IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Jan. - Feb. - 2017 Volume 9 - Issue 1

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Systematic Study Multiplicity Production Nucleus – Nucleus Collisions at 4.5 a GeV/c
Country : Egypt
Authors : AAbd El-Daiem
: 10.9790/4861-0901010107      logo

ABSTRACT: The correlations between the multiplicity distributions and the projectile fragments, as well as the correlation between the black and grey fragments were given. We observed that the mean number of interacting projectile nucleons increases quickly as the value of heavily ionizing charged particles increase as expected but attains a more or less constant value for extreme central collisions. Finally, there is no distinct correlation between the shower particle production and the target excitation, but the average value of grey particles decreases with the increase of the number of black particles and vice versa. This correlation can also be explained by the fireball model.

Keywords: Correlations between the multiplicity distributions, Total disintegrations.

[1]. OyniecGInt. J. Mod. Phys. A17 3107 (2002).
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Barrier Height on Nuclear Fusion
Country : Egypt
Authors : G. S. Hassan || A. Abd-EL-Daiem || A. M. Mahmoud
: 10.9790/4861-0901010816     logo

ABSTRACT: The enhancement of sub-barrier fusion has been interpreted due to coupling between the relative motion and other degrees of freedom. The coupling gives rise to the distribution of fusion barriers and passage over the lowest barrier which is responsible for fusion enhancement at energies below the barrier. There are several orders of magnitude could be considered due to the tunneling through the barrier. The barrier height could be deduced from the measured cross section data for different energies, as well as using many empirical forms for incomplete and complete fusion of two massive nuclei.............

Keywords: fusion barrier, ODEFF function , excitation, nuclear potential, WKB approximation

[1]. L C Vaz, et al, Phys. Rep., 69, 373, 1981
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Natural radioactivity in drinking water and associated age-dependent dose in Luxor, Upper Egypt
Country : Egypt
Authors : Adel G. E. Abbady
: 10.9790/4861-0901011721      logo

ABSTRACT: The presence of Ra in drinking water may sometimes make important contribution to natural background radiation exposures. The paper describes the study of 226Ra and 228Ra content in drinking water of Luxor, a famous tourist city in Egypt. A total of thirty-five water samples were analyzed for 226Ra and 228Ra by gamma ray spectrometry with HPGe detector setup, coaxial type and 8192 channels MCA. The concentration of 226Ra was found in the range from 16 to 181 with arithmetic mean 85.6 mBq·L-1and the concentration of 228Ra ranged from 8 to 98.4 mBq·L-1 with arithmetic mean 48.6 mBq·L-1.The.............

Keywords: Ra, 228Ra, drinking water, radioactivity, effective doses.

[1]. F. Korkmaz Gorur ,H. Camgoz .Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey. Chemosphere , Volume 112, , Pages 134-140, October 2014
[2]. IAEA 1990 International Atomic Energy Agency, The environmental behavior of radium V.1, echnical Reports Series. No. 310, IAEA, Vienna (1990).
[3]. K. A. Aleissa., M. S. Islam . An approach to determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in the ground water and its impact on the population dose. Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology, Saudi Arabia. IRPA 11, Session 2, Radiological Protection System and Regulation Madrid, 2004.
[4]. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation, UNSCEAR (2000).
[5]. Violeta Pintilie, Vntoaneta Ene, lucian p. Georgescu, luminita moraru, Catalina Iticescu Measurements of gross alpha and beta activity in drinking water from galati region, romania. Romanian reports in physics, vol. 68, no. 3, p. 1208–1220, 2016.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Low-Background HPGE Γ-Spectrometer OBELIX for the Investigation of the Double Beta Decay to Excited States
Country : France
Authors : V.B. Brudanin || V.G. Egorov || R. Hodák || A.A. Klimenko || P. Loaiza || F. Mamedov || F. Piquemal || E. Rukhadze || N.I. Rukhadze || I. Štekl || Yu.A. Shitov || G. Warot || E.A. Yakushev || M. Zampaolo
: 10.9790/4861-0901012229      logo

ABSTRACT: A new ultra-low-background spectrometer based on a HPGe detector with a sensitive volume of 600 cm3 was developed to investigate rare nuclear processes, such as resonant neutrino-less double electron capture (0νEC/EC) and double beta decay processes (2ν2β–, 2νβ+EC, 2νEC/EC) to the excited states of daughter nuclei. The spectrometer was installed at the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.). Sensitivity of the spectrometer and its background were tested. A new method for the efficiency calibration in measurements of low-active samples was developed...........

Keywords: double beta decay, gamma-ray spectrometry, HPGE detector.

[1]. W. C. Haxton and G. S. Stephenson, "Jr. Double beta decay," Prog.Part.Nucl.Phys, vol. 12, pp. 409 -479, 1984.

[2]. V. I. Tretyak and Y. G. Zdesenko, "At. Data and Nucl. Data Tables," vol. 80, p. 83, 2002.

[3]. A. S. Barabash and al., "Two neutrino double-beta decay of 100Mo to the first excited 0+ state in 100Ru," Phys. Lett., B, vol. 345, pp. 408-413, 1995.

[4]. P. Loaiza and al., "Low background germanium planar detector for gamma-ray spectrometry," NIM A, vol. 634, p. 64, 2011.

[5]. G. Heusser, M. Laubenstein and H. Neder, "Radioactivity in the environment, International Conf. on Isotopes in Environmental Studies, Aquatic forum 2004, 25.-29. october 2004," in Radionuclides in the Environment, Amstedram, Elsevier, 2006, p. 495.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Simulation of Pulsed High Voltage DC Source And Blumlein Transmission Line
Country : Saudi Arabia
Authors : Mukhtar Hussain || Tayyab Imran
: 10.9790/4861-0901013033      logo

ABSTRACT: In the reported article, we have simulated the pulsed high voltage direct current (DC) source and Blumlein transmission line by Multisimulation13 (National Instruments, Inc). In the generation of high voltage pulses at the optimum repetition rate, we have observed and investigated the waveform behavior of voltage in the Blumlein transmission line.We present the simulation results of pulsed high voltage DC source with theoutput of 55.4 kV, operating at 131 Hz.Further, voltage waveform across the Blumlein transmission line and its various parameters such as peak to peak voltage, root mean square voltage...........

Keywords: High Voltage, Pulsed DC source, Blumlein transmission line, Multisimulation

[1] A.S. Provorov, V.V. Salmin, A.B.Salmina, A.A. Fursov, A.V. Stepanenko, A.G. Sokolovich, and R.Y. Olovyannikova, Pulsed gas lasers with longitudinal discharge and their application in medicine, Laser physics, 15(9), 2005, 1299-1302.
[2] M.S. Averin, O.A. Bashutin, E.D. Vovchenko, L. San Wei, D.E. Prokhorovich, A.S. Savjolov, S.A. Savjolov, A multichannel TEA N2 laser for visualizing pulsed plasma in the nanosecond range, Instruments and Experimental Techniques, 47 (2),2004, 209-213.
[3] C.K. Chiang, W.T. Chen, and H.T. Chang, Nanoparticle-based mass spectrometry for the analysis of biomolecules, Chemical Society Reviews, 40 (3), 2011, 1269-1281.
[4] T. C. Chiu, L.C. Chang, C.K. Chiang, and H.T. Chang, Determining estrogens using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with silver nanoparticles as the matrix, Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 19(9), 2008,1343-1346.
[5] H. El Ouazzani, S. Dabos-Seignon, D. Gindre, K. Iliopoulos, M. Todorova, R. Bakalska,and B. Sahraoui, Novel styrylquinolinium dye thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition for nonlinear optical applications, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116(12), 2012, 7144-7152.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Inflationary Universe Scenario in Bianchi Type VI0 Space Time with Flat Potential and Bulk Viscosity in General Relativity
Country : India
Authors : Raj Bali || Parmit Kumari
: 10.9790/4861-0901013440     logo

ABSTRACT: In the present study, we have investigated inflationary cosmological model with flat potential and bulk viscosity taking Bianchi Type VI0 space-time as a source. To get the deterministic model of universe, we have also assumed that shear () is proportional to expansion ()(Thorne [31]) and  = constant as considered by Zimdahal [29] where  is the coefficient of bulk viscosity. We find that the observations of inflationary cosmology i.e. slow role parameters (,), third slow parameter (S) and anisotropic parameter (Ãm) are in excellent agreement with the Planck (2013) results [39]............

Keywords: Inflationary; Bianchi VI0; Flat potential, Bulk viscosity

[1]. R.B. Patridge and D.T. Wilkinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18. 557 (1967).
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Nonclassical Properties of a Class of Nonlinear Pair Coherent State
Country : Egypt
Authors : H. H. Salah
: 10.9790/4861-0901014150      logo

ABSTRACT: In the present work a class of nonlinear pair coherent state introduced depending on the form of the nonlinearity function with examining some of its nonclassical properties. In particular, it is shown that such state exhibits nonclassical properties such as squeezing and sub-Poissonian behaviour. Also, the quasiprobability distribution functions (Wigner-function, Q-function) are discussed. Finally, the phase properties in Pegg-Barnett formalism is considered.

Keywords:Nonclassical state, Squeezing phenomenon, Quasi-distribution functions phase distribution

[1]. S Mancini, Phys. Lett. A, 233, 291 (1997).
[2]. B Roy and P Roy, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt., 2, 65; 505 (2000)
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[5]. J.R Klauder, B.S Skagerstam, Coherent States. Applications in Physics and Mathematical Physics; World Scientific, Singapore

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Optical Emission of Atmospheric - Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma on Mercury Diiodide/Rare Gases Mixtures
Country : Ukraine
Authors : A.A. Malinina || A.K Shuaibov || A.N. Malinin
: 10.9790/4861-0901015157      logo

ABSTRACT: New results of research of spectral and electrical characteristics of the plasma high-frequency atmospheric - pressure dielectricbarrier discharge (DBD) at mixtures of mercury diiodide vapor with xenon and neon are presented. Gas-discharge plasma creation and excitation of the working mixture components was carried out by sinusoidal form voltage at a repetition rate 125 kHz. Simultaneous emission of mercury monoiodide exciplex molecules...........

Keywords: Dielectricbarrier discharge, high-frequency, radiation, atmospheric– pressure plasma, mercury diiodidevapor,xenon, neon

[1]. Zissis G and Kitsinelis S 2009 State of art on the science and technology of electrical light sources: from the past to the future J.
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dischargeQuant. Electron. 7 2495-2497

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Thermodynamic, Microscopic and Surface Properties of Zn-In Liquid Alloy at 700 K
Country : India
Authors : H. K. Limbu || K. K. Mishra || J. Nirala || I.S. Jha || B.P. Singh || D. Adhikari
: 10.9790/4861-0901015866      logo

ABSTRACT: The alloying behaviour of Zn-In liquid alloys at 700K has been studied by using Flory's model which is a statistical mechanical model. In this model we assume the role of interchange energy (ω) and size factor ф, 𝛷=𝜗𝐵/𝜗𝐴, where 𝜗𝐵>𝜗𝐴, 𝜗𝑖 (i=A,B) represent the atomic volume of the constituent species of the atomic volume of the alloys. The thermodynamic properties and microscopic properties have been computed. Surface property is studied with the help of Butler's model while viscosity is computed from Kaptay equation, and the Moelwyn-Hughes equation. Both the viscosity and surface tension of the alloy increase with increase in concentration of Zn, and computed viscosity show small negative deviation.............

Keywords: Thermodynamic properties, Structural properties, Surface properties, Transport properties

[1]. J. E. tee, K. S. Kim, K. Suganuma, M. Inoue, and G. Izuta, "Thermal properties and phase stability of Zn-Sn and Zn-In alloys as high Temperature lead-free solder," Mater. Trans., vol. 48, pp. 584–593, 2007.

[2]. H. Bake and M. M. Avedesian, Eds., ASM Specialty Handbook:Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys. ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1999.

[3]. A. B. Bhatia, W. H. Hargrove, and N. H. March, "Concentration fluctuations in conformal solutions and partial structure factor in alloys," J. Phys. C Solid State Phys., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 621–630, Feb. 1973.

[4]. M. Hoch, "Application of the complex model to liquid metal-salt systems," Calphad, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 59–70, Jan. 1985.

[5]. S. Harada, S. Takahashi, S. Takeda, S. Tamaki, P. Gray, and N. E. Cusack, "Thermodynamic properties of liquid Na-Cd and Na-In," J. Phys. F Met. Phys., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2559–2567, Dec. 1988.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Anisotropic Avo Analysis for Reservoir Characterization in Derby Field Southeastern Niger Delta
Country : Nigeria
Authors : C.N. Ehirim || Chikezie N. O.
: 10.9790/4861-0901016773      logo

ABSTRACT: Anisotropic AVO analysis for reservoir characterization in Derby field southeastern Niger delta has been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the AVO response of shale over gas sandsonisotropic and anisotropic synthetic models and the real CDP gathers. This was done by plotting amplitude of reflections versus offsets and carrying out AVO intercept-gradient analysison HD1horizon. The results of the models were compared with the real CDP gather to deduce the robust synthetic model for efficient AVO analysis in the field. Well, CDP processed gathers and Hampson-Russell GEOVIEW and AVO module were used for the analysis............

Keywords: AVO, Isotropic synthetics, Anisotropic synthetics, seismic anisotropy

[1]. Aki, K. and Richards, P.G. (1980): Quantitative Seismology; Theory and Methods, V. 1: W.H., freeman and Co, P.557.
[2]. Avbovbo, A. A. (1978): Tertiary Lithostratigraphy of Niger Delta: American Association of Petroleum GeologistsBulletin, 62: 295-300.
[3]. Castagna, J.P. and Swan, J. (1997): Principles of AVO cross plotting. The Leading Edge 12, 337–342.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : PLC Based Instrumentation of Closed Loop Gas System for RPC Detectors
Country : India
Authors : S. D. Kalmani || A.V. Joshi || R.R. Shinde || P. V. Hunagundc
: 10.9790/4861-0901017477      logo

ABSTRACT: The INO experiment is a mega-science project and will have RPC detectors as an active element. It will be instrumented with about 28,800 RPC detectors. These active detectors use a gas mixture of R134a (95.2%), Isobutane (4.5%) and SF6 (0.3%). Due to large number of RPC detectors, the total gas required is of the order of 200 M3; therefore a Closed Loop gas recirculation System (CLS) is mandatory. The prototype CLS system for 12 such RPCs has been developed using PLC (Programmable Logical Controllers) and associated peripheral input and output devices............

Keywords: INO, PLC, Gas systems, Particle tracking detectors, Resistive-plate chambers, SCCM

[1]. INO Collaboration, INO Project Report, Technical Report INO/2006/01, 2006; Detailed Project Report I, Technical Report, 2007; Detailed Project Report on INO-ICAL Detector Structure II, Technical Report, 2008 (http://www.ino. OpenReports/INOReport.pdf).
[2]. Effect of ambient pressure variation on closed loop gas system for India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) B Satyanarayana, G Majumder, N K Mondal, S D Kalmani, R R Shinde, and A Joshi,
[4]. Performance of the Prototype Gas Recirculation System with built-in RGA for INO RPC system. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 661 (2012) S234–S240.
[5]. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2010.09.169

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Dielectric, Electric and Thermal Behavior of La3+ doped Co-Zn Nanoferrite
Country : INDIA
Authors : V. D. Kulkarni || S. M. Rathod
: 10.9790/4861-0901017881      logo

ABSTRACT: Dielectric, Electric and Thermal properties of rare earth La3+ material doped in Co0.5Zn0.5 Lax Fe(2-x)O4 (where x=0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100, 0.125) reaction nanocrystalline ferrites were synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion method. The electric, dielectric constant and Thermal properties were investigated. The dielectric constants and dielectric loss of the samples was observed between the 100Hz and 5 MHz. The resistivities of the prepared samples were measured from 0 Volt to 550 Volts at the constant temperature 2000C using the Two Probe method. The Thermal properties were characterized by Thermo Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TGDTA).

Keywords: Sol-gel method, Co-Zn ferrite, TGDTA, Dielectric constant.

[1]. A.A. Sattar, H.M. El-Sayed, K.M. El-Shokrofy, and M.M. El-Tabey, "Improvement of the magnetic properties of Mn-Ni-Zn Ferrite by the non-magnetic Al3+ Ion substitution", Journal of Applied Sciences, 5, 2005, 162-168.
[2]. R.Rani, Gagan Kumar, Batoo Khalid Mujasam, M. Singh M, "Electric and Dielectric Study of Zinc Substituted Cobalt Nanoferrites Prepared by Solution Combustion Method", American Journal of Nanomaterials, 1(1), 2013, 9-12.

[3]. M.K.Shobana," Electrical and structural studies of lithium doped cobalt ferrite", Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 73, 2012, 1040–1043.
[4]. P. Hu, H. Yang , D.Pan , H. Wang , J. Tian , S. Zhang , X.Wang , A. A. Volinsky , "Heat treatment effects on microstructure and magnetic properties of Mn–Zn ferrite powders", Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 322, 2010,173–177.
[5]. V.V.Awati, D.H.Bobade, Mrs S.D. Kulkarni, S.M.Rathod, "Structural, Dielectric and Magnetic Behavior of Cu+2 substituted Ni-Zn ferrite by Auto-combustion Technique", International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2(6), 2012, 482-489.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Correlation between the Interface Width and the Adhesion Strength of Copper Films Deposited on Ion-Etched Carbon Steel Substrates by Varying the Bias Voltage
Country : Saudi Arabia
Authors : Abousoufiane Ouis || Kamal Touileb || Rachid Djoudjou || Abdulhakim Okleh
: 10.9790/4861-0901018289     logo

ABSTRACT: The present study has been conducted in order to determine the influence of negative bias voltage applied to substrate on adhesion of copper films deposited on carbon steel substrates. The adhesion strength has been evaluated by the scratch test. Coatings were deposited by a DC magnetron sputtering system. The substrates were firstly mechanically polished and then ion-etched by argon ions prior to deposition. Adhesion was found to increase with the bias voltage. The critical load had a value of 9.5 g for an unbiased substrate and reached 18.5 g for a bias voltage of 600 V................

Keywords: DC sputtering, Ar ion bombardment, Bias voltage, Adhesion, Auger electron spectroscopy.

[1] J.M. Seeman, Bias sputtering: its techniques and applications, Vacuum, 17(3), 1967, 129-137.
[2] H. Du, J. Xiong, H. Zhao, Y. Wu, W. Wan, L. Wang, Structure and properties of TiAlLaN films deposited at various bias voltages, App. Surf. Sci.,292, 2014, 688-694.
[3] D.M. Devia, E. Restrepo-Parra, P. J. Arango, A. P. Tschiptschin, J. M. Velez, TiAlN coatings deposited by triode magnetron sputtering varying the bias voltage, App. Sur. Sci., 257(14), 2011, 6181-6185.
[4] T-G. Wang, D. Jeong, Y. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Iyengar, S. Melin, K.H. Kim, Study on nanocrystalline Cr2O3 films deposited by arc ion plating: II. Mechanical and tribological properties, Surf. Coat. Technol., 206, 2012, 2638-2644.
[5] J. Kovac, H-R Stock, H-W Zoch, Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of sputtered aluminum-scandium thin sheets, J. Surf. Eng. Mat. Adv. Tech., 2, 2012, 115-119

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Higher-Order Squeezing of a Generic Quadratically-Coupled Optomechanical System
Country : India
Authors : Kousik Mukherjee || Paresh Chandra Jana
: 10.9790/4861-0901019095      logo

ABSTRACT: Using short-time dynamics and analytical solution of Heisenberg equation of motion for the Hamiltonian of quadratically-coupled optomechanical system for different field modes, we have investigated the existence of higher-order single mode squeezing, sum squeezing and difference squeezing in absence of driving and dissipation. Depth of squeezing increases with order number for higher-order single mode squeezing. Squeezing factor exhibits a series of revival-collapse phenomena for single mode, which becomes more pronounced as order number increases. In case of sum squeezing amounts of squeezing is greater than single mode higher-order squeezing (n = 2). It is also greater than from difference squeezing for same set of interaction parameters. Sum squeezing is prominently better for extracting information regarding squeezing.

Keywords: Nonclassical, higher-order squeezing, optomechanical.

[1]. V.V.Dodonov, J.Opt.B, Quantum semiclass. Opt 4,R1 (2002)
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Structural Stability of Nano-Crystalline Aluminum-Glass Composites
Country : Nigeria
Authors : O.W. Abodunrin || S.S. Oluyamo
: 10.9790/4861-0901019699      logo

ABSTRACT: Effects of particle size of the material in nanometer on solid state, structural properties Aluminum- Glass based samples are reported in this study. The particle size of 25μm was used for both Aluminum and Glass powders respectively. The samples were prepared in powdered form of various Al-Glass proportions. The weight of Aluminum ranges between 20 – 60 percent in the composites. Results showed from X-ray diffraction analyses that Aluminum addition and the determined particle size greatly influence the structural stability............

Keywords: Particle size, composition, structural stability, solid state properties, structural parameters, toughness, ductility and strength.

[1]. Guz, A.N. and Babich, Y.U. (2002) Stability of Composite Structural Members (Three-Dimensional Formulation), Journal of International Applied Mechanics, 38(9), 1048-1075.
[2]. Wu, J. M. and Li, Z. Z. (2000).Nanostructure Composite obtained by Mechanically Driven Reduction Reactions of CuO and Aluminum Powder Mixture, Journal of Alloys and Compound, 299, 9-16.
[3]. Simchi, A. and Reihani, S. M. Hesabi, Z. R. (2006). Structural Evolution during Mechanical Milling of Nanometric and Micrometric Al2O3 Reinforced Aluminum Matrix composites, Journal of Material Science Engineering, 428, 159-168.
[4]. Mahmoud, A. E., Abdalla, G. A, Wasly, H. S., Doheim, M. A., Aboraia, M. S. (2013). Characterization of Al-Al2O3-ZrO2 NanoComposite Powders Fabricated by High Energy Ball Milling, International Journal of Engineering Resource and Application, 3 (3), 474-482.
[5]. Yoldas, B. E. (1975). Monolithic Glass Formation by Chemical Polymerization, Journal of Material Science, 10, 1856.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluation of the mass attenuation coefficient and Effective Atomic Number of the Eremurus spp. Root in Mammography Energy Range
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Ehsan Taghizadeh Tousi || Rokiah Hashim || Sabar Bauk || Mohamad Suhaimi Jaafar
: 10.9790/4861-090101100104      logo

ABSTRACT: The potential of the Eremurus spp. root as a binder in Rhizophora-Eremurus spp. particleboard mammography phantom had been approved. In this study, the potential of Eremurus spp. as a phantom material has been investigated. The effective atomic number of the Eremurus spp. was calculated as an important parameter in the low energy range. Also, the mass attenuation coefficient of the Eremurus spp. root was measured in the 16.63 keV – 25.30 keV photon energy as a mammography range. Although, the effective atomic number of the Eremurus spp. was near to that of tissue, the mass attenuation of the Eremurus spp. root was not found close to those of breast tissue and water phantom. The results show that the Eremurus spp. root can be used just as a binder in phantom and it cannot be as a main phantom material.

Keywords: Effective Atomic Number, Eremurus spp., Mammography, Mass Attenuation Coefficient, XRF

[1] E.T. Tousi, R. Hashim, S. Bauk, M.S. Jaafar, A.M. Al-Jarrah, H. Kardani, A. Arra, A.M. Hamdan, K.S.A. Aldroobi, A Study of the Properties of Animal-Based Wood Glue, Advanced Materials Research, 935 (2014) 133-137.
[2] A. Abuarra, R. Hashim, S. Bauk, S. Kandaiya, E.T. Tousi, Fabrication and characterization of gum Arabic bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboards, Materials & Design, 60 (2014) 108-115.
[3] A.M. Al-Jarrah, A.A. Rahman, I. Shahrim, N.N.A.N. Ab Razak, B. Ababneh, E.T. Tousi, Effect of inorganic salts and glucose additives on dose–response, melting point and mass density of genipin gel dosimeters, Physica Medica, 32 (2015) 36-41.
[4] A. Al-Jarrah, A.R. Azhar, S.M. Iskandar, N.N.A.N. Abrazak, B. Ababneh, E.T. Tousi, L.L. Soo, Effect of Sulfuric Acid Concentration on Radiological Properties of Genipin Gel Dosimeter, International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences, 2 (2014) 2320–4087.
[5] F.M. Khan, The physics of radiation therapy, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2010.

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