IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Mar. - Apr. - 2017 Volume 9 - Issue 2

Version 1 Version 2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluation the Effect of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation on Radiological Staff
Country : Egypt
Authors : M.H.Khedr
: 10.9790/4861-0902010107      logo

ABSTRACT: The dose and dose-rate is the basic physical factors determining the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems. It ispredicted that an employers exposed to low dose mayspendfor several months in a radiation field without becoming alarmed. The study aimed to discuss the evaluation of low dose ionizing radiation (IR) effect on some blood components and liver enzymes in radiological staff. Peripheral blood cells count and liver enzyme (SGOT and SGPT) were determined for 11 workers (divided into 2 groups) pre- and post-irradiation. An attempt to explain the blood changes resulting from both irradiation and time is given. There was a strong liner correlation between............

Keywords: Ionizing-radiation, Low-doses, blood, liver enzyme.

[1] Billings, P. C., Romero-Weaver, A. L., & Kennedy, A. R. (2014). Effect of gender on the radiation sensitivity of murine blood cells. Gravitational and Space Research, 2(1), 25e31.
[2] Dee UnglaubSilverthorn, Bruce R. Johnson, William C. Ober, Claire W. Garrison and Andrew C. Silverthorn. (2010) Hyman physiology anintegrated approach 5th ed, ch 16 p 546-567
[3] Fliedner, T. M., Graessle, D. H., Meineke, V., &Feinendegen, L. E. (2012). Hemopoietic response to low dose-rates of ionizing radiation shows stem cell tolerance and adaptation. Dose Response, 10(4), 644-663.
[4] Hall, E. J., &Giaccia, A. (2008). Radiobiology for the radiologist (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
[5] Holl, V., Coelho, D., Weltin, D., Dufour, P., Gueulette, J., &Bischoff, P. (2000). Ex vivo determination of the effect of whole-body exposure to fast neutrons on murine spleen cell viability and apoptosis. Radiation Research, 154(3), 301-306.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Formation of Elements
Country : China
Authors : Zhe Yin
: 10.9790/4861-0902010813      logo

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we proposed the smallest particles of the composition of the earth, the role of hydrogen atoms, according to the gravitational wave theorem, the variable field theorem and mathematical modeling analysis. The roles and relations of protons and neutrons are elucidated. Any material is a combination of hydrogen atoms, and finally three kinds of material basis which form the earth were prompted. New principle of inter atomic periodic law was proposed............

Keywords: Element; substance;gravitational wave

[1]. Zhe Yin,(2010).The Co-Planarity and Symmetry Principle of Earthquake occurrence, International Journal of Geosciences,pp:38-43.
[2]. Zhe Yin,Yunfei Guo, Maosheng Lai,(2011),Analysis of Climatic Change from Energy Perspective, Procedia Environmental Science,Vol.11,Part A,pp:245-249.
[3]. Zhe Yin,dongxu liu.(2016). Analysis of the Relation between Sun Motion Law and the Change of Earth‟s Environment. International Journal of Geosciences, 7,249-256.
[4]. j. Weber,(1959,2016) ,Gravitational Wave,Laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory,2016.2.11.23:30.
[5]. Zhe Yin,dongxu liu.(2016). Electron trajectory, International Journal of Applied Science and Mathematics,3( 2),56-57..


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Gamma Rays on The Bulk Etching Rate of LR-115 Detector
Country : Egypt
Authors : Hesham A. Yousef
: 10.9790/4861-0902011416      logo

ABSTRACT: It is important to measure the bulk-etching rate for any solid state nuclear track detectors, because they have an application in different fields of sciences. The effect of gamma rays emitted from 60Co source with different doses on LR-115 detector was studied. The bulk etching rate of the detectors was measured before and after irradiation using gamma source. From the results the values of the bulk etching rate of LR-115 without gamma rays have been 3.10 μmh−1 and that under gamma irradiation with different doses were ranged from 4.60 to 8.77 μmh−1. This means that the values of the bulk etch rate increase with increasing gamma doses.

Keywords: LR-115detector, Bulk etching, Gamma, Dose.

[1]. M.S.A. Khan, M. Tariq, and R.B.S. Rawat, Preliminary Measurements of Radon Radiations in "Bare Mode" In Rampur District of Western U.P. (India). IOSR Journal of Applied Physics, 1(4), 2012, 04-07.
[2]. F. Flesch, S.E. Hirzebruch, G. Huntrup, H. Rocher, T. Streibel, E. Winkel, and W. Herinrich, Fragmentation cross section measurements of iron projectiles using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. Journal of Radiation Measurements, 31, 1999, 533-536.
[3]. K.F. Chan, S.Y.M. Siu, A.K.W. Tse, B.M.F. Lau, D. Nikezic, B.J. Richardson, P.K.S. Lam, W.F. Fong, and K.N. Yu, Alpha particles radiobiological experiments using thin CR-39 detectors. Journal of Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 122, (1-4), 2006,160-162.
[4]. J. Planinic, V. Radolic, Z. Faj, and B. Suveljak, Radon equilibrium factor and aerosols. Journal of Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, 396, 1997, 414- 417.
[5]. L. Oufni, M. A. Misdaq, and M. Amrane, Radon level and radon effective dose rate determination in Moroccan dwellings using SSNTDs. Journal of Radiation Measurements, 40, 2005, 118-123.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Poisson statistics of sparkling water bubbles
Country : Macedonia
Authors : Stojan Rendevski || Riste Popeski-Dimovski
: 10.9790/4861-0902011720      logo

ABSTRACT: A simple acoustic measurement method has been applied to demonstrate Poisson distribution of bubbles sparkling at a water surface. The quality of sparkling water has been determined by quantifying the characteristic time of decay of number of air bubbles sparkling at the surface of water served to consumers. The average sound frequency of the bubbles at sparkling has been found dependent on the chemical composition of the water (carbon dioxide and minerals concentration). The acoustic measurement method proved to be fast and reliable for determining the quality of appearance of served sparkling water.

Keywords: Poisson distribution, Acoustic signal processing, Bubble dynamics

[1]. E. K. Rogers. Instrumentation & Sensors for the Food Industry (Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, 1998)
[2]. D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition (New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2005)
[3]. R. Clift, J.R. Grace, M.E. Weber, Bubbles, Drops and Particles (New York, USA: Academic Press, 1978)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Electrical measurements on ZnSO4 doped L-Threonine single crystals
Country : India
Authors : S. Antony Dominic Christopher || Dr. N.Neelakanda Pillai
: 10.9790/4861-0902012125      logo

ABSTRACT: Growing organic NLO material is a fascinating field of research today due to its high SHG efficiency. In the present work ZnSO4 doped L-Threonine crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were electrically characterized by measuring the capacitance values for various temperatures at various frequencies. The electricalparameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss, a.c. conductivity and a.c .activation energy were calculated . All the parameters found to vary non linearly with dopant concentration..

Keywords: [Dielectric parameters, Dielectric Constant, Dielectric loss , a.c. conductivity, a.c. activation energy]

[1]. M.H. Jiang, Q.Fang organic and semi organic non linear optical material Adv.matter.11 (1999) 1147-1151.
[2]. G. Ramesh Kumar etal. Volume issue 9. May 2008, pages 1405-1409.
[3]. Madhavan and S. Ezhilarasi . International journal of scientific of Engineering Research volume 5,issue 3, March 2014.
[4]. S. Perumal, C.K. mahadevan, physica B 367 (2005)
[5]. N.Neelakanda Pillai and C. K. Mahadevan (2007) Materials and Manufacturing process 23,393


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Investigation of Structural, Spectral, Optical and Thermal properties in Grown Pure Bis Thiourea Zinc Acetate (BTZA)
Country : India
Authors : Niji Abraham || Dr. V S John || Dr. P. Suja Prema Rajini
: 10.9790/4861-0902012632      logo

ABSTRACT: The nonlinear optical single crystal of bisthiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) was grown successfully by slow evaporation technique using water as solvent at room temperature. The lattice parameters of the grown crystal were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The quality of the grown crystal was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The optical transparency was determined by UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies. The thermal behavior of the grown crystal was investigated by DTA and TGA analysis. The presence of functional group was studied using FTIR spectra. The second harmonic generation (SHG) of BTZA was confirmed the nonlinear property of the crystal by Kurtz powder technique.

Keywords: Crystal Growth, Second Harmonic Generation, FT-IR, TGA/DTA.

[1]. Prasad P. N and Williams D. J., Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and polymers, Wiley Interscience, New York, 1991.
[2]. Iwai M, Kobayashi T, Furya H, Mori Y and Sasaki T, Jpn.J.Appl.Phys., 36(1997)1.276.
[3]. Ledoux L synth, Metal 54(1993)123.
[4]. Marey H.O, Warren L.F, Webb M.S, Ebbers C.A, Velsko S.P, Kennedy G.C and Catella G.C, Applied Opts.31 (1992)5051.
[5]. Wang X.Q, Xu D, Yuan D.R, Tian Y.P, Yu W.T, Sun S.Y, Yang Z.H, Fang Q, Lu M.K, Yan Y.X, Meng F.Q, Guo S.Y, Zhang G.H and Jiang M.H, Mater.Res.Bull.34 (199), 2003.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Estimation of Radiation Dose for Adult Patients Undergoing Diagnostic X-ray Examinations of the Skull and Cervical Spine
Country : Sudan
Authors : Mohammed A. Alkreem || Ahmed Abukonna
: 10.9790/4861-0902013336      logo

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD), the eye lens dose and the thyroid gland dose for adult patients undergoing diagnostic X-ray examinations of the skull and the cervical spine in some hospitals in Sudan. A total of 120 patients were evaluated. The ESD was calculated using the relationship between the X-ray tube output and the exposure parameters. The eye lens dose and the thyroid gland dose were calculated from the ESD using Xdose software (Version 2). The results showed that the mean ESD was 0.636 mGy, 0.589 mGy and 0.694 mGy for the antero-posterior (AP) cervical spine, lateral cervical spine and lateral skull respectively...........

Keywords: ESD, eye lens dose, thyroid gland dose, reference dose levels.

[1]. M. A. Halato, I. I. Suliman, S. T. Kafi, A. M. Ahmed, F. A. S. Ahamed, and Z. Ibrahim, ―Dosimetry for Patients undergoing Radiographic Examinations in Sudan,‖ Radiat. Phys. Prot. Conf. Nasr City - Cairo, Egypt, no. November, 2000, 15–19,
[2]. International Atomic Energy Agency, ―Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology , Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy,‖ Int. Conf., no. March, 2001, 26–30,
[3]. International Commission on Radiological Protection, ―ICRP 103: The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection,‖ Ann. ICRP, vol. 37, 2007, 330,.
[4]. C. Uffmann, M.; Schaefer-Prokop, ―Digital radiography: The balance between image quality and required radiation dose. European Journal of Radiology, 72, 2009, 202-208,‖
[5]. ―Council of the European Union, basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment, Directive 84/466/Euratom,‖ 1984.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Visible Light Formation Process
Country : China
Authors : Zhe Yin
: 10.9790/4861-0902013739      logo

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we use the gravitational wave theory to elucidate the propagation pattern of light between the electrons of the gravitational waves. The light has the entanglement between the periodic and the optical blocks with the same properties. The degree of entanglement between the light blocks is expressed by relative energy. Each photoperiod contains four sub-process morphologies, each sub-process morphology, forming a separate, electron-group and entangled form of relative energy set.

Keywords: light; gravitational wave; wavelength.

[1]. Zhe Yin,(2010).The Co-Planarity and Symmetry Principle of Earthquake occurrence, International Journal of Geosciences,pp:38-43.
[2]. j. Weber,(1959,2016) ,Gravitational Wave,Laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory,2016.2.11.23:30.
[3]. Zhe Yin,dongxu liu.(2016). Electron trajectory, International Journal of Applied Science and Mathematics,3( 2),56-57.
[4]. Zhe Yin, Dongxu L (2016). Causes of sound wave on the moon. Int. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 3(2):56-58.
[5]. Zhe Yin (Yin Z), Zhang W, Bie H (2016). Zhe yin's Theorem of Molecular Biology. Acad. J. Sci. Res. 4(4): 099-102.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Modulating Optical Signal to Improve the Images by Using a Self Crossed Diffraction Grating
Country : Egypt
Authors : N. I. Hendawy
: 10.9790/4861-0902014042      logo

ABSTRACT: A method for recording good images on high resolutionphotographic plate and their retrieval was described.This method depend on the modulating optical signal by a crossed diffraction grating. Two symmetrical first and second orders werefiltered to modulate the real amplitude object.These ordersrepresent the optical modulated signalson the photographic plateby a given frequency of crossed diffraction grating and another frequency from itself crossed diffraction grating respectively. Different irradiance distributions for a different modulated signals were appeared. Improved images were obtained from a given modulating signal. The irradiance distributions and visibilitywere calculated theoretically and experimentally

Keywords: crosseddiffractiongrating, irradiance distribution, modulated image, optical signal, spatial carrier.

[1] G Rakuljic and VectorLryva, Optical data storage by using orthogonal wave length–multiplexed volume holograms, Optic Letters, 17(20),1992, 1471-1473.
[2] G Nordin, Effects of crosstalk on fidelity in page – oriented volume holographic optical data storage, Optics Letters, 18(18), 1993, 1553-1555.
[3] C Grover, A new method of image multiplexing using a random diffuser, J.Opt.Soc.Am, 26, 1972a, 1071.
[4] N Hendawy, Effect of cross–talk Phenomenon on the retrieved images, Egyptian J. Physics, 35(2), 2004, 1-13.
[5] A Nasser Moustafa and N.I.Hendawy, Comparative phase–shifting digital speckle pattern interferometry references beam technique, Egyptian J.Solids, 26(2), 2003, 225 -229.
[6] T EL-Dessouki, N.I.Hendawy and A.A.Zaki, Measuring


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Mathematical Model Development Using Commercial Polypropylene to Evaluate Degradation of Plastic Under the Thermal Fatigue Cycles; Modelling approach.
Country : Sri Lanka
Authors : L.P.S. Rohitha || S.S.N.Perera || M.A.B.Prashantha
: 10.9790/4861-0902014349      logo

ABSTRACT: Recycling of waste plastics is of great interest in solid waste management and characterization of waste plastic. The change of stress-strain behaviour of waste plastic depends on environment factors and the number of days exposed to heating at day time and cooling at night. Stress-strain behaviour of commercial grade polypropylene at the end of each thermal fatigue cycles was studied. Heating-cooling cycle was set to 8 hours for heating at a specified temperature (80°C, 100°C, 120°C 140°C and 160°C) and air cooling over night at ambient temperature........

Keywords: matching ratio, thermal fatigue, polypropylene, Toughness of plastics, Degree of degradation.

[1]. Senol, S., and Pasa, Y., 2005, Effect of testing parameters on the mechanical properties of pp random copolymer, Polymer
testing , Vol.24, pp-613-619.
[2]. K. Schneider, L. Häussler and S.V. Roth (2012). Tailoring of Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Isotactic
Polypropylene by Processing Polypropylene, ISBN: 978-953-51-0636-4, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/38895.
[3]. Strait, L. H. Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue of polymer matrix composites. Technical report, The Pennsylvania state university,
Applied research laboratory, P.O Box 30, State College, PA 16 804. 1994 Oct,
[4]. David, R. Stress-strain curves, Ddepartment of Materials Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institue of Technology,
Cambridge, MA 02139, 2001 Aug.
[5]. Sri Lanka Custom (2011), Import / Export data system, Sri Lanka Custom, Colombo.Available at: http://www. customs.
gov.lk/stat.htm. Accessed 20 May 2011.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Thermoelectric Power and Structure of Amorphous Ge100-Xsbx Alloys
Country : Egypt
Authors : M. S. Abo-Ghazala || N. M. Abdel-Moniem || M. Al Buhairi || A. Ali
: 10.9790/4861-0902015053      logo

ABSTRACT: Bulk samples of the system Ge100-xSbx, where x = 5, 50 and 95 at. % were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The disorder-order transition has been investigated for the alloys annealed at 323, 348, 373 and 393 K for different times.X-ray and thermoelectric power were recorded for the annealed samples and the results revealed crystalline Ge, Sb and Ge-Sb phases. It was found that the values of the thermoelectric power decreased as a result of raising the annealing temperature while increasing the Sb content leads to a an increase in the thermoelectric power.

Keywords: Thermoelectric power, structure, amorphous alloys and x-ray.

[1]. S. R. Ovshinsky, Phys. Rev. Lett., 21 (1969) 1450.
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[4]. J. Nishi, S. Morimoto, I. Ingawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140 (1992) 199.
[5]. J. A. Savage, Infrared Optical Materials and their Antireflection Coatings, Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1985.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Nuclear Science And Techniques
Country : India
Authors : Krishnendu Chatterjee
: 10.9790/4861-0902015458     logo

ABSTRACT: With the appearance of knowledge mankind began to research about the existence of atom and where magical force ruled the minds of the people and all universes. If I ask one question, how much break of piece of matter in half and then break it in half again, how many breaks will be - we have to make before we can break it no further ? Somebody thought it ended at same point , a smallest possible bit of matter and that is called basic matter particles atoms. Fundamentally the mystery of creation have been hidden in the high energy collision and the most powerful constructed engine is human structure, that which demonstrated powerful of telepathy. Power of far seeing etc. Scientist are going to break again break a piece of matter and philosophers are going to research to the cause of matter.................

Keywords: Atom . Collision . Energy . Negative . Perception . Positive . Relativity . Sexuality .

...............


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Fibonacci Quasiperiodic Multilayers with Internal Symmetry
Country : India
Authors : J. P. Pandey
: 10.9790/4861-0902015963      logo

ABSTRACT: The optical properties of quasiperiodic SFMs of ZnS/MgF2 are theoretically investigated, many transmission peaks have been observed for normal incidence of light and if the symmetry is disrupted, these peaks have clearly shrunk. So, it is demonstrated that the mirror symmetry plays an important role in obtaining the perfect transmission features in SFMs.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Understanding the Ultimate Structure of Matters and Some Scientific Doubts of Nature through Simple Hypotheses
Country : Hypotheses
Authors : Bao-Yu Zong
: 10.9790/4861-0902016468      logo

ABSTRACT: There are numerous unanswered scientific doubts/phenomena in Nature which still perplex scientific researchers currently. To solve these puzzles, unveiling the ultimate structure of matters, which make up the Nature world, is essential. Here four hypotheses, namely the fundamental matter component (basic particle) and its property, construction process of the basic particles into other particles/matters, repulsion of particles of the same type, and direct relationship between matter and energy, are proposed. These simple hypotheses can well explain some natural phenomena, such as the existence of huge atom energy and various particles/matters of different properties, and conversion balance between matters and energy.............

Keywords: Basic particle, elementary particle, dark energy/matter, smallest transporter of energy, fundamental component of matter

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[2] J.D. Barrow, The book of Nature worlds – Exploring the limit of the Cosmos (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2011).
[3] N.S. Agarwal, Experimental proof of mass in photon, J. Mod. Phys. 6, 2015, 627-633.
[4] S. Weinberg, The discovery of subatomic particles 2nd Edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Growth and Characterisation of new Semi Organic Crystal Bisthiourea Calciumacetate
Country : India
Authors : P. Veluchamy || S. Praveenkumar || R. Ravibaskar
: 10.9790/4861-0902016975     logo

ABSTRACT: A novel bisthiourea calciumacetate was grown from saturated solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique at ambient temperature. The stoichiometric ratio of the compound was confirms by elemental analysis. The crystallinity of the compound was confirmed by the sharp and well defined Bragg peaks observed in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern. The UV-visible absorption study was studies to ascertain the optical property of the compound. The thermal stability and decomposition pattern of the compound were formulated using TG-DTA studies..............

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