum for each is derived and showed to relate to an equivalent radiation energy and momentum equivalent to momentums given by mV and mc, which was coined for particle's mass; a momentum derived from the multiplication of Radiation Magnetic Force (𝐹𝑚𝑅) and change in time (Δt), designated as Magnetic Momentum (𝜌𝑀),............

Keywords: Quantum; Photon; Compton Effect; Compton Momentum (𝜌𝐶); Electron Momentum (𝜌𝐸); Magnetic Momentum (𝜌𝐶) secondary electromagnetic radiation;

[1]. M Planck, Annalen der Physik 4(553), 1, 1901.
[2]. A Einstein & into English T, Concerning an Heuristic point of view toward the emission and transformation of light, American Journal of Physics, vol. 33, 1965.
[3]. R. H. Stuewer, Einstein's Revolutionary Light-Quantum Hypothesis, Christian Joas, Christoph Lehner, and Jürgen Renn (eds.), Conference on the History of Quantum Physics, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, 2008.
[4]. M. Sachs, Einstein versus Bohr, Open Court, 1988.
[5]. Z. Arthur, Light reconsidered, OPN trends, supplement to Optics & Photonics News, Vol. 14. No. 10, 2003...


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Determination of band energy levels of α-quaterthiophene (α-4T) thin films from its optical absorption spectrum
Country : India.
Authors : SasidharanV || Lekshmi Vijayan || C.M. Joseph || C.S. Menon || K. Shreekrishna Kumar
: 10.9790/4861-1001014144      logo

ABSTRACT: α-4T thin film of various thicknesses are prepared by thermal evaporation method. The absorption spectra of the as-deposited and annealed films are recorded using UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The dependence of absorption coefficient on photon energy has been studied. Optical band energy levels of annealed thin films of various thickness have been estimated. The fundamental optical band energy gap slightly decreases with increase in film thickness. There is no appreciable change in optical band energy levels on annealing.

Keywords: α-4T; thermal evaporation; annealing: optical band energy levels

[1]. K. Takimiya, Y. Kunugi and T. Otsubo, Chem. Lett. 36 (2007) 578.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Lattice Parameter of Agcl-Agbr Mixed Crystals
Country : India
Authors : Ratikant Thakur || JagdharMandal
: 10.9790/4861-1001014547      logo

ABSTRACT: Lattice parameter for Agcl-AgBr mixed crystals are evaluated for varying compositions and these agree excellently with experimental values .The homogeneous strain theory has been put forward to predict the observed crystal symmetry in the Agcl-AgBrmixed crystals and to explain the change in the lattice parameter as AgBr is mixed with Agcl crystals.

[1]. Bhimasankaram.T, Defect studies of Nacl-NaBr mixed crystals, Osmania university, Hyderabad 1974.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Tuning Some Optical Parameters of SeAx (A= Fe:Sn) Chalcogenides Forphotovoltaic Applications
Country : Nigeria
Authors : K. A. Aduloju || Nicholas Saidu || A.T Fatigun || O.R Salau || G. E. Adesakin || Fatai Ayodele || O. O. Olusola
: 10.9790/4861-1001014857      logo

ABSTRACT:Polycrystalline SeFeSn thin films have been fabricated with different molar concentrations of Iron :Selenium (Fe:Se) using chemical spray pyrolysis at 400K, Spectroscopic measurements within the UV-Vis-NIR range of the thin film samples were studied at room temperature in order to understand their optical properties. The deposited films are characterized by wide bandgapenergies in the range 3.75-3.87eV , the films bandgapwere observed to be tuned from 3.75eV for Fe:Se(0.05:0.05) molar concentration to 3.87 eV for Fe:Se(0.1: 0) molar concentration in a parabolic-increase trend . These demonstrate promising optical properties of the ternary film-samples for photovoltaic technology and good miscibility of alloyed constituents in the Seleniumhost crystal lattice. The refractive index, dielectric constant and extinction coefficient were evaluated, the extinction coefficient shows a decay in value as the molar concentration of Fe increases with a simultaneous decrease in the Sn molar concentration in the multicomponent films.

Keywords; Polycrystalline, molar concentrations, Spectroscopic measurements, miscibility, photovoltaic, refractive index , dielectric constant, extinction coefficient

[1]. K. Annar, W.T Tan, N.SaravananS.M.Ho and S.Y Gwce. Influence of PH values on chemical Bath deposited FeS2 thin films The pacific journal of science and technology 10(2) November 2009
[2]. D.Kathirvel, N. Suriyanaraganam, S. Prabahar S. Srikanth, P. RajasekaramStructural, optical and electrical properties of chemical Bath deposited CdS thin film.Chalcogcnide letter 8(12) (2001) 739 -745
[3]. P. UshaRajalakashim, R.Oomen, C. Sanjeviraja.Strutural and optical characterization of biog>5 S3 thin film Chalcogcnide letter 8(8)August, 2011 ,469-475.
[4]. N.A. Okereke, A.J. Ekpunobi. Structure and optical properties of chemically deposited tin selenide .Chalcogenide letters 7(9) ,2010 ,531-538.
[5]. S.M.U Ishiwu. M.N Nnabuchi. The optical and solid state properties of lead selenide (PbSc) thin films grown by chemical Bath deposition technique. Journal of Ovonic Research, 6(2) 2010, 81-86.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Hubble's Law Interpreted by Acceleration Doppler Effect and Wu's Spacetime Reverse Expansion Theory
Country :  
Authors : Edward T. H. Wu
: 10.9790/4861-1001015862      logo

ABSTRACT: Hubble's Law is an experimental result that can be applied to a star with linear relation between recessional velocity and Redshift, subject to that the star is at more than 5 billion light years away and is moving away from earth at an acceleration speed faster than the light speed. Although Acceleration Doppler Effect can be used to derive Hubble's Law, an imaginary Dark Energy is suggested to explain the acceleration together with an expansion theory of the universe to support the super fast moving speed. To avoid these problems, a Spacetime Shrinkage mechanism is proposed and a Spacetime Reverse Expansion Theory is successfully derived to interpret Hubble's Law.

Keywords : Hubble's Law, Dark Energy, Doppler Effect, Acceleration Doppler Effect, Universe Expansion, Wu's Spacetime, Yangton and Yington, Wu's Pairs, Spacetime Shrinkage, Reverse Expansion.

[1]. Edward T. H. Wu. "Light Speed in Vacuum is not a Constant and Time Doesn't Change with Velocity–Discrepancies Between Relativities and Yangton & Yington Theory". American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2015, pp. 367-373. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20150406.12.
[2]. Edward T. H. Wu. "Redshift Caused by Acceleration Doppler Effect and Hubble's Law Based on Wu's Spacetime Accelerating Shrinkage Theory". American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2017, pp. 10-15. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20170601.12.
[3]. Edward T. H. Wu. "Vision of Object, Vision of Light, Photon Inertia Transformation and Their Effects on Light Speed and Special Relativity." IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP), vol. 9, no. 5, 2017, pp. 49–54.
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[5]. Kuhn, Karl F.; Theo Koupelis (2004). In Quest of the Universe. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 122-3. ISBN 0-7637-0810-0..


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