IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Sep - Oct - 2014 Volume 6 - Issue 5

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Ga Incorporation and Film Thickness on the Optical Properties of as-Deposited Amorphous GaxSe1-x Thin Films
Country : Kenya
Authors : Austine A. Mulama , Julius M. Mwabora , Andrew O. Oduor , Cosmas M. Muiva , Chrispinus M. Walloga
: 10.9790/4861-06510106        logo

ABSTRACT: Flash evaporated amorphous GaxSe1-x (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 atomic %) on glass substrates have been investigated within a 500nm-1500nm spectral range. Film thicknesses explored were ; 200±10nm, 265±10nm, 330±10nm, and 400±10nm. The effect of film thickness and gallium content on the as-deposited thin films has been established. As the gallium content increases, both the optical transmittance and band gap energy decrease. Increase in film thickness led to a decrease in optical transmittance and an increase in the band gap energy. The other optical parameters like the absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index, real part and imaginary part of dielectric constant increase with increase in gallium content and film thickness.

Keywords: Amorphous thin film, Film thickness, Ga-Se alloy, Optical property

[1] N. Mohd and M. Zulfequar, DC Conductivity and dielectric behaviour of glassy Se100-xZnx alloy, Journal of Inorganic Non- Metallic Materials, 2, 2012, 11-17.

[2] M. Popescu, Self-organization in amorphous semiconductors and chalcogenide glasses, Journal of Advanced Materials, 8(6), 2006, 2164-2168.

[3] E. A. Davis, Electronic and structural properties of amorphous semiconductors (Academic Press: London, 1973).

[4] A. A. Mulama, J. M. Mwabora, A. O. Oduor, and C. M. Muiva, Optical properties and Raman studies of amorphous Se-Bi thin films, The African Review of Physics, 9(6), 2014, 33-37.

[5] P. K. Johnson, The effect of trapping defects on CIGS solar-cell performance, doctoral diss., Colorado State University, USA, 2003

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Estimation Propagation Delays Induced in GPS Signals by Some Atmospheric Constituents
Country : Iraq
Authors : Dheyaa A.Bilal , Fayez H. Saleh Al- Zayadi
: 10.9790/4861-06510713        logo

ABSTRACT: When radio waves propagate through the earth's neutral atmosphere, the radio signals are affected significantly by the variability of its refractive index, which causes primarily in the delay of the arrival, usually referred to as the tropospheric delay. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is space-based radio navigation. The GPS system receiver provides exact location and time information for an unlimited number of users in all weather, day and night, anywhere in the world. The GPS used three frequencies that are (L1 = 1.57542 GHz, L2 = 1.22760 GHz and L3 = 1.38105 GHz). The work part mainly focuses on how to illustrate and model the effects of the atmospheric constituents such as, water vapor, clouds, rain and snow on the GPS frequencies.The differential phase shift (Δ∅) in case of rain is caused by the oblate rain drop that is has two different axes, and because of the difference of the concentration of rain drops, also (Δ∅) doesn't depend on the temperature but increase with the increase of the frequency where the values of (Δ∅) are 6 deg/km for L1, 5 deg/km for L2 and 5.4 deg/km for L3. The differential attenuation (ΔA) in case of rain in addition to depend on the shape of rain drop and the concentration of drops, it depends on the temperature and the frequency. The (Δ∅) in case of snow caused by the irregular shape of snow particle and depends on the temperatures and the frequency. The (ΔA) in case of snow has very low values in different temperatures and frequencies.

Keywords: propagation delays,GPS signals, radio waves.

[1] E.D. Kaplan and C.J. Hearty, 2006: Understanding GPS: Principles and Applications. Second Edition, Artech House Inc.,

[2] B.W. Parkinson et al, 2002: Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications. Volume I, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.,.

[3] Bevis, M. et al, 1992: GPS meteorology: sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, No. D14.

[4] Westwater E.R., 1967: Analysis of the correction of range errors due to atmospheric refraction by microwave radiometer techniques. ESSA Tech-Rep. IER 30-ITSA30

[5] Van Vleck J.H., and V.F. Weisskopf , 1947 : On the Shape of collision broadened lines . Rev. of Modern Physics, Vol. 17.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Five Dimensional Spherical Symmetric Universe in Creation Field Cosmology
Country : India
Authors : U.K. Panigrahi , R.N. Patra , Mita Sharma
: 10.9790/4861-06511418        logo

ABSTRACT: We have studied the Hoyle-Narlikar C-field cosmology with spherical symmetric five dimensional metric space time. Using methods of and Padmanabham [1], the solutions have been studied when the creation field C is a function of time t only. The geometrical and physical aspects for model are also examined

[1]. J.V. Narlikar, T. Padmanabhan (1985) Phys. Rev. D 32, 1982.
[2]. G.F. Smoot, et al. (1992) Astrophys. J. 396, 21.
[3]. J.V. Narlikar, et al. (2003) Astrophys. J. 585, 1.
[4]. F.Hoyle (1948) Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 108,372.
[5]. H. Bondi, T. Gold (1948) Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 108,252.
[6]. F. Hoyle, J.V. Narlikar (1966) Proc. R. Soc. (London) A290, 162

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Measurement of acoustical parameters of organic fertilizer urea at various temperatures
Country : India
Authors : S.Rathika , K.Renuka Devi , S.Geetha, A.Gomathiyalini
: 10.9790/4861-06511924        logo

ABSTRACT: Synthetic fertilizers are commonly used for growing all crops, with application rates depending on the soil fertility. Urea is an example of a synthetic organic fertilizer, an organic substance manufactured from inorganic materials. Organic fertilizers have been known to improve biodiversity, and long term productivity of soil, and may prove a large depository for excess carbon dioxide. Urea fertilizer provides nitrogen, which promotes green leafy growth. Urea has the highest nitrogen content, equal to 46% and it can be used for all types of crops and soils1. This investigation based on the behavior of propagation of ultrasonic waves in fertilizer system are now rather well established as on effective means for examine certain physical properties of the materials. Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity values for the fertilizer urea are found in the concentration range of 0.3m to 2.1m at various temperatures from 308˚K to 323˚K. The values of acoustical and thermodynamical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, acoustic impedance, relaxation time, molar hydration number, free length, apparent molal volume, and apparent molal compressibility are determined. Their variation with concentration is useful in understanding the nature of molecular interaction in terms of physical parameters. These results were confirmed by soil test. A soil test gives the information about the availability and lack of nutrients in the soil. The quantity of available nutrients in the sample determines the amount of fertilizers that is recommended for a particular crop. This is also confirmed by the values of absorption coefficient of aqueous urea solution at higher concentration.

Key Words: Ultrasonic velocity, absorption coefficient, relaxation time, hydration number, soil test.

[1]. K.Vaidyanathan, A.Venkateswaran & R.Ramaswamy, Agricultural Chemistry, Priya Publications, Karur 2000.
[2]. S.Chauhan, Kuldeep Kumar, and B.S. Patial., Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics,Vol 51 p.p 531-541 August 2013.
[3]. K.Ramanathan, S.Ravichandran, Journal of Pure and Applied Ultrasonics, 26,p.p 12-17 2004.
[4]. Sunanda S.Aswale Shashikant R. Aswale, Rajesh S.Hajare, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 4(5): 2671-2677, 2012.
[5]. V.N.Maruya, Diwinder Kaur Arora, Er. Avadhesh Kumar Maruya, R.A.Goutam., World of Sciences Journal ISSN 2307-3071,2013 (02).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effects of strontium and aluminum impurities on optical properties of iron sulfide (FeS2) thin films
Country : Nigeria
Authors : J. C. Osuwa , S. Nwaokeorie
: 10.9790/4861-06512528        logo

ABSTRACT: Chemical bath deposited iron sulfide (FeS2) thin films were grown at room temperature (26 oC) on glass substrates and the effects of impurity concentrations of strontium (Sr, 0.02-0.04M) and aluminum (Al, 0.02-0.04M) on the optical properties of the FeS2 thin films were investigated using a spectrophotometer in the UV-VIS region. The highest transmittance of 70% occurred for 0.04M Al impurities and 27% for 0.02M of Sr impurities as compared to 18% for un-doped iron sulfide thin films, while the reflectance exhibited varying peak values at 550 nm and 650 nm wavelengths for all concentrations of both impurities. Other optical properties obtained from the spectrophotometer data using appropriate relations showed a corresponding low absorbance of 0.2 for 0.04M Al impurity and fairly high absorbance of 0.6 for 0.02M of Sr impurity. A significant increase in the energy band gap occurred from 1.9 - 2.2eV for Strontium impurity concentrations and 2.0 - 3.8eV for Al impurity concentrations with the highest of 3.8eV at 0.04 Al doping. The effects of Sr and Al dopants on the extinction coefficient and refractive index of the thin films are also reported in this paper.

Keywords: iron sulfide, Sr and Al impurities, spectrophotometer, transmittance, reflectance

[1]. Grozdanov I and Najdoski M (1995) Optical and Electrical properties of copper sulphide films of varable composition. J. Solid State Chem. 114 469
[2]. Anuar K, Tan W, Saravanan N, Ho S.M, Gwee R. S.Y, (2009) Influence of pH values on Chemical deposited FeS2 thin films. Pacific Journal. of Science. and Technology 10, 801-805
[3]. Suarez R and Nair P.K (1996) Co-Deposition of PbS-CuS films by chemical Technique. J. Solid State Chem. 123 296
[4]. Pathan H.M, Lokhande C.D, (2004) Deposition of metal chalcogenide thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SilAR) method. Bull. Mater, Sci. Vol. 27 No.2 pp. 85-111
[5]. Ottih I. E and Ekunobi A. J (2010) X-ray and optical characterization of chemical bath deposited Cadmium Nickel Sulphide CdNS thin films . Journal of Basic Physical Research Vol. IP 17-2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluation of Quality control systems for X-Ray machines at different Hospitals using patient's radiological dose assessment technology
Country : Egypt
Authors : RadyAzzoz , Khaled M. ElShahat , Rezk Abdel MonemRezk
: 10.9790/4861-06512934        logo

ABSTRACT: The quality control tests' methods, as well as the criteria for scoring the results, are in full agreement with those specified in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Report No.4 and IEC 61223-3-1 (AAPM, 1981; IEC 61223-3-1, 1999). There are a number of recent studies about dose optimization. Some of them are the surveys about image quality and patient dose in radiographic examinations in the authors' countries (Bouzarjomehri, 2004; Ciraj et al., 2005; Ramanandraibe, 2009; Papadimitriou, 2001; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, 2006). Some investigators focused only patient dose optimization (Brix et al., 2005; Vano& Fernandez, 2007; Seibert, 2004; Williams &Catling, 1998), whereas the others examined both the patient dose and image quality in radiographic devices (Aldrich et al., 2006; Schaefer-Prokop et al., 2008; Geijer, 2002). There are also studies that give reference values for clinical x-ray examinations by measuring phantom dose (Gray et al., 2005). But there is no any study focused to the dose optimization during quality control tests of x-ray devices. Dose optimization is very important because of the quality and quantity of quality control tests of x-ray equipmentconclusion this study shows that optimization of technical factors may lead to a substantial dose reduction.

Key Words: Quality Control – X- ray – Dose Measured- Optimization

[1]. Sikand M, Stinchcombe S, Liversley PJ. Study on the use of gonadal protection shield during paediatrics pelvic X-rays. Ann R CollSurg Engl.;85(6):422–25, 2003.
[2]. Doolan A, Brennan CP, Rainford LA, Healy J. Gonad protection for antero-posterior projection of the pelvis in diagnostic radiography in Dublin hospitals. Radiography. 2004;10(1):15–21.
[3]. Hart D, Hillier MC, Wall BF. Doses to patients from medical X-ray examinations in the UK: 2000 review. NRPB W-14. Chilton, UK: National Radiological Protection Board; 2002.
[4]. Hart D, Hillier MC, Wall BF. Doses to patients from radiological and fluoroscopic X-ray imaging procedures in the UK-2005 review. HPA-RPD-029. Chilton, UK: Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division; 2007.
[5]. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radiological protection and safety in medicine.ICRP Publication 73. Ann ICRP. 2007;26(2):1–31.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Proton Induced X-ray Emission Study on the Content of Whale Tooth
Country : China
Authors : M. H. Eisa , H. Shen , M. A. Alrajhi , Hajo Idris
: 10.9790/4861-06513539        logo

ABSTRACT: The use of Ion beam technique for assaying small amounts of trace elements and major elements distribution has grown rapidly in recent years. Major and minor elemental composition of teeth has been extensively studied. In this work, elements content in teeth of whale were analyzed by the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). This work is an attempt to investigate the history of mammal's different annual rings layer of whale tooth. High levels of Trace elements such as Zn and Sr were detected in the teeth. By analysis of elemental composition and evaluation of trace elements in different layer, the route of the whale movement and the status of pollution of environment were obtained. The result indicated that the technique is suitable to obtain minor and trace constituents of the teeth. The obtained results are discussed in detail and these results are compared withavailable data.

Keywords: Nuclear Technique; PIXE; Element; Whale Tooth

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Hazard estimation from Radiofrequency Radiation in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital from nearby GSM Base-Stations
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Ajiboye Y., Farai I.P., Ayinmode B.O., Alao O.A
: 10.9790/4861-06514045        logo

ABSTRACT: Increasing competition between GSM service providers and several calls for improvement of their quality of service from members of the public has led to proliferation of base station (BTS) masts in Nigeria. Consequently, there is an increase in the risk of radiation hazard due to exposure of the public to radiofrequency radiation from the BTS antennae. This study is aimed at estimating the radiation hazard due to electric field intensity from BTSs.Electric field intensity measurements due to different GSM Operators were taken at thirty sites in the 900MHz and 1800MHz frequency bands. The maximum instantaneous electricfield intensities of 301.05±63.85𝑚𝑉/𝑚 and 241.49±57.00𝑚𝑉/𝑚 were obtained for GSM900 and GSM1800 respectively. Estimation of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) yield 39.00𝜇𝑊/𝑘𝑔 and 34.80𝜇𝑊/𝑘𝑔 for the skin, while that of the brain yield 33.90𝜇𝑊/𝑘𝑔 and 32.70𝜇𝑊/𝑘𝑔 for GSM 900 and GSM 1800 respectively. The skin penetration depth for the worst case of exposure was obtained as 4.16𝑐𝑚. Exposures in the study area are below the ICNIRP reference level.

Keywords: GSM, BTS, radiofrequency, SAR, Penetration depth

[1]. J.J. Popoola, I.O. Megbowon, V.S.A. Adeloye. Performance Evaluation and Improvement on Quality of Service of Global System for Mobile Communications in Nigeria.Journal of Information Technology Impact, 9(2): 2009,91-106.
[2]. Edumed. Latin American Experts Committee on High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Human Health Scientific Review on Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation in the Radiofrequency Spectrum and its Effects on Human Health, 2010.
[3]. H. Cember and T. Johnson. Introduction to Health Physics. 2009 (McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-142308-3, 4th Ed).
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[5]. S. Seker,and G. Apaydin. "Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Human Beings and Electronic Devices", 1st International Conference on Electronics and Computer, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, Apr. 2004.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Evaluation of a Parabolic Solar Dish Cooker in Yola, Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : J. Aidan
: 10.9790/4861-06514650        logo

ABSTRACT: A suitable solar parabolic dish collector cooker has been constructed and evaluated under Yola climatic conditions using the international standard procedures for the evaluation of solar parabolic cookers. The optical efficeincy of the collector has been found to be about 17.86%, the overall heat loss coefficent of 8.896 WK-1m-2 and the adjusted cooking power that measures its performance has been found to be 96.53 W. The parabolic solar dish collector cooker can be used by families for cooking in Yola to minimize the purchase of other cooking fuels for at least cooking the afternoon meals.

Keywords: Cooking power, optical efficiency, parabolic cooker, solar radiation

[1]. S. A. kalogirou, Solar thermal collectors and applications, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 30, 2004, 231-295.
[2]. I. L Mohammed, Design and development of a parabolic solar thermal cooker, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 3(4), 2013, 1179-1186.
[3]. J. Folaranmi, Design, construction and testing of a parabolic solar steam generator, Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, 14, 2009, 115-133.
[4]. A. P. Funk, Evaluating the international standard procedure for testing solar cookers and reporting performance, Solar Energy, 68(1), 2000, 1-7.
[5]. S. C. Mullick, T. C. Kandpal and S. Kumar, Thermal test procedure for a paraboloid concentrator solar cooker, Solar Energy, 46, 1991, 139-144.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Microstates of systems obeying Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution,
a limiting case of Quantum Statistics!
Country : India
Authors : Sarmistha Sahu , M A Rama
: 10.9790/4861-06515155        logo

ABSTRACT: Thermodynamic probability Ω is defined as the number of alternative microscopic arrangements which correspond to the same macroscopic state. Thermodynamic probability Ω enables us to decide how much more probable certain situations are than others. The method of determining the number of microstates for a given macrostate decides the statistics, Bose- Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics; quantum or classical! The distribution of the particles in different microstates is demonstrated through animation with the help of computer graphics.
Keywords: Thermodynamic probability, microstates, macrostates, indistinguishability, energy level, degenerate states, Fermions, Bosons

[1] Wikipedia

[2] F Rief, Statistical and Thermal Physics, Mc Graw Hill

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Estimation of Seasonal and Annual Albedo of the Earth's Atmosphere over Kano, Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Audu, M. O. , Isikwue, B. C. , Eweh, J. E.
: 10.9790/4861-06515662        logo

ABSTRACT: This research investigated the seasonal and annual albedo of the Earth's atmosphere over kano due to its location close to Sahara Desert which greatly influence its atmospheric and climatic conditions. The data used for this study were obtained from the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan. The data span for 34 years (1977-2010). The model for shortwave solar energy balance at the edge of the Earth's atmosphere was adopted in this work. The results show that, seasonally, the maximum albedo of 0.58 was obtained in August (the peak of cloud activity) while the minimum albedo of 0.41 was recorded in November (the onset of dry season) when it was relatively cloudless and dustless. Annually, the maximum (0.60) and minimum (0.37) albedo were obtained in 2002 and 1995 respectively. The results also show that the relationship between clearness index, sunshine hour, air temperature and global solar radiation with albedo depict direct opposite. The albedo simulated was compared with the results of other places having almost latitudinal location and co-ordinates similar to that of Kano.

Keywords: albedo , clearness index, Earth's atmosphere, Kano

[1]. D. W. Madugu, F. W. Burari, and A. A. Bello. Experimental comparative study of the performances of constructed reliable model and standard pyranometer. Journal of Applied Sciences, 3 (2), 2010, 181-189.
[2]. W. F. Burari and S. A. and Sambo. Model for the prediction of global solar radiation for Bauchi using meteorological data. Renewable Energy. 9(1&2), 2001, 30-33.
[3]. E. B. Babatunde, O. A. Falaiye, and C. C. Uhuegbu. Simulated reflection SW-radiation and its characteristic variation at Ilorin, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Physics, 175, 2005, 193-201.
[4]. J. L. De sonsa, M. Nicacio, and M. A. L. Monra. Solar Radiation Measurements in Maceio, Brazil,‖ Renewable Energy. 30, 2005, 1203-1220.
[5]. M. O. Audu and B. C. Isikwue. Estimation of the Albedo of the Earth's Atmosphere at Makurdi, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 3 (4), 2014, 375-380. ISSN 2277-8616.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Solvation Studies on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate in aqueous solutions at different temperatures
Country : India
Authors : A. Gomathiyalini, K. Renuka Devi , S. Rathika and S. Geetha
: 10.9790/4861-06516367        logo

ABSTRACT: The solution behaviour of sodium dodecyl sulphate have been investigated by measuring velocity, density and viscosity at different temperatures in the range 308°K- 323°K at an interval of 5°K. The interaction between ion and water molecules can be described using hydration number values for aqueous solutions of electrolyte. Adiabatic compressibility, apparent molal volume and apparent molal compressibility for the above electrolyte SDS are determined using the theoretical formulations. Using the assumption that compressibility of the solution is mainly due to the contribution of free solvent molecules, a new methodology for finding the hydration number has been developed by Kalyanasundaram et al. Based on that method, hydration number for sodium dodecyl sulphate is calculated. From the calculated values of hydration number, molar solvated volume is determined using different formulae and found to be in agreement.

Keywords: SDS, solvation, ultrasonic velocity, adiabatic compressibility, hydration number, molar solvated volume.

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