IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS)

June - 2018 Volume 23 - Issue 6

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 Version 6 Version 7 Version 8 Version 9

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Incentives as Determinants of Job Retention among the Private Security Guards in Kenya: A Case of Radar Security Company
Country : Kenya
Authors : Gerald Peter Mutonyi || Cyprian Kavivya
: 10.9790/0837-2306060106     logo

Abstract: The purpose of the study, was to examine incentives as determinants to Private Security guard‟s job retention in Kenya. Private Security Firms are faced with how to retain their Security Guards with incentives so as to improve the overall firms' performance and service. The study was able to establish that incentives is determinants to guards‟ job retention. Victor Vroom‟s Expectancy theory which explains a person‟s actions in terms of the goals a person wants to be achieved, was used. The consideration of the relationship between incentives as the independent variable in this study and job retention as the dependent variable was sought. The study employed a case study design, and the researcher first picked the groups of respondents by stratified random sampling method before using simple random sampling..........


Keywords: Employee Retention,Private security guards, Private security firms, Retention, security, Incentives.

[1]. Krause, L, and Nye, J. (1975). Reflections on the Economics and Politics of International Economic Organisations. In: Bergsten and Krause (eds.) World Politics and International Economics. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institute.
[2]. Baldwin, D. (1997). The Concept of Security. Review of International Studies 23: 5–26.
[3]. Mkutu, K. and Sabala, K., (2007). Private Security Companies in Kenya and Dilemmas for Security. Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 25, 3.
[4]. Cascio, W. and Boudreau, J. (2008). Investing in People: Financial Impact of Human Resource Initiatives. FT Press.
[5]. Genç, N (2004). YönetimveOrganizasyon. ÇağdaşSistemlerveYaklaşımlar. GözdenGeçirilmiş 2.Baskı, SeçkinYayıncılık. YönetimveOrganizasyonDizisi: 10, SözkesenMatbaası, Ankara.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Theme Development Methods/ Techniques employed By EFL Majoring Students in Their Expository writing
Country : Palestine
Authors : Dr. Jaber I. Abu Shawish
: 10.9790/0837-2306060720    logo

Abstract: recent research in English language is descriptive, evaluative and analytical. It is quantitative and qualitative in nature, which aims at investigating theme development methods/ techniques employed by Palestinian tertiary level EFL learners in performing written discourse. The study is an attempt to analyze the written product of 120 Palestinian EFL tertiary level learners majoring in English language and selected purposively from three different national universities in Gaza Strip; namely, Al-Quds Open University, Al-Azhar University-Gaza and the Islamic University of Gaza. The instrument used to collect the data for the present study is.............


Key Words: expository writing, theme development techniques

[1]. Abu Allam, R. (1998). Research Methodology in Education and Psychology. Cairo: Publishing House for Universities.
[2]. Boardman, C. A. and Frydenberg, J. (2002). Write to Communicate Paragraphs and Essays 2nd edition. NY: Longman.
[3]. Buker, S. (2003). Teaching Academic Writing to International Students. Bjurk, et al. (Eds.) Teaching Academic Writing in European Higher Education. (pp. 41-58). The Netherlands. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
[4]. Devey, B. (1988). Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Reading Comprehension Items for Successful and Unsuccessful Readers. Journal of Experimental Education 56, 67-76.
[5]. Ellis, W.G. (1967). The Use in Writing of Currently Taught Methods of Paragraph Development. Ed. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Virginia.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The role of the North Caucasus in the Russian Middle East strategy and Russian – Arab world relations
Country : Italy
Authors : Giuliano Bifolchi
: 10.9790/0837-2306062126    logo

Abstract: The North Caucasus Federal District plays a double role as a buffer zone which protects Russia from external attacks in the southern borders and as an economic "bridge‟ between Europe and Asia directly linked to the Middle East and the Gulf countries. Always described as a volatile, unstable, underdeveloped, and dangerous region, the North Caucasus has attracted political, military, and economic interests of the Arab countries which have tried to influence the local dynamics through a religious and ideological campaign, Muslim and charity NGOs, and financial investments.............


Key Words: North Caucasus, Russia, Middle East, Arab world, Islam, international relations

[1]. George Friedman, The Geopolitics of Russia: permanent struggle, Austin, Stratfor, 2008,
[2]. Marie BennigsenBroxup, The North Caucasus Barrier. The Russian Advance towards the Muslim World, New York, St. Martin‟s Press, 1992.
[3]. Sergey Markedonov, «Russia in the Islamic World», The National Interest, giugno 27, 2012,

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Constraints Related To The Implimentation Of The Route Des Peches Tourism Project In Benin
Country :  
Authors : Lambert K. Ayitchehou || Bernard Fangnon || Parfait Cocou Blalogoe || Et Michel Boko
: 10.9790/0837-2306062737    logo

Abstract: In a bid to ensure harmonious development of its coast for tourism purposes, the Government of Benin has initiated along the route des pêches, a tourism project which is unfortunately experiencing some problems. This study aims to analyse the factors which are causing these problems. The methodology of the study includes literature review, field survey involving 285 people, data collection and processing. The SEPO model has been used to analyse the results. The study reveals that the project is hindered by three factors, namely an unstable legal and institutional framework, inadequate funding and a lack of political will. Actually, three project units, eight project officers and ten ministers...........


Key Words: Route des pêches, project, tourist planning, political will

[1]. BENIN/ FMI (Fonds Monétaire International) - Rapport n°11/307 : République du Bénin- Stratégie de Croissance pour la Réduction de la Pauvreté 2011-2015, 207p.
[2]. CAZES, Georges, 1972 -Le rôle du tourisme dans la croissance économique : Réflexions à partir de trois exemples antillais", The TouristReview, Vol. 27 Iss: 3, pp.93 – 98
[3]. CNUCED (Conférence des Nations Unies sur le commerce et le développement), 2013 - Tourisme durable : contribution à la croissance économique et au développement durable- Note thématique établie par le secrétariat de la CNUCED, Genève ; 23 p
[4]. DANIDA /AFD, 2012- Evaluation à mi-parcours du Plan décennal de développement du secteur de l'éducation du Bénin (PDDSE 2006-2015) -232 p.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Microfinance Credit Programmes: Implications on Poverty Reduction in Southern Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Iji Mary. Eru. || Ojong, Felix. || Angioha, Pius.Unim
: 10.9790/0837-2306063845    logo

Abstract: The study examines the role of microfinance credit programmes on poverty alleviation in Southern Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to investigate the effect of microfinance credit programmes such as lending to women and entrepreneurship literacy on poverty alleviation in Southern Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. Relevant and related literature were reviewed while basic resource theory constituted the theoretical framework. The study adopted survey research design. Data were gathered from both primary and secondary sources. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques were adopted in selecting four hundred (400) respondents from the five local government areas in the study area. A 37-item questionnaire designed by researcher...........


Key Words: Microfinance, credit schemes, poverty alleviation, lending to women, and entrepreneurship literacy

[1]. Agba, A. O.&Ushie, E. M. (2014a). Principles and management of cooperative organizations.Calabar: University of Calabar Press.
[2]. Anderson, G. F. (2009).Missing in action: International aid agencies in poor countries to fight chronic diseases.Health Affairs, 1, 202-205.
[3]. Brau, J. C.&Woller, G. M. (2004). Microfinance: A comprehensive review of the existing literature.Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance and Business Ventures, 9(1), 126.
[4]. Bruce W. (1999). Microfinance of housing: A key to housing the low and moderate income majority. Environment and Urbanization,11(1),

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Contemporary Biopower And Biosociality
Country : India
Authors : Sabina S
: 10.9790/0837-2306064649    logo

Abstract: An analysis on the contemporary biopower brings significant mutations in the area health and health managing technologies. Instead of approaching this as merely medical technologies or technologies of health, it became the technology of life. Health became one of the key ethical values by the second ha lf of twenty-first century. In the contemporary ethical regimes, health was understood as an imperative, for the self and for others. Through contemporary forms of biomedical subjectification medicines took a long role in shaping subjectivites. The paper focus on the notion of Biosociality, which make us what kind of people we have become.


Key Words: Biosociality, Biopolitics, Biomedicine, Biological Citizenship

[1]. Deutscher, Penelope. "Reproductive Politics, Biopolitics and Auto-Immunity: From Foucault to Esposito". Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. 7 (2010): 217-226.
[2]. Dreyfus, Hubert L. and Rabinow, Paul. (Eds.) Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1983.
[3]. Foucault, Michel. "The Subject and Power". Critical Inquiry 8.4 (1982):777-95.
[4]. Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Vintage Books: New York, 1977.
[5]. Foucault, Michel. Interview with Michel Foucault. In Power: Essential Works of Michel Foucault, vol. 3. New Press: New York, 2000 c

Paper Type : Research Paper
Country : Indonesia
Authors : AndiNugroho
: 10.9790/0837-2306065063    logo

Abstract: This study discusses about the spread of hoaxes in Indonesia. The spread of hoax is done through interpersonal communication either direct communication or media communication. Thus, the technological development increases the speed of hoax spread. The spread of hoaxes in Indonesia itself has reached a very alarming level. Hoax spread rapidly, raising debates and anxieties in society related to daily behaviour and The State issues. This study uses descriptive approach applying validity and reliability test which may facilitate the researcher to draw clearer conclusion. The validity test is counted using correlative Pearson while the reliability is calculated using Chronbach's Alpha............


Key Words: hoax, social media, communication, and information.

[1]. Adi, S. (2013), Ancaman Asimetris Terhadap Sistem Pertahanan Negara Dalam Sudut Pandang Nirmiliter, Jakarta:Jurnal Program studi Perang Asimetris, Fakultas Strategi Pertahanan. Universitas pertahanan Indonesia
[2]., Menko Polhukam: berita "hoax" buat masyarakat merugi tanggal, accessed from 3 of january, 2017.
[3]. Balmas, Meital. When Fake News Becomes Real: Combined Exposure to Multiple News Sources and Political Attitudes of Inefficacy, Alienation, and Cynicism. Journal of Communication Research, 2014; 41(3) 430– 454
[4]. BBC. Kasus Saracen: Pesan kebencian dan hoax di media sosial 'memang terorganisir' accessed from 2017.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : International Humanitarian Law And International Human Rights Law; Similarities And Differences
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Kaziarshadulhoque
: 10.9790/0837-2306066469    logo

Abstract: Both the international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law have developed with the objectives of protecting human being and their dignity, yet some dissimilarities can be found between these two bodies of international law. Many issues are dealt by IHL what are not considered by IHRL, for example, the conduct of hostilities, the status of prisoners during war, the protection of some emblems, signs and so on. Alternatively many matters are consulted by IHRL which are not subject matters of IHL, for example, freedom of thought, right to movement, right to assembly and others. This paper is an effort to identify the similarities and dissimilarities between IHL and international human rights law (IHRL).

[1]. Dannenbaum T. (2009). Memorandum on The Interaction of International Human Rights Law and International Humanitarian Law with Respect to Rights to Life and Liberty, as part of the Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic, p.1.
[2]. Hathaway O.A., Crootof, R., Philip Levitz P., Nix H, Perdue W, Purvis Cand Julia Spiegel C.J. (2011). The Relationship Between International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law in Armed Conflict. Minnesota Law Review, p.2.
[3]. International Committee of Red Cross and Red Crescent. (2003). International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law: Similarities and Differences. ). Advisory service on International Humanitarian Law, p.1. Retrieved from last accessed on 16 April, 2014.
[4]. International Court of Justice, Reports, Advisor Opinion.(2004). Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.Para 106, p 136.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Dynamique Des Determinants Sociaux D'occupation Des Terres Et Conflits Fonciers Dans La Region De Luotu – Masereka En Territoire De Lub Ero (Nord- Kivu/R.D.Congo)
Country : Congo
Authors : Deodatus Kahindo Nyahutwe
: 10.9790/0837-2306067081    logo

Abstract: La question de l'accès à la terre et sa sécurisation est particulièrement cruciale dans les régions africaines, surtout à vocation agricole dans la mesure où il y a absence d'un secteur secondaire performant capable de désengorger le secteur primaire ; en même temps qu'on y observe une évolution démographique galopante. A ce sujet, S. RUREMESHA KINYATA1 trouve que « le problème foncier (…) est provoqué par la forte concentration de la population face à l'insuffisance des terres ou à leur absence totale. Là où elles existent, elles demeurent infertiles, mal entretenues et mal reparties entre la population ». Cette logique n'est pas tellement différente de celle du comité technique foncier

[1]. Comité Technique, « Foncier et développement », Gouvernance foncière et sécurisation des droits dans les pays du Sud. Livre blanc des acteurs français de la coopération, France, Imprimériechirat, Nov 2008.
[2]. DEPELTEAU, La démarche d'une recherche en sciences humaines. De la question de départ à la communication des résultats, Québec, De Boeck Université, 2003.
[3]. DUFUMIER, M. ; Agriculture et paysannerie des tiers mondes, Paris, Ed Karthala, 2004.
[4]. DURAND-LASSERVE, A. et LE ROY, E., La situation foncière en Afrique à l'horizon 2050, Paris, imprimérie de Mont Ligeon, 2012.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Gender, religious affiliation and the choice of coping strategies among the victims of internal insurgency in Maiduguri
Country :  
Authors : William Langa Mishara || Baltai Madu Yaga
: 10.9790/0837-2306068289    logo

Abstract: This study investigated the differences in the choice of coping strategies among the victims of internal insurgencies in Maiduguri, Borno State. The age range of the subjects investigated was 20-55 with the mean of 37.5 years. Out of the 300 respondents, 100 were males and 200 females, 80 of which were single, while 28 were married. The Coping Strategy Inventory (CSI) is a 42-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess coping thoughts and behaviors in response to a specific stressor. The format of the CSI is adapted from the Lazarus "way of coping" questionnaire (Folkman & Lazarus, 1981). The major objectives of the study was to have a critical look at/x-ray of what crisis is all about and the coping situations of the victims of internal insurgencies across gender lines. The results showed that men engaged in problem-focused coping, while women were found to engage in emotion-focused. The research work focused on the understanding of coping strategies and the manageability............

[1]. Adamu, F.(2014). Ideology of Boko-Haram: Journal of Islamic Education 2(2) 31-34.
[2]. Adeyemi, K. (2014). The twin bomb blast in Monday market: The national news Paper'
[3]. Adeyemi, (2014). The Maiduguri Mond ay Market Bomb blast: The National News paper.
[4]. BSG, (2012). The history and people of Borno State: Maiduguri Ministry of Education.
[5]. FGN, (2004). National Policy on Education, Abuja: Federal Ministry of Education.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : WeChat Uses and Gratifications Among Young Malaysian Adults In Klang Valley, Malaysia
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Olowo Emmanuel Opeyemi || Raduan Shariff || Anita Morah Abas || Thinavan a/l Periyayy
: 10.9790/0837-2306069098    logo

Abstract: The uses and gratifications (U&G) theory has been widely used in research related to conventional media and now the internet media and mobile platforms. In Malaysia, a number of Internet-related studies revolve around the Technological Acceptance Model (TAM) and most studies on U & G have been conducted in the U.S. and U.K., but not Asia. This study will focus specifically on WeChat, a popular instant messaging platform, to obtain information that will add to the limited research on U & G in Malaysia in the context of the internet media. WeChat was launched in China.............


Keywords: social media, usage & gratifications, social motivations, process motivation & content motivation

[1] . Abolfazli, S., Sanaei, Z., Gani, A., Xia, F., & Yang, L. T. (2014). Rich mobile applications: genesis, taxonomy, and open issues. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 40, 345-362.
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[3] . Boone, L & Kurtz, D. (2013). Contemporary marketing. Cengage Learning.
[4] . Case, D. O. (2012). Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs and behavior. Emerald Group Publishing.

[5] . Cassidy, W., Brown, K., Jackson, M.(2011) Moving from cyber-bullying to cyber-kindness: What do students, educators and parents say? In: Dunkels, E., Franberg, G.-M., Hallgren, C. (eds) Youth culture and net culture: Online social practices, Hershey, NY: Information Science Reference, pp. 256–277..