IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Mar - Apr 2014Volume 6 - Issue 2

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Theoretical Study of Transition Pressure and Volume Collapse on
Samarium Chalcogenides (SmX,X= S,Se and Te)
Country : Nepal
Authors : Dipak Raj Adhikari, Shanker Prasad Chimouriya
: 10.9790/4861-06210106      logo

ABSTRACT: In the present paper, we have been studied the theoretical transition pressure of samarium chalcogenides by using potential model. We have reviewed bulk modulus by simple calculation. The transition pressure, volume collapse and bulk modulus predicted from this approach are found to be close to experimental data.

Key words: Samarium Chalcogenides, phase transition, transition pressure.

[1] A. Jayaraman, V. Narayanamurti, E. Bucher, and R. G. Mines, Phys. Rev. Letters1 25, 1430 (1970).
[2] R. Kitagawa, H. Takeba, and K. Mornaga, Appl. Phys. Letters 82, 3641 (2003).
[3] E. Rogars, P. F. Smell, P. Dorenbos, and E. V. D. Kolk, J. Phys. Condensed Matter 22, 015005 (2010).
[4] K. H. J. Buschow, Concise Encyclopedia of Magnetic and Supercondiuncting Material (2005), p. 318.
[5] C. M. Verma and V. Heine, Phys. Rev. 11, 4763 (1975).
[6] D. Varsney, R. Kinge, P. Sharma, N. Kaurav, and R. K. Singh, Indian J. Phys. 43, 939 (2005).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Theoretical Study of Transition Pressure in Samarium Chalcogenides
(SmX,X= S,Se and Te)
Country : Nepal
Authors : Dipak Raj Adhikari,Shanker Prasad Chimouriya
: 10.9790/4861-06210712      logo

ABSTRACT: A potential model is develop for determining the transition pressure of samarium chalcogenides (SmX,X= S,Se and Te).This methods requires only two free parameters namely range and hardness (  and b ) to calculate the transition pressure and volume collapse with different combination. It also provides the information on the structural changes Nacl- to CsCl.

Key words: Samarium Chalcogenides, phase transition, transition pressure.

[1] A. Jayaraman, V. Narayanamurti, E. Bucher, and R. G. Mines, Phys. Rev. Letters1 25, 1430 (1970).
[2] R. Kitagawa, H. Takeba, and K. Mornaga, Appl. Phys. Letters 82, 3641 (2003).
[3] E. Rogars, P. F. Smell, P. Dorenbos, and E. V. D. Kolk, J. Phys. Condensed Matter 22, 015005 (2010).
[4] K. H. J. Buschow, Concise Encyclopedia of Magnetic and Supercondiuncting Material (2005), p. 318.
[5] C. M. Verma and V. Heine, Phys. Rev. 11, 4763 (1975).
[6] D. Varsney, R. Kinge, P. Sharma, N. Kaurav, and R. K. Singh, Indian J. Phys. 43, 939 (2005).
[7] M. P. Tosi and F. G. Fumi, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 359 (1962).
[8] M. L. Huggins and J. E. Mayer, J. Chem. Solids 3, 637 (1935).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Computerised Telephone Billing System
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Allison Chukwuma Romanus
: 10.9790/4861-06211320      logo

ABSTRACT: The need for effective and efficient telephone billing system in Nigerian telecommunication industries is increasing everyday as a result of the match towards technological advancement. As such, this study tried to investigate the existing telephone billing system used in the various telecommunication industries in Nigeria with a view to improving on them. To accomplish this, the researcher developed comparative analysis for five telecommunication industries in Nigeria. Etisalat Network was chosen as a case study because it is the network that has the best quality of service and has lowest customer tariff with an effective and responsive customer care unit. Interestingly, the billing system of Etisalat network was discovered to have some shortcomings such as customer name, town name and town code. All these parameters are not displayed in the bill after calls. This research has therefore made an attempt to incorporate the three parameters which did not exist in the Etisalat call summary receipt. This task was achieved using Software Engineering Approach and the Program Source Code was developed using Turbo Pascal version 6.0.

Keywords: Billing, Customer friendly, Effective call summary, Parameter, Service quality.

[1] A.T Bell, Telecommunications billing, A Journal on Telecom billing 2005 pg1-30.
[2] NCC Press Release, (2011). "Quarterly Summary of Telephone Subscribers in Nigeria, (internet) (http://www. ncc.gov.ng) 24th April, 2011.
[3] NCC Press Release, (2007). "Quarterly Summary of Telephone Subscribers in Nigeria, (internet) (http://www. ncc.gov.ng) 19th September, 2011.
[4] Etisalat Nigeria Plc official website http:// www.etisalatnigeria.com Quelch and Hoff, Customizing Global Marketing Harvard Business Review 2006 64, 59-68.
[5] Omotayo and Joachim, Customer Service in the Retention of Mobile Phone Users in Nigeria
[6] African Journal of Business Management 2008 Vol.2(2), pp 026-031, February 2008, ISSN 1993 – 8233.
[7] Babalola and Adegoke, Quality of Service Analysis of GSM Telephone System in Nigeria
[8] American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 2011.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Characterization of L-Alanine crystals using band gap,microhardness and non-linear studies.
Country : India
Authors : N.Muruganantham, P.Anitha
: 10.9790/4861-06212125      logo

ABSTRACT: The hardness of the crystals was determined by Vicker's Hardness test. The energy band gaps were also reported for each crystal. These crystals have been characterized by optical and mechanical studies. The decomposition temperatures and weight loss have been estimated from the Thermo Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Thermal Analysis and hardness was found from the Vicker's microhardness measurement. In the present work, pure crystals of L–Alanine, HCl, KCl and KDP mixed L Alanine crystals have been grown by slow evaporation method.

Key words: Vicker's microhardness,bandgap, Thermal analysis,alanine,etc.,

[1] Gilman, J.J Ed., (1963), "The Art and Science of growing Crystals", John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, London.
[2] Kittel, C. (1977), "Introduction to Solid State Physics", Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi.
[3] Brice, J.C (1965), "Crystal Growth Processes", John Wiley & sons, New York.
[4] Brice, J.C (1965), "The growth of crystals from the Melt", (North Publishing Company, Amsterdam.
[5] Ramasamy, P., C. Subramaniam and R. Dhanasekaran (1986), "Proceedings of UGC summer school on crystal growth and characterization of Advanced Materials for solid state applications".


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Validity of Application of Rayleigh's Limit of Resolution in Presence of Defocus Wavefront Errors
Country : India
Authors : Nachieketa K Sharma, Kampal Mishra, S. K. Kamilla, S. Pattnaik, J. K. Sharma
: 10.9790/4861-06212631      logo

ABSTRACT: In the field of image science, Rayleigh criterion of resolution has been and is still being extensively used in the assessment of performance of optical imaging systems including telescopes. This is in spite of the fact, that Rayleigh's criterion is applicable in incoherent illumination and it loses its validity in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, various types of wavefront degrading factors, image motion etc. In the present paper, we have discussed the validity of application of Rayleigh's criterion to the resolution of Binary Stars of unequal brightness due to defocus wavefront errors.

Keywords: Point Spread Function, Rayleigh's Criterion of Resolution

[1] A.W. Lohmann, "International Trends in Optics", Edited by J.W. Goodman , Academic Press, New York , USA , 1994.
[2] Barakat, R., "Application of Apodization to Increase Two-Point Resolution by the Sparrow Criterion. I. Coherent Illumination," J. Opt. Soc. Am., 52, 3, 276-279 (1962).
[3] G.O. Reynolds et al , " The New Physical Optics Note-Book : Tutorials in Fourier Optics "SPIE Optical Engg. Press, USA, 1998.
[4] J. W. Goodman, "Introduction to Fourier Optics," Viva Books Pvt. Ltd., Ist Indian edition, 2007.
[5] M. Born and E. Wolf, "Principles of Optics," 7th (expanded edition), Cambridge University Press, U.K., 1999.
[6] J. P. Mills, B. J. Thompson, "Effect of aberrations and apodization on the performance of coherent optical systems. I. The amplitude impulse response," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 3, 694-703 (1986).
[7] S. Pattnaik, S. K. Kamilla, G. S. Roy, M. K. Nayak, R. Das, N. K. Sharma, "Two point Resolution: An Introspection," Researcher, 3(2), 66-72, (2011)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Velocity and Acceleration in Parabolic Coordinates
Country : Nigeria
Authors : D. J Koffa, J. F Omonile, S. X. K Howusu
: 10.9790/4861-06213233      logo

ABSTRACT: The expression for the velocity and acceleration in prolate spheroidal coordinates is now well known. In this paper, we proceed to derive expression for the instantaneous velocity and acceleration in Parabolic Coordinates for applications in Newtonian's Mechanics, Einstein's Special Law of Motion and Schrödinger's Law of Quantum mechanics.

Keywords: Acceleration, Newtonian's Mechanics, Parabolic coordinates, Velocity.

[1] J.F Omonile, D.J Koffa and S.X.K Howusu, Velocity and acceleration in prolate spheroidal coordinates, Archives of Physics
Research, 5(1), 2014, 56-59.
[2] S.X.K. Howusu, vector and tensor analysis (Jos: Jos University press Ltd, 2003).
[3] G. Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists ( New-York: Academic press, 1968) 467-469.
[4] F.B. Hilderbrand, Advanced calculus for Applications ( Prentice Hall: Englewood-Cliff, 1962) 298-306.
[5] Morce. H. Feshbach, Method of Theoretical Physics(New-York: Mc Graw-Hill, 1953) 21-54
[6] B. Garfinkel, Problem of Quadratures, Astron J. 63, 88, 1958


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Annealing Effect of Temperature on the Optical Properties of Nanostructure CdS Films
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Awodugba A.O, Adedokun.O, Sanusi Y.K
: 10.9790/4861-06213439      logo

ABSTRACT: Cadmium Sulfide polycrystalline thin films were deposited on glass substrates using chemical bath technique at deposition temperature of 60oC from a bath containing cadmium chloride, ammonium chloride, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea. The structure and the crystallite size of these films were studied by X-ray diffraction. The optical properties: absorption, transmission, reflection, band gap, absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and refractive index as a function of annealed temperature were measured. The influence of thermal treatment under various annealing temperature on the optical properties for some deposited films were studied and discussed.

Keywords: Annealed temperature, as-grown, CdS films, chemical bath technique, optical properties.

[1] F.I Ezema, C.E Okeke . "Chemical Bath Deposition of Beryllium Sulphide Thin Film and Its Applications" Academic Open Internet Journal, vol.9, 2003, www.acadjournal.com
[2] C.D Lokhande, A.U Ubale, P.S Pastil. Thin Solid Films 1, 1997, 302
[3] H. Metin, F. Sat, S. Erat and M. Ari. Cadmium Sulphide Thin Films Grown by CBD: The Effect of Thermal Annealing on the Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials", 10 (10), 2008, 2622-2630.
[4] F. Kadirgan, D. Mao, W. Song, T. Ohno, and B. McCandless. "Properties of Electrodeposited Cadmium Sulfide Films for Photovoltaic Devices with Comparison to CdS Films prepared by Other Methods" Turk J. Chem. 24, 2000, 21-33.

[5] T.L. Chu, S.S. Chu, C. Ferekides, C.Q. Wu, J. Britt, C. Wang. High efficiency thin Film CdS/CdTe heterojunction solar cells, J. Cryst. Growth, 117 (1–4), 1999, p. 1073.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A study of particulate matter concentration released during laser paint removal process on car coated substrate
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Mohammad Khairul Azhar Abdul Razab, Mohamad Suhaimi Jaafar, Azhar Abdul Rahman
: 10.9790/4861-06214048      logo

ABSTRACT: Normalization mass (N) of particulate matter (PM) per one laser shot and 1.0 cm2 beam size released during the laser irradiation were measured on three different types of car coated substrate samples A, B and C by using DustTrak Aerosol Monitor 8520. The highest N of PM1.0 and PM10.0 were 0.0485 mg/shot/cm2 and 0.0766 mg/shot/cm2 for Sample A, 0.0890 mg/shot/cm2 and 0.1728 mg/shot/cm2 for Sample B and 0.0530 mg/shot/cm2 and 0.0634 mg/shot/cm2 for Sample C, respectively. Laser paint removal technique is considered safe than conventional chemical stripping process in term of health implications prevention and safety managements.

Keywords: Particulate matter, DustTrak 8520, Nd:YAG laser, Paint removal, Car coated substrate

[1] Malavallon, O., Paint Removal Principles. AGARD, 1995.
[2] Wolf, K., Laser Strip: A Portable Hand-Held Laser Stripping Device for Reducing VOC, Toxic and Particulate Emission. 2009.
[3] Mongelli, G., Portable Handheld Laser Small Area Supplemental Coatings Removal System Final Report. 2005. p. 333.
[4] Dewalle, P., et al., Characterization of aerosols produced by laser-matter interaction during paint stripping experiments by laser. European Aerosol Conference, Salzburg, 2007.
[5] Dewalle, P., et al., Characterization of Aerosols Generated by Nanosecond Laser Ablation of an Acrylic Paint. Aerosol Science and Technology, 2010. 44(10): p. 902-915.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Procedure for Radio Dating of Water Using Nuclear Hydrological Isotopes Techniques
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Muhammad S.B., Nasiru R., Sumaila Y.A.
: 10.9790/4861-06214953      logo

ABSTRACT: The regular rates of decay for unstable radioactive elements were found to constitute a virtual "clocks" within a material they are found to be component. Some water molecules are found to be radioactive due to the increase of tritium in the atmosphere. Tritium concentration in groundwater reflect atmospheric tritium levels when the water was last in contact with the atmosphere, therefore, any measurable tritium concentrations in groundwater system provides clear evidence of recharge occurring into the system during the last four decades. Since 1970s, the atmospheric tritium concentration has decreased.

[1] Yurtsever, Y. and Araguas, L. A. (1993). Environmental isotope applications in hydrology: An overview of the IAEA's activities, experiences, and prospects. Proc. of the Yokohama Symp. July 1993. IAHS Publ. No. 215
[2] Gudmundsson,K (2000).Isotopic tracing of moisture in buildings.Nordic Journal of Building Physics, Vol.2pp22
[3] International Hydrological Progrmme (2001). 11th International Course on Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes in Hydrology. ISBN: 4-9980619-3-3, Nagoya University COOP.
[4] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (1982). 1982 report on "Ionizing radiation: sources and biological effects", United Nations, New York.
[5] Nair, RA.,Pendharkar, A.S. Navada,S.V.and Rao,S.M.(1979)Groundwater studies in Matrashtra. Development of isotope techques and field experience. Proc.Symp.Isotope Hydrology, 19-23 June 1978, Neuherberg, IAEA, Vienna 803-826.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Particle Sizes and Thermal Insulation Properties of Some Selected Wood Materials for Solar Device Applications
Country : Nigeria
Authors : S. S. Oluyamo, O. R. Bello
: 10.9790/4861-06215458      logo
ABSTRACT: This study investigates the thermal properties of some selected wood materials found in the rain forest of South Western Nigeria. These wood species are Alstonia boonei (Ahun), Pterygota macrocarpa (Oporoporo), Milicia excels (Iroko), Pterocarpus (Osun), Celtics zenkeri (Ita) and Pterocarpus mildraedii (Ure). Particle sizes of 300 μm, 600 μm and 850 μm were sieved out from each of the different wood materials of the six varieties of wood species. The samples were machined to appropriate disc shape using fabricated hydraulic-press mould. The modified Lee's disc apparatus was used to determine the thermal conductivities of the samples. The result shows that thermal conductivity of the selected wood shavings change with particle sizes. Except for the Pterygota marcrocarpa, other samples had least thermal conductivity values at 600 μm particle size ranging from 0.045–0.067 Wm-1K-1. This range fall within the thermal conductivity values of commonly used solar flat plate collectors. In addition, 600 μm pose the best insulation among the particle sizes considered. Hence, the selected wood materials could be used as industrial insulators as their thermal conductivity values fall within the range of existing industrial thermal insulators. The materials could also serve as good potential devices as heat resistant.
Keyword: Thermal conductivity, Particle size, Lee's disc, Industrial insulator.
[1] W. C. Turner and J. F. Malloy, Thermal Insulation Handbook (McGraw-Hill Book Company New York, 1988).
[2] A. J. Chapman, Heat Transfer, 4th Edition (Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1984), 4
[3] Kamal Al-Malah and Basim Abu-Jdayil, Clay-based heat insulator composites: Thermal and water retention properties. Applied Clay Science, 37, 2007, 90-96.
[4] J. C. McDonalds, Lung dust analysis in the assessment of past exposure of man made mineral fibres workers. Annals occupation of hygiene, 34, 1990, 427- 441.
[5] R. Sumrerng and C. Prinya, Strength and carbonation model of rice husk ash cement mortar with different fineness. Materials in civil engineering, 2010, 253-259.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluation of the Electron Density at the Nucleus and the Correlation Energy in Position Space
Country : Iraq
Authors : Hadel A. AL-Jabri, Qassim S. AL – Khafaji
: 10.9790/4861-06215966      logo
ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is evaluation of the correlation energy Ecorr, repulsion energy between electrons 〈 〉 ,attraction energy between electrons and nucleus 〈 〉 ,electron density at the nucleus ,one-electron expectation value 〈 〉 and inter –electron expectation value 〈 〉 (where k is an integer takes the value -2,-1,1,2) for some ions Si+11 ,P+12,S+13,All these results in atomic unit.
Keywords: Hartree-Fock , Electron Density ,Correlation Energy , Position Space.
[1] B.J.Killan,Ph.D.Thesis,"On0Electromic0representation0In0Molcular0Reaction0Dynamics",Uni-versity Florida of USA,(2005).
[2] S.P. McCarthy and A.J. Thakkar, J.chemical physics,Vol.134,044102(2011).
[3] S.M.Aman Allah , Journal of Kirkuk University Scientific studied, Vol.3,No.1, 101-112 (2008).
[4] A.J.Thakkar,Chemical physics letters ,Vol.381, 80-85 (2003).
[5] R. Yassen and M. Algarni, Int. J. Contemp. Math. Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 27, 1325 – 1335, (2012).


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